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高考英语语法专项练习之名词和冠词

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2021年01月18日

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  我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高考英语语法专项练习之名词和冠词的资料,希望对你有所帮助。

  [深化认知]

  一、名词的固定搭配

  1.动词have, keep, take, make, get, give, put等加名词构成的短语

  have a good reputation 有个好的名声

  have an idea of 了解

  have a sense of 有……意识

  have a feeling of 有……感觉

  have access to 可以获得

  have an advantage over 胜过,优于

  have the honor of (doing) sth. 很荣幸地做某事

  keep a balance 保持平衡

  take ...into account 考虑……

  take advantage of 利用,趁……之机

  make fun of 取笑,嘲弄

  make use of 利用

  make the best of 充分利用,妥善处理

  get/lose contact with 与……取得/失去联系

  get relief 得到缓解

  give a solution 给出解决方案

  put ...into practice 将……付诸行动

  I have the honor of being your guide, and I'd like to give you a brief introduction to our trip today.

  我很荣幸地成为你们的导游,首先简单地介绍一下我们今天的行程。

  (2014·江西高考写作)So I suggest you should keep a balance between your study and entertainment, such as sports, listening to music and so on.

  因此,我建议你应该保持学习和娱乐之间的平衡,像运动、听音乐等。

  (2015·湖南高考写作)There are certain factors I must take into account on my new invention.

  在我的新发明中我必须考虑一些特定的因素。

  Failure can make a positive contribution to your life once you learn to make use of it.

  一旦学会了利用失败,那么失败就能为你的生活作出积极的贡献。

  2.介词后加名词构成的短语

  at a loss 困惑;不知所措

  in great demand 需求量很大

  in quantity 大量,大批

  in progress 在进行中

  in production 在产量方面

  out of one's reach 某人够不到

  out of touch 失去联系

  out of sight 看不见

  beyond recognition 辨认不出来

  with joy 十分高兴

  (2014·湖北高考写作)Faced with so many new things to learn, I was overcome by fear and was at a loss what to do.

  面对这么多要学的新东西,我会感到恐惧,不知道该做什么。

  At the exciting news, we jumped and cheered with joy.

  听到这个让人兴奋的消息,我们高兴得欢呼雀跃。

  二、名词的单复数

  1.单数名词变为复数名词的基本规则

  (1)以­o结尾的名词变为复数时,常在词尾加­s,但中学英语中下列名词要加­es,它们是:黑人英雄在回声中吃土豆、西红柿,即Negroes, heroes, echoes, potatoes, tomatoes。

  但下列以­o结尾的名词既可以加­es,也可以加­s,它们是:zeros (zeroes)零,mosquitos (mosquitoes)蚊子,volcanos (volcanoes)火山。

  (2)以­f或­fe结尾的名词变为复数时,一般直接加­s,但下列以­f或­fe结尾的名词需要把f或fe去掉,加­ves,它们是:为了自己活命,小偷和他的妻子手里拿着刀子和树叶站在架子上,把狼劈成两半,即selves, lives, thieves, wives, knives, leaves, shelves, wolves, halves。

  但下列以­f结尾的名词既可以去掉f加­ves,也可以直接加­s,它们是:handkerchiefs (handkerchieves) 手帕,scarfs (scarves) 围巾。

  (3)合成名词变成复数时,通常只将里面所含的主体名词变为复数,如果没有主体名词,则将最后一部分变为复数。如:sons­in­law女婿;passers­by过路人;story­tellers讲故事的人;breakfasts早餐;housewives 家庭主妇。

  2.常见单复数同形的名词

  Chinese 中国人;Japanese 日本人;sheep 绵羊;deer鹿;series 系列;means 方式;works 工厂;fish 鱼;fruit 水果;crossroads 十字路口;horsepower 马力;jin斤等。其中fish, fruit表示种类时,可加复数词尾,即fishes, fruits。

  三、抽象名词具体化

  具有某种特性、状态、情感的抽象名词在表示具体的概念时,可以与不定冠词连用,常考到的有:

  单词 抽象名词意义 具体化名词意义 success 成功 成功的人或事 pleasure 乐趣 令人高兴的事 attraction 吸引 有吸引力的人或事物 beauty 美;美丽 美丽的人或事物 comfort 安慰;慰藉 令人感到安慰的人或事物 danger 危险 危险的人或因素 delight 高兴 令人高兴的事 failure 失败 失败的人或事物 surprise 惊奇 令人惊奇的事情 shock 震惊 令人震惊的事情 pride 骄傲 令人骄傲的事情 honor 荣幸 令人荣幸的事情 The World Athletics Championships held in Beijing is recognized as a great success.

  人们公认在北京举行的世界田径锦标赛是一项非常成功的赛事。

  It's a great honor for me to be here today and share my experience of learning English with you.

