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“马王堆汉墓”中英双语导游词

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2018年02月05日

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Han Tombs of Mawangdui

(马王堆汉墓)

Hello, friends.

Welcome to the exhibition for unearthed artifacts from the Mawangdui Han Tombs in Changsha. The Han Tombs of Mawangdui are located at the former Mawangdui Township in the eastern part of Changsha City, about four kilometers outside of the city's downtown. On the even ground, there are two earth tombs connected in the middle, protruding abruptly, with a shape similar to a saddle. Legend goes that here was the burial ground of Ma Yin, king of Chu State of Five Dynasties period, hence the name “Mawangdui”, or the Tomb of King Ma. But as was written in the Records of a Peaceful World——Changsha County, during the Northern Song Dynasty, this place was called “Two Ladies' Tomb (Shuangnüzhong)”, where King Liu Fa of Changsha State of the early Western Han Dynasty buried his mother Cheng and consort Tang. Who on earth is the true occupant of his mysterious ancient tomb of Mawangdui? It had been an enigma for a thousand years before the tomb was unearthed.

At the end of 1971, 366 Hospital of Hunan Province Military Command decided to build its underground warehouses and wards here. This construction necessitated an archeological dig, which unearthed this mysterious thousand year-old underground palace.

Model of Tomb Pits of the Han Tombs of Mawangdui

There are three tombs in Mawangdui, which are coded in No.l, No.2, and No.3 respectively in accordance with their unearthing sequence. Among them, Tombs No. 1 and No. 2 are in parallel with each other from east to west, while Tomb No.3 is to the south side of Tomb No. 1. The mouth of the Tomb No.1 is square, and under it is the tomb pit in the shape of a square filter, which is the typical tomb shape of Western Han Dynasty. The tomb mouth is 19.5 meters long from south to north and 17.8 meters wide from east to west. It is 20.5 meters deep. Four steps and a ramp path north of the tomb from its mouth lead directly down from the ground to the tomb bottom. Over l,800 cultural relics have been unearthed from this tomb, including lacquered wood works, textiles and silk paintings, and a well-preserved woman's corpse. Tomb No. 2's mouth and middle are round while it is square 3 meters downward. Owing to repeated robbery of the tomb and poor sealing of the white seal clay, the whole tomb greatly collapsed and only 200 culture relics remained. Tomb No.3 is the same with Tomb No.1 in shape and well preserved. More than 1000 culture relics were unearthed here, including silk books and paintings, bamboo slips, lacquer wares, and textiles. Unfortunately, the corpse in it was totally rotten and only a skeleton remained. An examination determined that the person buried here was a 1.85 meter tall, 30 years old male.

Jade Seal of “Li Cang”

Through archaeological excavation, we discovered that Mawangdui was the burial ground of an early Western Han Dynasty Marquis family. Judging from the Li Cang jade seal and the Seals of Marquis Dai (bronze seal) and the “Changsha Chancellor” (bronze seal), which were unearthed from Tomb No.2, the occupant of Tomb No.2 should be a first generation member of the Marquis Dai’s family. The Marquis Dai, also named Li Cang, served as Changsha State’s Chancellor. He was born in the late years of Warring States Period and died in the second year of the reign of Empress Dowager Gao (186 B. C.). In his youth, Li Cang followed Liu Bang, the first Emperor of the Han Dynasty, in the peasant uprising and in the battle between Chu and Han States, and made an outstanding contribution to the founding of the Western Han Dynasty Kingdom. In early Han Dynasty, he was promoted to chancellor of Changsha State. He did his best to consolidate the central power and maintain the unification of the country. As recorded in Shi Ji ( History Records) and Han Shu (History of Han Dynasty), he was again promoted to Marquis Dai in April of the second year of the reign of the Han Emperor Hui. Due to his merits, the name Dai was given to a place between present-day Luoshan and Guangshan Counties in Henan Province. His fief town contained 700 households and compares poorly with Cheng Ping and Zhang Liang, who were marquises with fiefs of ten thousand households. But Li Cang had a special position in Changsha State, and so his family enjoyed all the comforts of luxury and pomp, including extravagant funerals after their deaths.

Seal of “Marquise Xinzhui”

Li Cang's wife was buried in Tomb No.1. We know from the unearthed “Marquise Xinzhui” seal. Though as noble as a mar-quise, she experienced great sorrow over the loss of husband when she was relatively young and her son in her late years. She passed away in 163 B. C. at the age of about 50. In accordance with the corpse and the image of Xinzhui on the silk painting, we asked the Xi'an Great Historical Figures Sculpture Research Academy to make a wax statue to restore a middle-age marquise Dai, thus reproducing her original glory and grace.

