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“凤凰古城”中英双语导游词

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2018年02月05日

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Ancient Town of Fenghuang

(凤凰古城)

Ladies and gentlemen,

Good morning. Welcome to the ancient town of Fenghuang. The ancient town of Fenghuang you are visiting now was rated as one of the two most beautiful small towns in China by the eminent New Zealand writer, Rewi Alley. Bordering on the scenic areas of Mengdong River in Northwest Hunan and Fanjing Mountain in Guizhou, the town provides access roads to Huaihua, Jishou of Hunan and Tongren of Guizhou. It is the birthplace of the illustrious Chinese writer, Shen Congwen, Picturesque in scenery, abounding with historical sites, the town of Fenghuang makes an ideal sightseeing destination. The town boasts eight notable tourist sights: Sunrise at Dongling, Nanhua’s Wooded Hills , the Playful Fish Dragon Pool, the Mountain Temples' Bell Tolls, the Dazzling Peaks, Moonlit Bridges on Streams, Lanjing Woodcutters’ Folk Songs, and Fange's Rolling Waves. Ancient towers, quaint compounds dating back to the Ming and Qing dynasties, and flagstone-paved street remain a common sight in the town. In the town's vicinity, there are such striking sights such as the National Forest Park of Nanhua Mountain, the well-preserved Ancient Tang Dynasty town of Huangsiqiao, the Underground Qiliang Cavern Arts Palace, miraculous, rocky, and wind-driven Jianduoduo Waterfall, mysterious Gaodabu Gorge, General-like Three-gate Cave Rock, and scenic Tunliang, Fenghuang, Elephant Trunk, Tianxing and Lale Hills.

The town is not only a scenic area but also the birthplace of great men. Zheng Guohong, commanding officer of Chuzhou of Zhejiang, Tian Xinghu, provincial military commander of Guizhou, Xiong Xiling, the first Prime Minister of the Republic of China, Shen Congwen, an illustrious Chinese writer and Huang Yongyu, an outstanding Chinese painter are Fenghuang natives.

The Former Residence of Shen Congwen

Walk down a flagstone-paved road, you will get to No.10 Zhongying Street. The house was the former residence of Mr. Shen Cong-wen, an illustrious Chinese writer and archeo-logist. The house was built by his grandfather, Shen Hongfu, in the first year of the Qing Dynasty Tongzhi Emperor's reign (1886). Shen Congwen was born on December 28, 1902 in this combination Ming and Qing style quadrangle like house. He spent his boyhood and formative years here. His family's financial situation declined when he was young. In 1917 Mr. Shen left his hometown and joined the local army at the age of 15 and then spent years roaming around along Yuan River, and You River, witnessing war-torn areas. From these experiences, he developed a great interest in writing. In 1919 Mr. Shen went to Beijing and started his writing career with great difficulties. His literary works like Border Town and Northwest Hunan made him well-known in Chinese literary circles, and he became almost as famous as Lu Xun, who was 20 years older than him. Following the 1950s, Mr. Shen devoted himself to the study of traditional Chinese garments, writing The Study of Traditional Chinese Garments, a remarkable academic work in the field.

Mr. Shen's works and his personality share the following qualities: natural, honest, diligent, profound, and dignified. Mr. Shen wrote literary works of five million words in his lifetime, a great contribution to the treasure house of world literature, leaving behind him priceless historical resources in the study of Old China and Old Northwest Hunan.

The Former Residence of Xiong Xiling

As we pass through Fenghuang's Hall of Fame, which is a side arm of the Confucius Temple, a flagstone path takes us to No.10 Wenxing Street. This is the former residence of Mr. Xiong Xiling,the first prime minister of the Republic of China.

Xiong Xiling, who styled himself as Bingsan, was born in the small bungalow on July 23, 1870. Even in his boyhood, he earned a name of Hunan Prodigy. He was a successful candidate in the imperial examina-tions at the county level at the age of 15, at the provincial level at the age of 21, and to crown it all, a palace graduate and awarded a title of a great scholar in the Imperial Academy at the age of 24.

Having made a name in the world, he vigorously campaigned for constitutional reform and modernization. He started the reformist periodical, the so-called Hunan Newspaper, and founded the School of Current Political Affairs and the Changdexilu Normal School. As famous as Tan Sitong in Hunan, he was one of leading forces in the 1898 Constitutional Reform and Modernization Movement. Some of his students became outstanding revolutionaries such as Xiang Jingyu, Lin Boqu, Teng Daiyuan, Song Jiaoren (a leftist in the Nationalist Party) and Jiang Yiwu (Commander-in-chief in the Wuchang Uprising). He served as financial inspector of three northeastern pro-vinces, governor of Rehe province and finance minister of the republic. In 1913 he became as first prime minister of the Republic of China. The government he worked in was eulogized as ‘Cabinet of Talents’. Yuan Shikai dissolved the cabinet and removed Xiong from premiership for his criticism of Yuan's dictatorial rule. After leaving the govemment, Xiong Xiling started a number of businesses and undertook charity work. He ran the Xiangshan Orphanage and when Fenghuang County was struck by a severe drought in 1925, ruining the rice harvest, Mr. Xiong raised 100,000 silver dollars, 40,000 of which were donated by Mr. Mei Lanfang, an eminent Peking Opera actor, for relief efforts. In his late life, Mr. Xiong served as president of the Chinese Red Cross and threw himself into field rescue work in the War against Japanese Aggression, making outstanding contributions in fighting Japanese invaders. Mr. Xiong Xiling died of a disease at the age of 67 in Hong Kong on December 5, 1937.

