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高考英语语法专项练习之时态和语态

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2021年01月19日

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  我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高考英语语法专项练习之时态和语态的资料,希望对你有所帮助。

  

 

  [深化认知]

  一、一般时

  1.一般现在时

  (1)表示现在的情况、状态及经常性、习惯性或不按照时间的变化而发生变化的动作。

  (2013·湖南高考单选)Around two o'clock every night, Sue will start talking in her dream. It somewhat bothers us.

  每天晚上两点左右,苏就说梦话。这使我们有点烦心。

  (2)表示客观真理或科学事实。

  The geography teacher told us the earth travels around the sun.

  地理老师告诉我们地球绕着太阳转。

  (3)用在时间、条件或让步状语从句中以及谈论按计划或时间表安排的活动时要用一般现在时表示将来。

  I will discuss this with you when we meet next time.

  下次见面时咱们再讨论这个问题。

  The flight takes off at 2:30 every Wednesday and Friday.

  航班每个星期三、星期五2:30起飞。

  (4)在某些以here, there开头的句子中,用一般现在时表示正在发生的动作。

  Here come the rest of the guests!

  其余的客人来了!

  2.一般过去时

  (1)表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态。

  At that time, he worked as a teacher to support the family.

  那段时间他靠教书养家。

  (2)表示过去某一段时间内反复发生的动作或存在的状态。

  During his middle school years, he played football nearly every day.

  他在中学时代几乎天天踢足球。

  (3)在时间、条件、方式、让步等状语从句中,表示过去将来的动作。

  They said they would inform me if they heard any news about him.

  他们说如果听到任何关于他的消息,就通知我。

  3.一般将来时

  (1)一般将来时表示将要发生的动作或存在的状态,或在现在看来即将发生的动作或存在的状态,常与时间状语tomorrow, next week, in a few days等连用。

  He will travel around Europe this summer.

  今年夏天他将环游欧洲。

  (2)“祈使句+and/or+陈述句”句型中,陈述句常用一般将来时。

  Close the door of fear behind you, and you will see the door of faith open before you.

  关上你身后的恐惧之门,你将会发现信心之门在你面前敞开。

  (3)非延续性动词,如go, come, leave, die等的现在进行时也可表示将要发生的动作。

  “The moment is coming soon,” he thought to himself, waiting nervously.

  “这一刻就要来到了,”他自思自忖,紧张地等待着。

  (4)表示临时决定用will。

  —Do you know Mr. Smith has come to our town?

  —No, I will go and visit him right now.

  ——你知道史密斯先生来我们镇了吗?

  ——不知道。我现在就去看他。

  (5)be going to+动词原形

  ①表示打算、计划、决定要做的事或肯定要发生的事。

  The two managers are going to meet each other to settle the problems between the two companies.

  这两位经理打算见面来解决这两家公司的问题。

  ②表示说话人根据已有的事实或迹象,认为某事即将发生、肯定会发生或可能发生。

  Look at the dark clouds. It is going to rain.

  看这些乌云,要下雨了。

  [名师指津] be going to表将来,不能用在条件状语从句的主句中,而will能,表意愿。

  If it is fine, we'll go fishing. (√)

  If it is fine, we are going to go fishing.(×)

  (6)be about to+动词原形

  “be about to+动词原形”表示打算或根据安排即将发生的动作。它不与表示时间的副词或其他时间状语连用。

  Don't go out now. The train is about to start.

  现在不要出去了,火车就要开了。

  (7)be to+动词原形

  “be to+动词原形”表示约定的、计划中的或按职责、义务要求要发生的动作,这种动作通常是人的意志所能控制的,或用于征求意见。

  The Queen is to visit Japan in a week's time.

  女王将于一周后访问日本。

  If a man is to succeed, he must work as hard as he can.

  一个人要想成功,就必须拼命工作。

  二、进行时

  1.现在进行时

  (1)表示正在进行的动作或存在的状态,还可表示现阶段一直在进行的动作。

  (2013·四川高考单选)Hurry up, kids! The school bus is waiting for us!

  孩子们,快点!校车在等我们!

  People are phoning to ask how I am going to spend the money after I win the big prize.