White-yarn Full Front and Back of a Gown

The white yarn is the undyed yarn, and a gown is a dress without liner. These two dresses weigh 48 and 49 grams, rather than l liang, or 50 grams. If the heavier edges on the collar and sleeves are not counted, its weight was only a little over half a liang. It was really as light as the smoke and mist, and as thin as cicada's wings. Of course, the quality of superior yam materials is not evaluated by the number of voids, but by the fiber size of natural silk, which should be uniform and long. In textiles there is a measurement unit for fiber size, denier, which is equivalent to a single 90,000 meter long silk thread weighing 1 gram. So the smaller the denier, the finer the natural silk. The natural silk size of the white yarn gown was only 10.5 to 11.3, while that of the superior silk fabrics produced now is 14. This demonstrates how fine, light and thin the white yarn is. How did the women in the Han Dynasty wear such a thin dress? They wore such gowns on the bright and beautiful embroidered robes, to make the magnificent decorative patterns on the robes partly hidden and partly visible, thereby displaying a dim beauty.

T -shape Silk Painting of Tomb No.1

This painting had the shape of English character “T”, so we call it T-shape silk painting. As recorded in the inventory of funeral furnishings, it was like a dress but not a dress. When unearthed, it was covering, upside down, the cover of the inner coffin in Tomb No.1. A bamboo rod traversed the top of the painting, and at every droopingg angle were tied silk ribbons or bust-fiber belts. According to textual research, this was an article belonging to flags and streamers. In funeral rites, it was raised high in the head of the funeral procession to guide the spirit to heaven, much like a funeral streamer.

The whole painting was 205 cm long, and could be divided into three parts from up to down, namely the heaven, the human world, and the nether world.

Heaven is over the aureole. In the upper part of the painting, is a god with man's head and snake's body, sitting there with his hair hanging loosely. As recorded in the ancient Chinese geography book Book of Mountains and Seas, the god was the almighty "Zhu Long", who was in charge of the changes of day and night and fine and bad weather. On the right are drawn nine red suns half hidden in the blue mulberry tree. The legend goes that the mulberry tree grew in the East Sea. It was about ten thousand meters tall, and amidst it, the ten suns rested and took turns to be on duty. But in the painting, there were only nine suns, and the other one might be on duty and had not yet returned. In the biggest sun was drawn a black bird called “Jin Wu ( gold crow)” in ancient times. This drawing was in fact based on the ancient people's observation of a sunspot. On the left was a crescent moon, under which, a beautiful girl dances graciously. Some regard her as the moon goddess, who was holding the moon to rise slowly. Some regard her as Chang'e, who was flying to the moon after stealing an elixir from her husband and swallowing it. In the moon, a big, flat toad is holding a glossy ganoderma in its mouth, the Jade Hare is beside it, whose elegance forms a striking contrast with the fat toad. Two janitors are respectfully bowing and scraping by the gate to the Heavenly palace, welcoming the Marchioness into Heaven.

The Human World part took the aureole as the roof, and decorated it with rose finches. Under the aureole, the plump Marchioness in extravagant dresses with jade pendants jingling, slowly steps forward with a stick in her hand. Three personal maids closely follow her. Two alchemists present their elixir to her. Two dragons pass through the wall on both sides of the picture, symbolizing nobility and good luck. The painting below might be the scene in which the servants made sacrifices after the Marchioness' death. They are serious and silent, with their faces grey, showing their excessive distress.

In the nether world, the naked Earth God-Gun supports the flat earth with his hands, and his feet press down on two huge evil sea turtles intent of causing problems on earth, such as earthquakes. The nether world also has strange dogs with repulsive appear-ances and owls with their eyes wide open, who are quelling the spirits and ghosts to disturb the old Marchioness.

This is a masterpiece integrating mythology, imagination and real life. Every part of it reflects the ancient conception of heaven and desire for immortality. Thus the “T-shaped” silk painting is a rare and outstanding masterpiece of ancient Chinese art.

The Female Corpse

The 2,100-year-old female corpse was unearthed from Tomb No 1. She is the wife of Li Cang, the first-generation Marquis Dai, and chancellor of Changsha State in the early Western Han Dynasty. Her name was Xin Zhui. When unearthed, she was 1.54 meters tall and weighted 34.3 kilograms and had type A blood. Her head, neck, trunk and limbs all maintained their intact forms. Her skin was wet and covered her whole body. It was light-yellow-brown and felt oily. Her hair, eyelash and hair in her nostril remained in their original places. Parts of her joints were still movable. Her subcutaneous fat was rich, and tissues were still elastic, which, after being pressed by hand, could rapidly recover the original form. When injected with a preservative fluid, the tissue swelled and the fluid could be diffused and be absorbed rather quickly. X-ray examination showed that all her skeleton was intact, her two sides were symmetrical, small bones as nasal bone and phalanx could still be distinguished, and their outward forms were no different from the skeletons of modern human beings. The corpse did have early signs of decay, such as the eye ball getting out, mouth opening, tongue slightly protruding, and rectum prolapsing. But owing to the excellent sealing of Tomb No.1, this decay ceased shortly after the corpse was buried.

