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高考英语语法专项练习之构词法与比较等级

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2021年01月18日

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  我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高考英语语法专项练习之构词法与比较等级的资料,希望对你有所帮助。

  [深化认知]

  一、派生法

  1.名词后缀

  (1)动词变名词的后缀

  后缀 例词

  ­ion/

  ­tion/

  ­sion/

  ­ation correct→correction  改正

  celebrate→celebration

  庆祝;庆祝会

  attract→attraction

  吸引

  discuss→discussion

  讨论;辩论

  graduate→graduation

  毕业

  conclude→conclusion

  结论;结束

  decide→decision

  决定

  admit→admission

  接纳;准许入学

  invite→invitation

  邀请

  explain→explanation

  解释

  expect→expectation

  期望

  ­er/­or drive→driver

  司机;驾驶员

  gather→gatherer

  收集者;采集者

  teach→teacher

  老师

  announce→announcer

  播音员

  conduct→conductor

  指挥;售票员

  direct→director

  导演

  ­ment punish→punishment

  惩罚

  achieve→achievement

  功绩;成就

  argue→argument

  辩论;论据

  treat→treatment

  对待;治疗

  equip→equipment

  装备;设备

  govern→government

  政府

  ­ance/

  ­ence appear→appearance

  出现;外貌

  guide→guidance

  指引;指导

  perform→performance

  表演;节目

  exist→existence

  存在;生存

  prefer→preference

  偏爱

  refer→reference

  参考;查阅

  ­ing hear→hearing

  听力;听觉

  begin→beginning

  开始

  ­ure/

  ­ture fail→failure

  失败;没做到

  press→pressure

  压力

  depart→departure

  离开;出发

  mix→mixture

  混合;混合物

  ­y recover→recovery   恢复;痊愈

  discover→discovery

  发现

  其他 choose→choice    选择

  vary→variety

  多样化;种类

  tend→tendency

  趋向;趋势

  (2)形容词变名词的后缀

  后缀 例词

  ­age short→shortage不足;短缺

  ­cy efficient→efficiency 效率;功效

  fluent→fluency

  流利;流畅

  accurate→accuracy

  准确性

  private→privacy

  隐私;私密

  ­dom free→freedom自由;自主

  wise→wisdom

  明智;智慧

  ­ce different→difference 差异

  silent→silence

  沉默

  ­ness weak→weakness 虚弱;弱点

  kind→kindness

  仁慈;好意

  careless→carelessness

  粗心大意

  ­th strong→strength 力气;强项

  warm→warmth

  温暖;热情

  ­y/­ty/

  ­ity honest→honesty 诚实

  difficult→difficulty

  困难

  cruel→cruelty

  残酷;残暴

  safe→safety

  安全

  disable→disability

  无能;伤残

  responsible→responsibility

  责任

  2.形容词、副词后缀

  (1)动词、名词变形容词的常见后缀

  后缀 例词

  ­able accept→acceptable  可接受的

  comfort→comfortable

  舒适的

  fashion→fashionable

  时髦的

  suit→suitable

  合适的

  reason→reasonable

  有道理的

  ­al music→musical音乐的

  origin→original

  最初的

  person→personal

  个人的;私人的

  centre→central

  中央的;中心的

  nature→natural

  自然的;天生的

  ­ful doubt→doubtful 怀疑的

  forget→forgetful

  健忘的

  harm→harmful

  有害的

  hope→hopeful

  有希望的

  peace→peaceful

  和平的

  ­ed scare→scared 感到恐惧的

  confuse→confused

  感到困惑的

  underline→underlined

  下划线的

  ­ing surprise→surprising 令人惊奇的

  convince→convincing

  令人信服的

  satisfy→satisfying

  令人满意的

  ­ible access→accessible容易取得的

  horror→horrible

  可怕的;恐怖的

  terror→terrible

  可怕的

  ­ive act→active积极的;活跃的

  effect→effective

  有效的;生效的

  attract→attractive

  有吸引力的

  impress→impressive

  给人深刻印象的

  ­ous continue→continuous 不断的;持续的

  anxiety→anxious

  忧虑的

  caution→cautious

  十分小心的;谨慎的

  curiosity→curious

  好奇的

  humor→humorous

  幽默的

  ­some tire→tiresome  令人厌倦的

  trouble→troublesome

  麻烦的