  我获得大奖后,人们一直打电话问我怎么花这笔钱。

  (2)常与always, constantly, continually, forever (for ever) 等副词连用,表达说话者生气、赞扬、同情、不满、惊讶等感情色彩。

  Why are you always coming late for work?You are close to being suspended.(不满、批评)

  你怎么上班总是迟到?你快被停职了。

  2.过去进行时

  (1)表示在过去某一时刻正在进行的动作。

  At that moment, we were having dinner together.

  那个时候,我们正在一起吃晚饭。

  (2)表示在过去某一段时间内一直在进行的动作,但谈话时动作未必正在进行。

  I was living in the school's dormitory when I was in middle school.

  我上高中时一直住在学校的宿舍里。

  (3)与always, constantly, continually, forever等副词连用表示赞美或讨厌的感情色彩。

  The manager who was always thinking of his employees was respected by the employees.(赞扬)

  那位总是为员工考虑的经理受到了员工的尊重。

  The little boy was continually asking his brother the same question, which made his brother bored.(厌烦)

  这个小男孩总是问他哥哥同一个问题,这让他哥哥厌烦。

  (4)动词plan, expect, come, go, leave等的过去进行时表示过去将要发生的动作。

  She told me that she was leaving for Italy the next day.

  她告诉我她第二天就出发去意大利。

  3.将来进行时

  将来进行时强调将来某一时刻或某一段时间内正在进行的动作。

  I'll be flying to Beijing at two o'clock this afternoon.

  今天下午两点钟我将飞往北京。

  三、完成时

  1.现在完成时

  (1)现在完成时表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态一直延续到现在,表示动作已经完成。常与以下时间状语连用:already, yet, just, since, so far, recently, lately, up to now, until/till now, in the last/past few years。

  In the past few years, great changes have taken place in my hometown.

  在过去的几年里,我的家乡发生了巨大变化。

  (2)在条件、时间或让步状语从句中,表示将来某时之前已完成的动作。

  He will be back before I have finished my work.

  我完成工作之前他会回来的。

  (3)下列情况下常用现在完成时:

  ①It is/has been+一段时间+since从句

  ②This/That/It is the first/second/... time that+现在完成时

  ③It/This is the best/worst/most interesting等+名词+从句+现在完成时

  It is twenty years since I've seen her.

  我已经二十年没见她了。

  This is the first time that we have seen a film in the cinema as a family.

  这是我们全家第一次到电影院看电影。

  This is the most interesting book I have ever read.

  这是我所读过的最有趣的一本书。

  2.过去完成时

  (1)表示在过去某一时刻或动作之前已完成的动作,即“过去的过去”;或延续至过去某一时间的动作。

  The train had left when I got to the station.

  我到车站时火车已经离开了。

  By then he had learned English for three years.

  到那时,他已经学了三年英语了。

  (2)表示本打算做但事实上并未做成某事。常见的有此用法的动词有:hope, want, mean, suppose, intend, plan, think, expect等。

  I had meant to help you, but I was too busy at that moment.

  我本打算帮你的,但当时我太忙了。

  (3)在“no sooner ... than ...”或“hardly/scarcely ... when ...”结构中,主句的谓语动词用过去完成时。

  Hardly had I got home when the rain poured down.

  我刚到家,大雨就倾盆而下。

  (4)It/That/This was the first/second ... time+that从句,that从句的谓语动词要用过去完成时。

  That was the first time that I had passed the exam.

  那是我第一次考试及格。

  (5)It was/had been+一段时间+since从句,since从句的谓语动词用过去完成时。

  It was ten years since we had had such a wonderful time.

  我们有10年没那么高兴过了。

  3.将来完成时

  主要表示某一动作到将来某个时间完成,上下文情景中常含有by短语,如by six o'clock, by the weekend, by the end of next month等。

  We shall have finished the project by the end of this year.

  我们将在今年年底完成这项工程。

  4.现在完成进行时

  现在完成进行时强调过去发生的动作或存在的状态一直延续到现在或离现在不远的时间,并且还在进行。

  I have been painting the door all the morning.

  我一上午都在漆门。

  四、动词的被动语态

  1.被动语态的构成

  被动语态由“助动词be+过去分词”构成。助动词be随着主语的人称、数、时态和语气的不同而变化。被动语态的各种时态形式见下表:

  时体   现在 过去 将来 过去将来 一般式 is/am/ are done was/were done will/shall be done would/ should be done 进行式 is/am/are being done was/were being done - - 完成式 have/has been done had been done will/shall have been done would/ should have been done I was deeply impressed by Jimmy's good behaviors.