  我很荣幸今天在这里和大家一起分享我学习英语的经验。

  四、名词所有格

  1.表示有生命的名词的所有格

  情况 构成 示例 不以s结尾的名词 加­'s Mary's e­mail

  Children's books 以s结尾的复数名词 加­' the girls' dormitory

  the teachers' reading­room [名师指津] (1)若是几个人共有,或几个词作为一个单位时,在最后一个名词后加“­'s”;若表示各自的所属关系时,各名词的末尾都要加“­'s”。如:Mary and Mike's desk, Mary's and Mike's mothers。

  (2)表示“某某的家/店铺”的名词所有格,常常省略其名词。如: at Mr White's, at the tailor's。

  2.表示无生命的名词的所有格

  (1)通常用of所有格表示。

  While e­commerce worries some merchants, it contributes to the development of delivery industry.

  尽管电子商务使一些商人担忧,但它促进了快递业的发展。

  (2)表示时间、距离、国家、城市、机构、节日等的名词通常用­'s所有格表示。

  Beijing's parks 北京的公园

  the factory's output 工厂的产量

  3.双重所有格

  双重所有格的构成形式为:名词+of+名词性物主代词/名词的所有格。

  Belinda, who is a friend of my sister's, possesses a rare intelligence.

  贝琳达,我姐姐的一个朋友,拥有非凡的智慧。

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)I'd skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings (painting).

  2.(2014·全国卷 Ⅰ 语法填空)While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the changes (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river.

  3.(2014·全国样卷语法填空) Oh, dear. I really must be losing my memory/mind. Now, why did I put on my coat?

  4.(2014·辽宁高考语法填空)Unbelievable!Oh ..., if you don't mind, I'll stop and take a deep breath.

  5.(2013·全国卷Ⅰ单选)India attained 不填 independence in 1947, after a long struggle.

  6.(2012·山东高考单选)Being able to afford a drink would be a comfort in those tough times.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier.airs→air

  2.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)One day, little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent. parent→parents

  3.(2015·陕西高考短文改错)Mum taught me some basic step of baking.step→steps

  4.(2015·浙江高考短文改错)My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made of glass.side→sides

  5.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)For example, we can do reading for one and a half hour and play sports for one hour every day.第一个hour→hours

  6.(2014·辽宁高考短文改错)We've called several time about Cleo's early morning barking.time→times

  [深化认知]

  一、不定冠词a/an

  1.不定冠词的三种基本用法

  (1)表示类指,或指某类中的任何一个。

  (2013·福建高考单选)The “Chinese Dream” is a dream to improve people's well­being and a dream of harmony, peace and development.

  “中国梦”是一个改善民生的梦,是一个和谐、和平和发展的梦。

  (2)表示泛指,用于第一次提及的非特指的可数名词前。因此由不定冠词构成的名词词组往往带有不确定的含义,相当于a certain。

  The story happened in a small town in Victoria.

  故事发生在维多利亚的一个小镇上。

  (3)表示量指。不定冠词表示“一”这个数量,但数的概念没有one强烈。

  After a week's trip, he returned home, tired but very happy.

  旅行了一周后,他回到了家,累但很高兴。

  2.不定冠词的活用

  (1)用在某些抽象名词或物质名词前,使之具体化。

  He suddenly appeared on a rainy night, which was a great surprise to us.

  他在一个雨夜突然出现,这使我们非常吃惊。

  (2)不定冠词用于序数词前,强调“再一,又一”。

  He missed the gold in the high jump, but will get a second chance in the long jump.

  他在跳高比赛中没有赢得金牌,但是,在跳远比赛中他还有一次(获得金牌的)机会。

  (3)当表示一日三餐的名词和专有名词前有形容词修饰的时候,用不定冠词。

  I'm sure this outing will last long, so bring a packed lunch.

  我敢肯定这次郊游会持续很长时间,所以请带上自备的午餐。

  (4)“a most+形容词”表示“很……”,most在句中无最高级含义,有“很,非常”的意思,相当于very。

  a most famous actress   很出名的女演员

  (5)用于某些习惯用法,如at an early age, have a look, play a trick on, in a hurry, develop a preference for等。

  (2013·浙江高考单选)People develop a preference for a particular style of learning at an early age and these preferences affect learning.

  人们在很小的时候便养成对某种特别的学习方式的偏爱,这些偏爱对学习有影响。

  二、定冠词的用法

  1.定冠词的四种基本用法

  (1)表示特指的人或物,或者双方都知道的或心中都明白的人或物或者指上文已经提到过的人或事物。

  I have the pleasure to say that you are the very person we are looking for.