  ­y taste→tasty 美味的;可口的

  health→healthy

  健康的

  wealth→wealthy

  富裕的;丰富的

  ­ern

  east→eastern东方的;向东的 ­ish child→childish 孩子气的

  fool→foolish

  愚蠢的;可笑的

  self→selfish

  自私的

  (2)形容词变副词的后缀

  直接加­ly

  slow→slowly 缓慢地

  改y为­ily happy→happily高兴地

  去e加­lytrue→truly     真诚地;确实

  3.形容词、名词变动词的前缀和后缀

  前/后缀 例词

  前缀 en­ able→enable 使能够

  large→enlarge

  扩大

  rich→enrich

  使充实

  后缀 ­en broad→broaden (使)变宽

  ripe→ripen

  (使)成熟

  sharp→sharpen

  使尖锐

  wide→widen

  加宽

  ­ify class→classify 把……分类

  just→justify

  证明……正确

  simple→simplify

  简化

  ­ize apology→apologize  道歉

  emphasis→emphasize

  强调

  4.表示否定或相反意义的前缀和后缀

  前/后缀

  例词

  前缀 dis­ agree→disagree 不同意

  advantage→disadvantage

  缺点

  il­ legal→illegal 不合法的

  logical→illogical

  不合逻辑的

  im­ polite→impolite 无礼的

  patient→impatient

  不耐烦的

  in­ formal→informal  非正式的

  convenient→inconvenient不方便的

  ir­ regular→irregular不规则的

  responsible→irresponsible不负责任的

  mis­ lead→mislead误导

  understand→misunderstand

  误解

  un­ usual→unusual 不寻常的

  willing→unwilling

  不愿意的

  后缀 ­less hope→hopeless 绝望的

  end→endless

  没完没了的

  二、转化法

  不改变词形,把一个词由一种词类转用为另一种词类的方法叫转化法。

  动词→名词 look→have a look看一看

  survey→make a survey

  调查

  walk→take a walk

  散步

  名词→动词 button n.纽扣→v.扣纽扣

  book n.书→v.预订

  seat n.座位→v.容纳

  back n.背部→v.支持

  形容词→动词 slow adj.慢的→v.减慢

  narrow adj.窄的→v.缩小

  warm adj.暖和的→v.加热

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it regularly (regular) arranges quick getaways here for people

  living

  in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

  2.(2015·全国卷 Ⅱ 语法填空)Walls made of adobe take in the heat from the sun on hot days and give out that heat slowly (slow) during cool nights, thus warming the house.

  3.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ability (able) to “air condition” a house without

  using

  electric equipment.

  4.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)As natural (nature) architects, the Pueblo Indians figured out exactly

  how

  thick the adobe walls needed to be to make the cycle work on most days.

  5.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)The river was so polluted that it

  actually

  (actual) caught fire and burned.

  6.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)Just be patient (patience).

  7.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)Everyone on the bus began talking about what the boy had done, and the crowd of strangers suddenly (sudden) became friendly to one another.

  8.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)There were many people waiting at the bus stop,

  and

  some of them looked very anxious and disappointed (disappoint).

  9.(2017·辽宁高考语法填空)Bend your knees slightly and reach out your arms like tree branches, naturally and softly (soft).

  10.(2017·辽宁高考语法填空)I cannot control my body well. My legs become painful (pain).

  11.(2017·湖北高考短文写作)Luckily, she was not badly injured (injure) and we sent her to the nearest hospital.

  12.(2017·福建高考书面表达)So excited (excite) was I that I couldn't wait to try my hand at riding it.

  13.(2017·广东高考语法填空)But such a small thing couldn't possibly (possible) destroy a village.

