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大学英语六级翻译技法:(四)词类转译法

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2020年09月17日

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(四)词类转译法

翻译既要忠实于原文,又要符合译文的表达习惯,而不能逐词硬译。有些时候需要适当改变一些词的词类,使译文通顺流畅,符合英语特点。

I.汉语动词转换成英语的名词

一般来讲,英语倾向于多用名词,常常用名词来表达原来属于动词(或形容词)所表达的概念,如用抽象名词来表达动作、行为、变化、状态、品质、情感等概念。这种名词的优势在于往往可以使表达比较简洁,句式比较灵活,行文比较自然,也便于表达较为复杂和正式的思想内容。而汉语倾向于多用动词,因而翻译时常常需要把动词转译成名词。

1.汉语的动词转译成英语中由动词派生的名词

1)他们违反在赫尔辛基达成的协议,在国内侵犯基本人权,因此受到了各地热爱自由的人们的谴责。

The abuse of basic human rights in their own country in violation of the agreement reached at Helsinki earned them the condemnation of freedom-loving people everywhere.

2)医生迅速到达,并非常仔细地检查了病人,因此病人很快就康复了。

The doctor's extremely quick arrival and uncommonly careful examination of the patient brought about his very quick recovery.

3)过了几个晚上,在一次聚会上,她走过来央求我给她引见一位魅力十足的男性。

Several evenings later,she came up to me at a party,pressing for an introduction to a very impressive man.

4)听到我们的消息时,德博拉没有祝贺我们,反倒叫盖尔想清楚自己做的对不对。

Instead of congratulations upon hearing our news,Deborah counseled Gail to be really sure she was doing the right thing.

2.汉语的动词转译成含有动作意味的英语名词

1)看见那棵大树,总是让我想起童年。

The sight of the big tree always brings my childhood back to my mind.

2)它时时使我们更充分地感觉到强烈的活力,这当然会大大增强我们生活的激奋和欢乐。

It offers us a fuller sense of being intensely alive from moment to moment,and this,of course,contributes greatly to the excitement and joy of living.

3)伟大的生活源于一个人在想象中幻想自己有朝一日能做出什么事业或者成为什么人物。

Great living starts with a picture,held in some person's imagination,of what he would like someday to do or be.

4)人们对带薪休假的重视和大众娱乐服务的快速发展标志着人们对这一问题的日益关注。

The importance people attach to paid holidays and the rapid development of services for mass entertainment and recreation are signs of this increasing concern.

3.汉语动词转译成英语加后缀-er或-or 的名词

1)他能吃能睡。

He is a good eater and a good sleeper.

2)他既不抽烟,也不喝酒。

He was a nonsmoker and a teetotaler.

3)成功的语言学习者善于猜测,能够寻找线索,形成自己的结论。

Successful language learners are good guessers who look for clues and form their own conclusions.

4)她很健谈,但既然她似乎愿意谈论我的事,我还是做好准备,洗耳恭听。

She was talkative,but since she seemed inclined to talk about me I was prepared to be an attentive listener.

II.汉语动词转译成英语介词

介词是英语里最活跃的词类之一,是连接词语或从句的重要手段。据G·Curme 统计,英语各类介词共约286个。英语造句几乎离不开介词。而汉语中介词的使用则少得多,翻译时很多汉语动词可以转译成表示相应意义的英语介词或介词词组。

1)我很高兴地离城去出差了。

Pleased,I left town for a business trip.

2)说完这些话,她便走开了。

With these words,she went away.

3)他们立即出动,追击敌人。

They immediately set out in pursuit of the enemy.

4)新一代领导人赞成市场经济,摒弃了一切关于经济帝国主义的说法。

The new leadership has abandoned all talk of economic imperialism in favor of market economy.

5)另外,德国和捷克共和国还签署了协议来保护易北河,使其不受进一步的污染。

In addition,Germany and the Czech Republic have signed a treaty to protect the Elbe River from further contamination.

III.汉语的名词转译成英语的动词

英语中有很多由名词派生或由名词转用的动词,在汉语中有些名词往往可以转译为英语的这类动词。

1)骆驼的特点是能够几天不喝水。

The camel is characterized by an ability to go for days without water.

2)随着比赛的进行,他成了他们胜利的象征,成了一切美德的化身。

As the match progressed,he would symbolize their victories and become the embodiment of all merits.

3)这家商店的特色是24小时服务。

This store features round-the-clock service.

4)但是从理论上讲,物质在黑洞里的作用情况与在黑洞外的作用情况肯定是完全不同的。

But in theory,matter must behave very differently inside the hole.

IV.形容词与副词的互相转换

1)中朝两国人民一直保持着传统的友好关系。

Traditionally,there have always been good relations between Chinese and Korean people.

2)“光明!给我光明!”这就是发自我内心深处的无言的呼唤,也就在这时候,爱心的光芒照到了我身上。

“Light! Give me light!”was the wordless cry of my soul,and the light of love shined on me that very hour.


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