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2016年公共英语三级考试经典语法讲解之短语动词

所属教程:公共英语三级

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zhaocongcong

2016年07月27日

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  短语动词

  I. 要点

  英语中有许多短语动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有的相当于不及物动词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。英语短语动词的构成主要有以下六种:

  (1) 动词+介词

  常见的有look for, look after, send for, care about, ask for, laugh at, hear of (from), add to, lead to等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后。如:

  Don't laugh at others.

  I didn't care about it.

  (2) 动词+副词

  常见的有give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in, point out等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如:You'll hand in your homework tomorrow.

  Please don't forget to hand it in.

  (3) 动词+副词+介词

  常见的有look down upon, go on with, break away from, add up to, catch up with等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:

  All his money added up to no more than $100.

  After a short rest, he went on with his research work.

  (4) 动词+名词+介词

  常见的有take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:You should pay attention to your handwriting.

  We should make full use of our time.

  (5) 动词+形容词

  常见的有leave open, set free, cut open等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如:

  The prisoners were set free.

  He cut it open.

  (6) 动词+名词

  常见的有take place, make friends等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。如:

  This story took place three years ago.

  I make friends with a lot of people.

  (7)辨析

  give away(让给,暴露) 和 give up(放弃,停止)

  put away(放起,收起) 和 put out (扑灭)

  turn up(出席,放大) 和 turn on (打开)

  keep out(阻止) 和 keep off (不让靠近)

  make up(编造,补上) 和 make out(辨认)

  take off(脱,起飞) 和 take out(拿出)

  II. 例题

  例1 It is wise to have some money ____ for old age.

  A put away B kept up C given away D laid up

  解析:该题正确答案为A。意为"存";keep up意为"继续";give away意为"分发";lay up"贮藏"。例2 Here's my card. Let's keep in ____.

  A touch B relation C connection D friendship

  解析:该题正确答案为A. keep in touch为短语动词,意为"保持联系"。外语学习网

  例3 ____! There's a train coming.

  A Look out B Look around C Look forward D Look on

  解析:该题选A. look out 意为"小心"。


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