  我很高兴地说,你就是我们要找的人。

  (2)用在世界上独一无二的人或物、自然现象、发明物之前。

  It is known to us that the earth goes around the sun.

  我们都知道地球围绕着太阳转。

  I don't know who invented the iPhone, but I think it is a useful invention.

  我不知道是谁发明了iPhone,但是我认为它是一个有用的发明。

  [名师指津] 表示世界上独一无二的事物的名词前有修饰语的时候,用不定冠词。如:a peaceful world“ 一个和平的世界”;a bright moon “一轮明月”。

  (3)用于序数词、形容词的最高级前。

  (2013·陕西高考单选)Marco Polo is said to have sailed on the Pacific Ocean on his way to Java in the thirteenth century.

  据说在十三世纪马可·波罗去爪哇岛途中曾航行经过太平洋。

  (2014·安徽高考写作)The most important thing is to learn and control your temper so that you may not do or say anything you'll regret.

  最重要的是学会控制你的脾气,这样你可能就不会说使你后悔的话。

  (4)用在乐器名词前,表示演奏,但“play+表示中国乐器的名词(如erhu二胡,pipa琵琶)”中,名词前不用冠词。

  I play the trumpet in the school band.

  我在学校乐队中演奏小号。

  2.定冠词的活用

  (1)用在表示姓氏的复数名词之前,表示一家人或夫妻俩;或用于形容词/分词前,表示一类人或物。

  The injured were taken to the nearest hospital without delay.

  受伤的人被立刻送到了最近的医院。

  (2)用在逢十的年代前,表示“在某世纪几十年代”。

  in the 1990's    在20世纪90年代

  (3)用在表示单位的名词前。

  —It's said John will be in a job paying over D|S60,000 a year.

  —Right, he will also get paid by the week.

  ——据说约翰将拥有一份年收入超过60 000美元的工作。

  ——是的,而且会按周获得报酬。

  (4)用在表示身体部位的名词前,表示“打、抓住某人身体的某个部位”。

  An apple fell from the tree and hit him on the head.

  一个苹果从树上落下,砸在了他的头上。

  三、零冠词的用法

  1.零冠词的五种基本用法

  (1)在不可数名词或可名词复数前表示泛指不用冠词。

  (2014·山东高考阅读D)He would come home from work and ask his kids if they had brushed their teeth.

  他下班回家,会问他的孩子们是否刷了牙。

  The Smiths don't usually like staying at hotels, but last summer they spent a few days at a very nice hotel by sea.

  史密斯一家通常不喜欢住旅馆,但去年夏天他们在海边一家不错的旅馆住了几天。

  (2)不含普通名词的专有名词、物质名词、抽象名词,人名、地名等名词前,一般不加冠词。

  It's generally acknowledged that music can bring people pleasure.

  普遍认为音乐能给人们带来乐趣。

  (3)季节、月份、星期、节日、假日、一日三餐的名词表示泛指时,其前不加冠词。

  March 8 is Women's Day, and June 1 is Children's Day.

  3月8日是妇女节,6月1日是儿童节。

  Tom usually goes to school without having breakfast, which I think is a bad habit.

  汤姆通常不吃早餐就去上学,我认为这是一个坏习惯。

  (4)在称呼语、学科名称、球类运动、棋类游戏等名词前不用冠词。

  Tom is playing chess with his friend Mike happily while his sister is studying physics.

  汤姆正在和他的朋友迈克高兴地下国际象棋,而他的姐姐在学习物理。

  (5)表示独一无二的头衔、职务名词作表语、同位语或补足语时,一般不加冠词。常用的名词有king, president, chairman, monitor, head等。

  Dr. Peter Spence, headmaster of the school, told us, “A fifth of pupils here go on to study at Oxford and Cambridge.”

  这所学校的校长Peter Spence博士告诉我们:“五分之一的学生将继续到牛津或剑桥大学深造。”

  2.零冠词的活用

  (1)系动词turn(变成)后的单数名词作表语不用冠词。

  His brother has turned writer, which surprises me a lot.

  他弟弟已成为一名作家,这令我很吃惊。

  (2)“零冠词+单数名词+as/though+主语+谓语”意为“尽管……但是……”。

  Hero as he is, he has some shortcomings.

  尽管他是个英雄,但是他也有一些缺点。

  (3)用在“名词+介词短语”的独立主格结构中。

  The teacher came in, book in hand.

  老师手里拿着一本书走了进来。

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)The adobe dwellings (土坯房) built by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even the most modern of architects and engineers.

  2.(2015·广东高考语法填空) Mr. Johnson lived in the woods with his wife and children. He owned a farm, which looked almost abandoned.

  3.(2015·重庆高考单选)I just heard the bank where Dora works was robbed by a gunman wearing a mask.