This kind of well-preserved female corpse is a very rare archeological find. It is obviously different from mummies, which look shriveled and dry, and "corpse wax" , making them resemble a body model made with wax. It is also different from peat-tanned cadavers, which are easily broken, due to the skeleton softening from calcium loss. So, it is now internationally admitted that in the classification of corpses, such “wet corpses” as the one unearthed from Mawangdui should be named “Mawangdui Corpses ", which are characterized by long preservation time, elastic tissue, and presence of internal organs.

各位朋友,大家好!欢迎参观长沙马王堆汉墓出土文物陈列馆。马王堆汉墓位于长沙市东部地区原马王堆乡,距市中心约4千米。这里地势平坦,地面有土冢两个,它们大小相仿,平地兀起,中间相连,形状颇似马鞍。相传这里是五代时楚王马殷的墓地,故名“马王堆”。但根据北宋《太平寰宇记·长沙县》的记载,这里是西汉初年长沙王刘发葬其母程、唐二姬的墓地,号曰“双女冢”。究竟马王堆这座神奇古墓的墓主人是谁呢?在未发掘之前,实为千古之谜。

1971年年底,湖南省军区366医院决定在此修建地下病房和仓库。为了配合基建,我们对此进行了考古发堀,这才揭开了这座千年地宫的神秘面纱。

马王堆汉墓墓坑模型

马王堆共有三座墓,按发现秩序的先后,分别编为一号、二号、三号。其中一号、二号墓东西方向平行并列,三号墓在一号墓南侧。一号墓墓口呈方形,下面为斗形墓坑,是典型的西汉墓葬形式。墓口南北长19.5米,东西宽17.8米,从封土算有20.5米深。自墓口向下有4级台阶,墓室北面有一条由地面几乎直达墓底的斜坡墓道。墓中共出土漆木器、纺织品、帛画等各类文物1800余件及一具保存十分完整的女尸。二号墓墓口和中部为圆形,下面3米处为方形,由于曾经多次被盗,且白膏泥密封较差,故整个墓葬已严重坍塌,仅残余200余件文物。三号墓与一号墓形制相同,因该墓保存得较好,出土了帛书、帛画、简牍、漆木器、纺织品等1000多件文物。遗憾的是,该墓尸体已经腐烂,仅残存一具骨架。经鉴定,墓主人是一个身高约1.85米,年龄在30岁左右的男性。

“利苍”玉印

经过考古发掘,我们发现马王堆是西汉初期轪侯家族的墓地。从二号墓出土的“利苍”玉印、“轪侯之印”(铜印)和“长沙丞相”(铜印)来看,二号墓墓主人该是第一代轪侯、长沙国丞相利苍。他生于战国末年,死于西汉高后二年(公元前186年)。早年利苍曾跟随汉高祖刘邦参加过秦末农民起义、楚汉之争,为西汉王朝的建立立下了汗马功劳。汉初他升任长沙国丞相,极力巩固中央政权,维护祖国统一大业,据《史记》和《汉书》记载,惠帝二年四月(公元前193年),利苍因功再封轪侯。轪,是地名,在现在的河南省罗山县和光山县之间。食邑为七百户,与陈平、张良等万户侯相比,是个不太大的侯。但是由于利苍所在的长沙国位置独特,所以家族成员生前甘食美服,享尽人间的荣华富贵,死后也得到厚葬。

“妾辛追”印

利苍的夫人葬于一号墓,根据墓中出土的一枚“妾辛追”的印章可以得知她的姓名叫辛追。虽然贵为侯爵夫人,她却经历了早年丧夫、晚年丧子的锥心之痛,于汉文帝后元一年(公元前163年)左右撒手人寰,死时大约50岁。根据女尸和T形帛画上辛追的形象,我们请西安超人雕塑研究院复原了一个中年轪侯夫人的蜡像,再现了辛追当年的风采。