  吉米的良好举止给我留下了深刻的印象。

  This programme has been broadcast by the local radio station many times.

  这个节目被当地电台播放了多次。

  [名师指津] (1)只有带有宾语的及物动词才有被动语态;(2)被动语态的否定式是在其构成形式中的第一个助动词后加not。

  The window is dirty because it hasn't been cleaned for weeks.

  玻璃很脏,因为好几个星期没有擦洗了。

  2.被动语态解题五注意

  (1)注意不同时态的被动语态:被动语态是由“be+过去分词”构成的,其中的助动词 be 根据情况可使用各种不同时态。

  (2)注意动词短语的被动语态:动词短语是不可分割的整体,变为被动语态时不能省略后面的介词和副词。

  The old man was often laughed at.

  那位老人常被人嘲笑。

  (3)注意双宾语的被动语态:有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语动词后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

  The winner was given a gold medal with a picture of football on it.

  获胜者被授予一个带有足球图案的金牌。

  (4)注意复合宾语的被动语态:当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余部分不动。使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词等后跟省略to的不定式作宾语补足语时,其被动结构要加to。

  Peter doesn't have to be made to work hard.

  你没有必要逼迫彼得努力学习。

  (5)注意主动形式表示被动意义的情况:

  ①表示主语的某种属性特征的词:clean, drive, lock, open, sell, read, write, wash等,常用其主动形式表示被动意义,且主语通常是物。

  His books sell well, so they are sold out soon.

  他的书很畅销,因此很快就卖光了。

  ②在need (需要), want (需要), require (需要), bear等词的后面常跟动名词,以主动形式表示被动意义,其含义相当于动词不定式的被动形式。

  I had my mobilephone repaired two days ago, but it needs repairing/to be repaired again now.

  我两天前修理了我的手机,但现在还需要再修理。

  ③某些连系动词,如smell, taste, feel, sound, prove等,可用主动形式表示被动意义。

  This shirt feels much softer than that one.

  这件衬衫摸起来比那件衬衫柔软得多。

  The fish tastes delicious.

  这鱼尝起来味道好极了。

  She proves very patient and warm­hearted.

  她被证明既很耐心又很热心。

  ④表示开始、结束或运动的动词,如begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, shut, run, move等。

  The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day.

  这家商店每天下午6点关门。

  The football season finishes in May.

  足球赛季在5月份结束。

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)It was raining slightly when I arrived (arrive) in Yangshuo just before dawn.

  2.(2015·广东高考语法填空)He sold or exchanged some of the milk in the towns nearby for other food and made cheese and butter for the family with what was_left (leave).

  3.(2015·北京高考单选)In the last few years, China has_made (make) great achievements in environmental protection.

  4.(2015·北京高考单选)—Dr. Jackson is not in his office at the moment.

  —All right. I will_call (call) him later.

  5.(2015·天津高考单选)Despite the previous rounds of talks, no agreement has_been_reached (reach) so far by the two sides.

  6.(2015·天津高考单选)Jane can't attend the meeting at 3 o'clock this afternoon because she will_be_teaching (teach) a class at that time.

  7.(2015·陕西高考单选)Marty has_been_working (work) really hard on his book and he thinks he'll have finished it by Friday.

  8.(2015·湖南高考单选)He must have sensed that I was_looking (look) at him. He suddenly glanced at me and said quietly, “Why are you staring at me like that?”

  9.(2015·四川高考单选)More expressways will_be_built (build) in Sichuan soon to promote the local economy.

  10.(2014·大纲卷单选)Unless some extra money is_found (find), the theatre will close.

  11.(2014·北京高考单选)—Hi, let's go skating.

  —Sorry, I'm busy right now. I am_filling (fill) in an application form for a new job.

  12.(2014·安徽高考单选)The twins, who had_finished (finish) their homework, were allowed to play badminton on the playground.