  4.(2015·四川高考单选)Brian is gifted in writing music; he is very likely to be a Beethoven.

  5.(2015·浙江高考单选)Jane's grandmother had wanted to write a children's book for many years, but one thing or another always got in the way.

  6.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)Now, years later, this river is one of the most outstanding examples of environmental cleanup.

  7.(2014·广东高考语法填空)She apologized for the mistake and gave us a spare VIP room on the top floor.

  8.(2014·浙江高考单选)The paper is due next month, and I am working seven days a week, often long into the night.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)Now I am living in a city, but I miss my home in countryside.countryside前加the

  2.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)When I was a child, I hoped to live in the city.the_→a

  3.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)A woman saw him crying and told him to wait outside a shop.a→the

  4.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)As result, the plants are growing everywhere.As后加a

  5.(2014·辽宁高考短文改错)Cleo tends to bark a average of six hours a day.第一个a→an

  6.(2014·陕西高考短文改错)That day I didn't learn much about animals, insects or trees, but I learnt a impressive lesson about gravity!a→an

  7.After about half a hour, the rain stopped and I went home.a→an

  8.What happened just now shows a knowledge of first aid can make real difference in an emergency.make后加a

  9.Here is a very person we are looking for, one with a good knowledge of German.第一个a→the

  10.She was born in 1974 and has played piano since the age of six.played后加the

  对点集训即时巩固·提升知能

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2016·东北三省四市第一次联合考试)Mr. Li has some trouble sleeping, so drinking a glass of milk before going to bed every night is his common practice (practical).

  2.(2016·厦门质检)—We've been destroying lots of forests every year.

  —What a shame!We'll be the victims (victim) of our own foolish behavior.

  3.(2016·吉林省实验中学高三二模)The police are trying to find out the identity (identify) of the woman murdered in the bathroom.

  4.If you want to improve your working efficiency, it will be a must for you to make the most of your time.

  5.(2016·兰州一诊)—Well, that is one of the most expensive hotels in town, I'm afraid.

  —Do you mean we'd better choose a cheaper one?

  6.We Chinese have a dream — a dream to turn a well­off life into a reality by 2020.

  7.It is a great pleasure for me to give a speech on the nature of human beings.

  8.The viewers will have a second chance to watch The Voice of China on Channel 4 tonight.

  9.(2016·邢台质量检测)—Making a lecture in public is the last thing I want to do.

  —Just have a try. I am sure you can make it.

  10.The young boss couldn't remember when the story happened exactly, but it might be a winter morning when he was in London.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.I am Li Hua. This is my last year of high school, and I'll graduate this summer. I'm eighteen year old.第二个year→years

  2.If you go to the party, it is polite to arrive on time. It is good manners to shake hand with your host. hand→hands

  3.Finally we climbed Mount Hua. It is very high and steep. We had to be careful in case we might fall off the cliff. It took us six hour to get to the summit. hour→hours

  4.In our country, every child has the chance to receive an education.去掉an

  5.I have visited many cities since the September 2006.去掉the

  6.(2016·合肥质检)We all know that the man is the most developed animal in the world.去掉第一个the

  7.(2016·河北省毕业班质检)I'm cheerful boy.Besides my courses, I have many hobbies, like playing football, playing basketball and swimming.cheerful前加a

  8.(2016·山西省高考考前质量检测)There I saw a guitar player playing guitar, which I really enjoyed.第二个guitar前加the_

  9.He would greet us in a tree outside our bedroom, calling “hello” as we lay in bed in the morning.a→the

  10.Simply email or message a introduction with your name and a few hobbies.第一个a→an

  Ⅲ.语法填空

  (2016·河南省普通高中高考适应性测试)Once, in a lovely garden, lived 1.the most beautiful butterfly in the world. She was so pretty, and had won so many beauty 2.contests (contest) that she had become very proud. One day, the naughty cockroach (蟑螂) got fed up with her showing off, and decided to teach her 3.a lesson.

  She went to see the butterfly, and in front of everyone she said that 4.the butterfly wasn't really that beautiful, and that the butterfly only won the 5.competitions (compete) because the judges had been paid. In 6.reality (real), the cockroach was the most beautiful.

  The butterfly was angry and said to the cockroach, “I will beat you in 7.a beauty contest, with whichever judges you yourself choose.”

  “OK, I accept. See you on Saturday,” answered the cockroach, and left without waiting for 8.a reply.

  That Saturday everyone went to 9.the beauty contest. The butterfly arrived completely confident of victory until she saw who the judges were: cockroaches, worms, beetles. All of them preferred the ugliness and bad smell of the cockroach.

  The butterfly left sobbing and disappointed, wanting never to enter another beauty contest in her life. Fortunately, the cockroach forgave the butterfly for her 10.pride (proud) and they became friends.


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