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大学英语六级翻译技法:(五)语态转换法

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2020年09月18日

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(五)语态转换法

英语中被动句的使用远远多于汉语。由于英语是法治语言,强调主谓的完整性,因此在无从指出、没有必要指出或不想指出动作发出者时,就用动作的接受者作主语,将句子变为被动语态。另外,为了强调动作的接受者,为了上下文的连贯、句子的平衡或为了文体(科技文体、政论文体、公文文体)的需要也大量使用被动句。汉语被动句的使用则很少,因此翻译时很多汉语的句型应翻译成英语的被动句。

I.无标志词的汉语被动句译成英语的被动句

根据汉语的思维习惯,人的行为必然是由人来完成的,不可能由事物来完成,因此在表达时往往可以省略动作的发出者,而把重点放在动作的承受者和动作本身上。又因为汉语没有词形变化,同一动词既可以表主动意义,也可以表被动意义,因此“动作接受者+动词”的句式就成了一种表达习惯,如“苹果吃了吗?”“作业做完了吗?”“工作找到了,房子买了,老婆也娶了。”这些句子翻译时固然可以根据上下文加上动作的发出者,译成英语的主动句,不过更多类似的句子却因为无从指出、没有必要指出或不想指出动作发出者而要译成英语的被动句。

1)村子里很多房子都修缮得很漂亮。

A lot of houses in the village have been beautifully restored.

2)电脑模型可以用来演示细胞工作的方式。

Computer models can be used to simulate the way that cells work.

3)账单拿过来时我惊呆了,价格大大超出了我的预料。

I was startled when the bill of fare was brought,for the prices were a great deal higher than I had anticipated.

4)就雌鹿和幼鹿而言,很多能量耗费在产奶或生长上,脂肪积累得不如成年雄鹿那么快。

In the case of does and fawns,a great deal of energy is expended either in milk production or in growing,and fat is not accumulated as quickly as it is in full grown males.

5)佣人们经常不允许外出,也拿不到任何工钱。

Often the domestics are not allowed to go out,and they do not receive any payment.

II.汉语无主句译成英语的被动句

汉语是意合语言,当不需要或不能说出动作发出者时可以采用无主句的形式,但英语是形合语言,注重句子结构完整,句子中不能没有主语,因此翻译时除了给汉语的无主句加上一个泛指的主语译成主动句外,常常可以把原来动作的接受者拿过来当句子的主语,翻译成被动语态。

1)应该允许医生剥夺其他人的生命吗?

Should doctors be allowed to take the lives of others?

2)必须立即采取有效措施消除沙尘暴。

Effective measures must be taken immediately to eliminate sandy storms.

3)现在还不知道机器人有一天是否能拥有像人一样的视力。

It is not yet known whether robots will one day have vision as good as human vision.

4)只有假设地球表面是弯曲的才能解释这一现象。

This phenomenon can only be explained by assuming that the earth's surface is curved.

5)对多数人而言,是经过至少六个月的认真计划才做出出国留学的决定的。

For the majority,the decision to study abroad is taken only after a period of at least six months of careful planning.

III.汉语泛指人称主语句译成英语的被动句

汉语在不需要或不能说出动作发出者时可以用“有人”、“人们”、“我们”等泛指代词作主语,而英语喜欢用被动语态。

1)有人看见一个贼闯进了那栋房子。

A burglar was seen to break into the house.

2)没人能阻止比林斯先生实施他的计划。

Mr.Billings cannot be stopped from carrying out his plan.

3)有人说,关于年轻最可悲的事情就是因为年幼无知而浪费了年轻时光。

It has often been remarked that the saddest thing about youth is that it is wasted on the young.

4)但人们可能还不太了解,即使有了储存的脂肪,野生动物在冬天耗费的能量也比夏天少。

But it is probably less well known that even with their stored fat,wild animals spend less energy to live in winter than in summer.

5)曾有人说,失业不光带来经济压力,而且还导致极大的心理问题。

It has been observed that unemployment,quite aside from exerting financial pressures,brings enormous psychological troubles.

IV.汉语的“是……的”结构译成英语的被动句

汉语中有些“是……的”结构其实也是表示被动概念的,因此可以翻译成英语的被动句。

1)这本书是鲁迅1921年写的。

This book was written by Luxun in 1921.

2)这些产品是中国制造的。

These products were made in China.

3)知识产权的问题是在这一基础上提出来的。

On such a basis has the question of intelligence property rights been raised.

4)有些铁是随着汗液流失的。另外由于某些未知原因,高强度的耐力运动有时伴随着消化系统出血。

Some iron is lost in sweat,and,for unknown reasons,intense endurance exercise is sometimes associated with bleeding of the digestive system.

V.汉语的某些主动句译成英语的被动句

英语的被动句无处不在,甚至有些动作的发出者非常明确的句子英语也要用被动来表达。

1)她生了个男孩。

She was delivered of a boy.

2)这个村子住着约1,300户人家。

The village is populated by about 1,300 households.

3)我有理由接受他们关于地球形状的这种说法。

I am justified in accepting their say-so about the shape of the earth.

4)组织者宣布,所有工人都有权得到每小时5美元的报酬。

The organizer had declared that all the workers were entitled to $5 per hour.

5)但要是有人说读者应该只是接受方,不要信他的话。

But don't let anybody tell you that a reader is supposed to be solely on the receiving end.

6)每年的十月一日中国各族人民都庆祝国庆节。

National Day is celebrated on Oct.1 by the Chinese people of all nationalities every year.

7)结果,平均出生人数从每个妇女5.6个孩子减少到3个。

As a result,the average number of births has been cut from 5.6 children per woman to 3.

8)一些人误以为人们喜欢积蓄能量,喜欢休息,喜欢多一事不如少一事。

Some people are deceived into thinking that people like to store up energy,to rest and save themselves as much as possible.


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