  13.(2014·山东高考单选)They made up their mind that they would_buy (buy) a new house once Larry changed jobs.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2015·四川高考短文改错)As I tell you last time, I made three new friends here.tell→told

  2.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ短文改错)Since then — for all these years — we had been allowing tomatoes to self­seed where they please.had→have

  3.(2014·浙江高考短文改错)Before long, a train inspector comes to check our tickets. comes→came

  4.(2014·辽宁高考短文改错)Besides, Cleo tends to bark an average of six hours a day. This morning she starts barking even before 5 o'clock.starts→started

  5.It's reported that many people died of traffic accidents each year.died→die

  6.She was so interested in the book that she read it for three hours before she realized it.read前加had

  7.When I saw her smiling face, I knew she is writing good news to her daughter.is→was

  8.Remember to send me a photo of us next time you will write to me.去掉will

  9.I want to buy that kind of cloth because the cloth is washed well.is_washed→washes

  10.I need a cell phone to keep in touch with my friends and family, and almost all information can gather on the Internet.gather→be_gathered

  对点集训即时巩固·提升知能

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2016·河北高三联考)—Have you moved into your new house?

  —Not yet.It is_being_painted (paint) at present.

  2.—The constant noise around here is_driving (drive) me crazy!

  —Calm down.It's no use complaining.

  3.(2016·宁夏质检)In order to get good marks in the coming exam, my son has_been_studying (study) late every night in the past three weeks.

  4.China has_seen (see) a sharp increase in the number of aged people over the past decade.

  5.The project will_contribute (contribute) to developing the economy and reducing poverty when it is completed.

  6.—That must have been a terrible experience.

  —Yeah.I was_stuck (stick) in the damaged car, unable to move.

  7.(2016·石家庄高三适应性测试)—I thought you were_leaving (leave) for vacation tomorrow.

  —I had planned to, but I have a very important meeting to attend tomorrow.

  8.(2016·东北三省联考)—I'll be down in two minutes!

  —OK.I'll wait until you are (be) ready.

  9.—Can I come over in an hour?

  —Sorry, I will_be_cleaning (clean) the house.

  10.It is reported that his new book will_be_published (publish) by that company next year.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2016·贵阳模拟)Today, my foreign teacher Tim and I went to the People's Park together. We take a taxi and it wasn't long before we arrived at the park. take→took

  2.Last summer I went to Xi'an with my parents. We had visited many places of interest though the temperature was over 38 ℃. 去掉had

  3.When you invited, it is good manners to refuse or accept the invitation, either by writing or by telephoning.invited前加are

  4.In the past two and a half years, our school had organized many activities. had→has

  5.(2016·银川适应性考试)One day I saw an advertisement in a local newspaper. I ring up the company, and I was given the job immediately. ring→rang

  6.First of all, allow me to introduce myself. I had just graduated from senior high school and taken the College Entrance Examination. had→have

  7.We have sometimes accidents on this line, but no accidents have been occurred since last winter.去掉been

  8.When it was my turn, I felt so shy that I don't dare to say anything before the class. don't→didn't

  9.(2016·哈尔滨模拟)Last summer I went to London for a holiday.I spend just a week there.spend→spent

  10.Yesterday I suspected of stealing something, which made me feel extremely terrible.suspected前加was

  Ⅲ.语法填空

  (2016·河北省七校联考)What do people do with their old, out of date but still useful computers? Most people don't know 1.what to do with them. Many old computers are put away in homes. Many more 2.are_thrown (throw) away as rubbish.

  Finally, some companies are thinking of ways to bring down the number of old computers. Sony 3.has_agreed (agree)to help recycle old Sony products. Dell, Hewlett Packard and other 4.companies (company) now also take back some old computers.

  In some countries, laws have been passed, too. Computer companies have to pay for collecting and 5.recycling (recycle) their used products. And 70% of computer waste must be recycled. The idea behind the laws 6.is (be) that computer companies themselves should pay for the cost. That 7.will_encourage (encourage) them to make computers 8.easier (easy) to repair and upgrade (升级).

  Yet while many people are throwing away good computers, others cannot afford them at all. Hundreds of organizations are working to solve this problem. They collect and repair old computers. Some also teach others how to repair computers. 9.The/Those computers then go to schools, charities (慈善团体) and people who need them. Giving a used computer to one of these organizations can turn one person's rubbish 10.into someone else's useful things and cut down waste, too.


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