  14.(2017·广东高考语法填空)“That would be a very reasonable (reason) thing to do in a big city, but it could destroy a small village like ours,” Nick said.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)Lots of studies have

  shown that global warming has already become a very seriously problem.seriously→serious

  2.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)Dad and I were terrible worried.terrible→terribly

  3.(2015·浙江高考短文改错)On the left­hand side of the class, I could easy see the football field.easy→easily

  4.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)The fruits are small in size, but juicy and taste. taste→tasty

  5.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)We are growing wonderfully tomatoes at no cost! wonderfully→wonderful

  6.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)The teachers here are kind and helpfully. They are not only our teachers but also our friends.helpfully→helpful

  7.(2017·浙江高考短文改错)No one in the carriage had previous spoken to or even noticed the ticket­owner before.previous→previously

  8.(2017·辽宁高考短文改错)That is too much for us, considering how closely the houses are. closely→close_

  [深化认知]

  一、比较等级

  1.平级比较

  (1)as+形容词(副词)原级+as ...“和……一样”;not as/so+形容词(副词)原级+as ...“不如……”。

  (2016·长春一模写作)Tom is as excellent as John in the ability of dealing with such cases.

  在处理这类案件上,汤姆和约翰的能力是一样优秀的。

  (2)as+形容词原级+a(n)+n.+as ...“和……一样”。

  Although Tom was as heavy a smoker as me, he did give up smoking last year.

  尽管汤姆和我一样是个老烟枪,但他在去年确实戒烟了。

  2.比较级

  (1)比较级+than ...“比……更”;less ... than“不如……”。

  This year they have produced less grain than they did last year.

  他们今年生产的谷物比去年少。

  (2)the+比较级, the +比较级 “越……,越……”。

  It's believed that the harder you work, the better result you'll get.

  人们相信,工作越努力,得到的结果将越好。

  (3)the+比较级+of the +名词/代词 “两者中较……的”。

  Who is the younger of the two boys ?

  这两个男孩中较小的是哪一个?

  (4)“否定词+比较级”表示最高级含义。

  Mr. Stevenson is great to work for — I really couldn't ask for a better boss.

  为斯蒂文森先生工作感觉非常好,我真的找不到比他更好的老板了。

  (5)比较等级前常用的修饰语有:a little, a bit, slightly, much, a lot, a great deal, any, far, by far, even, still等。

  —The film is, I have to say, not a bit interesting.

  —Why? It's far more interesting than the films I have ever seen.

  ——我不得不说这部电影一点意思也没有。

  ——为什么?它比我以前看过的所有电影都有趣多了。

  3.最高级的基本结构

  表达在某个范围内“最……”,用“the+最高级+比较范围”结构。

  The river is the longest in the world.

  这条河流是世界上最长的。

  二、倍数表达法

  常见的倍数表达形式有:

  1.倍数+as+形容词/副词的原级+as

  This tree is three times as tall as that one.

  这棵树是那棵树的三倍高。

  His father is twice as old as he.

  他父亲的年龄是他的两倍大。

  2.倍数+形容词/副词的比较级+than

  This river is almost twice longer than that one.

  这条河差不多比那条河长两倍。

  The dictionary is exactly five times more expensive than that one.

  这本字典恰好比那本贵五倍。

  3.倍数+the size/height/weight/length/width/depth/ ...+of

  The newly­broadened square is four times the size of the previous one.

  新扩建的广场是未扩建时的四倍大。

  4.倍数+that+of

  The size of the newly­broadened square is four times that of the previous one.

  新扩建的广场是未扩建时的四倍大。

  5.倍数+what从句

  The production now is three times what it was ten years ago.

  现在的产量是十年前的三倍。

  [名师指津] 在倍数表达法中倍数一般放在第一个as或比较级或名词的前面。另外,倍数除了用times(三倍或三倍以上的数)来表示外,还可用分数、百分数以及twice/double(两倍),triple(三倍),fourfold(四倍)等来表示。

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2017·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)Finally, that hard work paid

  off and now the water in the river is cleaner (clean) than ever.

  2.(2017·辽宁高考语法填空) The

  harder

  (hard) you try to beat him, the more likely you will get hit.He controls you!

  3.(2017·广东高考语法填空) After our plane landed, we went to the hotel. We had made our reservation six months earlier

  (early), but the man at the front desk said there had been a mistake.