The Gate Tower and Old City Wall

Fenghuang County includes an historic landmark that was formerly known as “Zhen Gan”. It was the govemment seat of five stockade villages during the Ming and Qing dynasties. The city wall consists of mud that was revamped with bricks in 1556. During the reign of Emperor Kangxi, the town acted as the govemment seat first of the directly affiliated district, then as the district deputy governor seat, and finally as the military headquarters for the River Chen and Yuan's local forces. The city wall was rebuilt with stone in 1715 during Qing Emperor Kangxi's reign, It is 2,000 meters in circumference. Four gates to the town were built on four sides, each with a tall gate tower: the Eastern Gate (the Gate of Sheng Heng) , the Southern Gate (The Gate of Jing Lan), the Western Gate (the Gate of Fu Cheng) and the North Gate (The Gate of Bi Hui). Xue Yue, the commander-in-chief of the Ninth Theater of Operations and then governor of the Nationalist Party Hunan Provincial Government, argued in 1940 that the walled towns were sitting ducks for air strikes and were difficult to evacuate. He further argued that once walled towns fell to enemies, it was hard to retake them. He therefore ordered that all the city walls in Hunan's counties be pulled down. As a result, all the walls and gates were dismantled, save for the Eastern Gate and Northern Gate. These two gates were kept in place to guard the town against floods, but their battlements and forts were removed. The ruins of the broken walls remain visible between the Eastern and Northern Gates.

A road along the ruins of broken walls passing through the Northern Gate takes you to a souvenirs shopping street. Six-hue Store there offers tourists a great variety of Miao national minority folk arts and handicrafts. You may find rare masterpieces of folk arts and handicraft there: tie-dyed products made by Mrs. Wu Jinglian, a UN-certified master artist of folk arts and handicrafts, and Mr. Xiong's batik printed Chinese paintings of water colour, rated as first class by the eminent Chinese painter, Zhang Ding.

The Bridge of Rainbow and the Scenic Area of Sha wan

This is the Rainbow Bridge, built during Ming Dynasty Hongwu Emperor's reign and then renovated in 1670. There used to be a storied pavilion on stilts on the bridge housing a dozen shops in it. Unfortunately, the pavilion and its archways were torn down in 1956 owing to a road expansion project.

Standing under the bridge there are a row of century-old stilted houses. Down below, dragon boat races, a traditional Fenghuang sports event, are regularly held. During the Moon Cake Festival, local people turn two freight boats into a racing boat and compete in a boat race in this small river.

Walking down the bridge, one comes in sight of three scenic spots in Shawan: the Moonlit Bridges over Streams, the playful Fish in Dragon Pool, and the Dazzling Peaks. There used to be eight scenic wonders here, but only three remain now.

This is the Palace of Longevity, also known as the Water Palace Temple. It was built by businessmen from Jiangxi. Therefore, it is customarily called the Lodge of Jiangxi. The Palace of Longevity is the biggest human structure in Fenghuang, covering an area of over 4,000 square meters.

各位朋友:

大家好!欢迎来凤凰古城游览。现在大家所在的地方,是被新西兰著名作家路易·艾黎先生称赞为中国两座最美丽的小城之一的湖南凤凰古城。这里与风景名胜区湘西猛洞河、贵州梵净山毗邻,位于湖南怀化、吉首和贵州铜仁三地之间,是著名作家沈从文的故乡。凤凰风景秀丽,名胜古迹很多,历来是人们游览的胜地,自古就有东岭迎辉、南华叠翠、龙潭渔火、山寺晨钟、奇峰挺秀、溪桥夜月、兰径樵歌和梵阁回涛八大景观。城内,古代城楼、明清古院和石板小街现在仍是风采依然;城外,南华山国家森林公园、唐代修建的至今仍保存完好的黄丝桥古城、地下艺术宫殿奇梁洞和神奇的风动岩、壮观的尖多朵瀑布、神秘的高达不峡、三门洞将军岩以及如画的屯粮山、凤凰山、象鼻山、天星山、腊乐山都在向您招手。