素纱直裾禅衣

素纱是指没有染色的纱,禅衣就是没有衬里的衣服。这两件衣服,重量分别为48克和49克,还不到1两,如果除去袖口和领口较重的缘边,重量就只有半两多一点点,可谓“轻若烟雾,薄如蝉翼”。当然,高级的纱料并不以空隙多就算好,而主要是以蚕丝的纤度匀细见长。纺织学上有个对纤度的专门计量单位叫綮,每9000米长的单丝重l克,就是1綮。因此,綮数越小,说明蚕丝越细。素纱禅衣的蚕丝纤度竟然只有10.5至11.3,而现在生产的高级丝织物其纱纤度却是14,足见素纱的纤细轻薄。这样轻薄的衣物,汉代的妇女又是怎样穿着的呢?当时人们是罩在色泽艳丽的锦袍上穿,使锦袍上华丽的纹饰若隐若现,给人一种朦胧的美感。

一号墓T形帛画

此画因其形状呈英文字母“T”形,为了便于称呼,就称之为“T”形帛画。史料中则记载为“非衣”,可能有“似衣非衣”之意。它出土时反盖在一号墓内棺棺盖上,顶部横裹一根竹竿在每个垂角下并都系着丝带或麻质带子。据考证这是旌旗画幡一类的物品,出葬时,由人高举着走在仪仗的最前面,用以“引魂升天”,相当于“招魂幡”。

整幅画全长205厘米,内容从上至下可分为天上、人间、地狱三个部分。

华盖以上为天上部分。正上方有一人首蛇身、披发而坐的神。根据“山海经”记载,它是威力巨大的烛龙神,主管着天气的阴晴和昼夜的变幻。右边绘有九个红色的太阳半隐半藏在蓝色的扶桑树中。传说扶桑生长在东海,有几千丈高,十个太阳在此栖息并轮流出去值班。而画中却只有九日盘旋其中,另外一个太阳可能正在值班尚未归来。最大的太阳中绘着一只黑色的鸟,古人称之为“金乌”,这大概是古人对太阳黑子的观测结果。左边则是一轮弯月,月下一个美丽的女子轻舒广袖翩跹而舞。有人说她是月神正托举月完缓缓升起,也有人说是偷取了不老丹药的嫦娥向月宫飞去。月中一只肥胖硕大的蟾蜍口衔一株灵芝草,而体态轻盈的玉兔与之形成了鲜明的对比。天门两旁两位守门神一司阍正躬手而立,恭敬作揖,欢迎升天的老夫人。

人间部分以华盖做屋顶,上有朱雀鸟作为装饰。华盖以下体态丰腴的轪侯夫人锦衣华服、环佩叮当,正手持拐杖踽踽前行。三个贴身的奴婢紧跟其后,两位炼丹的方士正向她献上长生不老的丹药。人像两侧是交蟠穿壁的双龙,象征尊贵和吉祥。下面的图画可能是老夫人去世后家人守灵祭祀的场景。他们面色青蓝,神色肃穆,尽显哀伤之态。

地狱里赤身裸体的地神——鲧正平托着白色的大地,脚下踩踏着两条意欲兴风作浪的鳌鱼,制止地震山崩的发生。地府中更有面目狰狞的怪狗和双目圆睁的猫头鹰,镇压鬼怪妖魔不去侵扰老太太的亡灵。

这是一幅把神话、想象和现实生活完美统一的杰作,它无处不体现了古人对天国的想象和追求永生的幻想。因而,“T”形帛画是中国古代绘画史上难得一见的杰作,具有难以估量的艺术价值,堪称中华民族的艺术瑰宝。

女尸

女尸出土于长沙马王堆一号汉墓,距今2100多年。她是西汉初年长沙国丞相、第一代轪侯利苍的夫人,名叫“辛追”。出土时身长有1. 54米,体重为34.3千克,血型为A型,头、颈、躯干、四肢均保存了完整的外形,皮肤湿润且覆盖完整,呈淡黄褐色,手摸有油腻感。头发、眼睫毛、鼻毛等毛发附在原位。部分关节仍然可以活动。皮下脂肪丰富,软组织丰满而有弹性,用手按压后,能很快恢复原位。在注射防腐剂时,软组织鼓起,能较快扩散、吸收。经X射线检查,全身骨骼完整,两侧对称,小至鼻骨及趾骨依然能分辨,外形与现代人骨没有任何差别。尸体有眼球脱出、口张开、舌头稍微挺出、直肠脱垂等死后早期腐败现象。但因一号墓密封良好,尸体的腐败现象在下葬后不久就停止了。

这具女尸保存的年代之久、保存程度之好,在世界尸体保存记录中都是十分罕见的。由于它明显不同于呈干瘪状的“木乃伊”和表面似蜡制模型躯壳的“尸蜡”,也不同于骨骼脱钙软化而易于折断的“泥炭鞣尸”,因此国际上已认同,在尸体的分类上,应该把马王堆这类历史悠久、软组织仍有弹性、内脏俱在的“湿尸”,命名为“马王堆尸”。

 


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