  4.(2017·大纲卷单选)Raymond's parents wanted him to have the_best (good) possible education.

  5.(2017·全国卷Ⅱ单选)It may not be a great suggestion. But before

  a better (good)

  one

  is put forward, we'll make do with it.

  6.(2017·天津高考单选)I think watching TV every evening is a waste of time — there are more_meaningful (meaningful) things to do.

  7.(2017·辽宁高考单选)This is by far the_most_inspiring (inspiring) movie that I have ever seen.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2015·陕西高考短文改错)My mum makes the better biscuits in the world, so I decided to ask her for help.better→best

  2.(2016·泉州一模短文改错)Your story is wonderful; I've never heard a good one before.good→better

  3.(2016·兰州一模短文改错)—Goods imported from abroad are not always best than those made in China.

  —Yes. Some of the goods made in our country are of high quality.best→better

  4.(2016·石家庄一模短文改错)The most you practise, the better you can understand. most→more_

  5.Our school which was built last year is three times as bigger as his.bigger→big对点集训即时巩固·提升知能Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.I was about to give up when my father came and encouraged

  (encouragement)

  me to keep going.

  2.Parents arrange (arrangement) everything for their children and spare no effort to pave the way for their success.

  3.This hill is four times higher (high) than that small one.

  4.(2016·齐齐哈尔模拟)In addition to reading for knowledge, we read for fun and inspiration (inspire).

  5.I don't think it a reasonable (reason) practice for them to behave that way in our society.

  6.(2016·河南省六市联考)Friends are more important (importance) than phones in our daily life.

  7.The farmers' living conditions have improved significantly (significance) ever since the policy of supporting agriculture was introduced.

  8.(2016·石家庄高中毕业班模拟)Already, she looked like she was much braver (brave) than Larry had been then.

  9.The earlier (early) the treatment is given, the better it is for

  the patient.

  10.Of the two cameras, I would prefer the smaller (small) one, which is very easy for me to carry.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.To make matters bad, now I have to share a room with my younger sister, Maggie. bad→worse

  2.The aim of education is to teach young people to think for themselves and not follow others blind.

  blind→blindly

  3.(2016·银川模拟)In some places you may borrow as more books as you need, but in others you are limited to a certain number of books. more→many

  4.Well, I like much more than one, such as painting and model making, but my favorite is dancing. 去掉much

  5.(2016·贵阳模拟)Five years ago, our playground was five times the size with yours.with→of

  6.She was put under house arrest two years ago but remained a powerfully symbol in last year's election. powerfully→powerful

  7.(2016·哈尔滨质检)Most of the fish there was freezing, but we had not much trouble finding some fresh fish at the other part of the market. freezing→frozen

  8.(2016·吉林质检)In my opinion, there are plenty of opportunities for everyone in our society, but only those who are prepared adequately and qualified high can make use of them to achieve their purposes. high→highly

  9.I named them “cookies” because I always feel that children can bring great happy and excitement to my life. happy→happiness

  10.As you are very popularly with us Chinese high school students, we'd like to invite you to the exhibition. popularly→popular

  Ⅲ.语法填空

  (2016·郑州模拟)Chinese proverbs are rich and they are still widely used in Chinese people's daily life. These

  proverbs are often

  1.interesting (interest) stories.

  2.For

  example, the proverb,

  “pluck up a crop

  3.to_help

  (help) it grow”, is based on the following story.

  It is said that a short­tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960-1279) was very anxious to help his rice crop grow up

  4.quickly

  (quick). He was thinking about it

  day and night. But the crop was growing much slower than he expected.

  One day, he came up with an idea

  5.that

  he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day.

  He was very tired after doing this for a whole day,

  6.but/yet

  he felt very happy since the crop did

  “grow”

  7.higher

  (high).

  His son

  8.heard

  (hear) about this and went to see the crop. Unfortunately the leaves of the crop began to wither.

  This proverb is saying we have to let things go in their

  9.natural

  (nature) course. Being too anxious to help an event develop often

  10.results

  (result) in the contrary to our intention.


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