凤凰不但风景秀美,而且人杰地灵。浙江总兵郑国鸿、贵州提督田兴恕等民族英雄和中华民国第一任内阁总理熊希龄、著名作家沈从文和著名画家黄永玉都是凤凰人。

沈从文故居

沿着石板小路,我们来到中营街10号,这里就是我国著名作家和考古学家沈从文先生的故居。

这所建筑是沈从文的祖父沈洪富于清同治元年(公元1866年)所建。1902年12月28日,沈从文先生就诞生在这座具有明清建筑风格的四合院里,并在这里度过了他的童年和少年时期。1917年,沈先生15岁时,因家道中落,参加湘西土军,离开了家乡,辗转于沅、澧、酉水流域,亲历了如火如荼的战争,从而激发了创作欲望。1919年,沈先生只身来到北京,开始了他的从文生涯,创作了《边城》、《湘西》等一系列文学作品,不久就蜚声中国文坛,几乎与年长他20岁的鲁迅先生齐名。20世纪50年代之后,沈先生潜心于中国古代服饰的研究,写出了惊世之作——《中国古代服饰研究》。

沈先生的作品与人品表现出了强烈的一致:自然、厚朴、谦虚、勤奋、博大而凝重。沈先生一生所创作的500多万字的作品,是世界的文学瑰宝,给后人研究旧中国和旧湘西留下了宝贵的遗产。

熊希龄故居

顺着小巷的砂石板小道,从大成殿——即孔子庙的挑檐下经过,我们来到了文星街10号,这里是中华民国第一任内阁总理熊希龄先生的故居。熊希龄,号秉三,1870年7月23日出生在这间小平房里。熊先生少年时就有湖南神童之称,15岁中秀才,2l岁中举人,24岁中进士,被授予翰林院庶吉士(俗称点翰林)。

熊先生成名后,积极主张维新变法.曾创办《湘报》、时务学堂和常德西路师范学校,是湖南与谭嗣同齐名的维新派中坚。我国的一些著名革命家如向警予、林伯渠、滕代远、国民党左派宋教仁、武昌起义总指挥蒋翊武等都是熊先生的学生。后来,熊先生出任东三省财政监理官、热河都统、财政总长等职,民国三年(公元1913年)就任中华民国第一任政府总理,当时的这一任政府被舆论界称为“才子内阁”。后来,因熊先生反对袁世凯独裁,被袁世凯逼迫解散内阁,辞去总理职务。从此,熊先生转而献身实业和慈善事业,并开办香山慈幼院,收养了一大批孤儿。民国十四年(公元1925年),凤凰县遭大旱,绝大部分田土无收,熊先生知道消息之后,送来赈灾款大洋10万(其中著名京剧表演艺术家梅兰芳先生捐大洋4万元),救助了很多灾民。晚年,熊先生就任中华民国红十字会会长,积极投身抗日战场战地救护,其功德可昭日月。1937年12月5日,熊希龄先生病故于香港,享年67岁。

城楼及古城墙

凤凰县城所在地原名镇竿,元明两朝为五寨长官司所在地,当时建有土城,明嘉靖三十五年(公元1556年)改土城为砖城。清康熙年间,凤凰直隶厅通判、总兵和辰沅水靖兵备道衙门设在这里。康熙五十四年(公元1715年)建石城。石城周长2000米有余。开设四座城门,东门叫升恒门,南门叫静谰门,西门叫阜城门,北门叫碧辉门。各有巍峨的城楼。1940年,国民党第九战区司令兼湖南政府主席薛岳以“城堡一旦落于敌手,反攻不易,而不利于空袭疏散”为由,通令所属各县将所有城墙拆除。凤凰东、北二门因防水需要,仅拆除城垛碉楼,其他城门全部拆除。所以,现在只能看到东、北二门连接其间的半壁城墙。

沿着半壁旧城墙,出东门,是旅游商品一条街。这里的六色坊有很多苗族的民间工艺品供大家选购和参观,获得联合国颁证的民间工艺美术大师吴景莲(吴花花)女士的扎染工艺品和东门内熊氏蜡染国画更是别具一格,受到广大游客的好评。

虹桥及沙湾风景区

现在来到虹桥,这座桥始建于明洪武年间,清康熙九年(公元1670年)加修,桥面上原有吊脚楼亭,亭内设有12家店铺,1956年因修公路,原楼亭和两侧牌坊均被拆除,就成了现在这个样子。

桥下是一排有百年历史的旧吊脚楼。吊脚楼下是凤凰传统体育节目——赛龙舟的地方。每到端午节,人们就将两只运货的木船捆扎起来,在这小河里一争高下。

下了桥,步入沙湾,可以看到凤凰县旧时八大景中的“溪桥夜月”、“龙潭渔火”“奇峰挺秀”三大景。

现在看到的是万寿官,又叫水府庙,因为是江西商人所建,大家习惯叫它江西会馆。万寿官占地4000多平方米,是凤凰最大的民间建筑物。

 


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