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高考英语语法专项练习之非谓语动词

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2021年01月19日

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  我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高考英语语法专项练习之非谓语动词的资料,希望对你有所帮助。

  

 

  [深化认知]

  一、非谓语动词作状语

  1.不定式作状语

  (1)动词不定式可以用作目的状语。注意其他非谓语动词形式不能用作目的状语。

  To succeed, one must first of all believe in himself.

  要想成功,首先必须相信自己。

  (2)only to do sth.为不定式作结果状语,表示出乎意料的结果。

  We hurried to the station, only to be told that the train had left.

  我们急匆匆赶到车站,结果被告知火车已开走了。

  (3)形容词或过去分词作表语时,后面可接不定式作原因状语。常见的形容词有:happy, lucky, glad, sorry, anxious, proud, disappointed, angry, surprised, ready, delighted, clever, foolish, pleased, fortunate, right等。

  You will never know how happy I was to see her yesterday.

  你永远不会知道昨天看到她时,我是多么高兴。

  (4)在“主语+系动词+表语(形容词)+to do”结构中,不定式的主动形式表示被动意义。该结构中常用的形容词有:easy, hard, difficult, important, impossible, interesting, pleasant, nice, comfortable, safe, dangerous等。

  The chair looks rather hard, but in fact it is very comfortable to sit on.

  这把椅子看上去很硬,但实际上坐上去很舒服。

  2.分词作状语

  (1)作状语的分词要求其逻辑主语与句子的主语保持一致。

  One evening Harry phoned me, asking me to come to his flat as soon as possible.

  一天晚上哈里给我打电话,要求我尽快去他家。

  (2)若句子的主语是分词动作的发出者,就用现在分词形式(doing)。

  Not knowing his address, I can't call on him in person.

  由于不知道他的地址,我无法亲自去拜访他。

  (3)若句子的主语是分词动作的承受者,则要用过去分词(done)。

  Seen from the top of the mountain, the city is very beautiful.

  从山顶上看,这座城市很漂亮。

  (4)若现在分词的动作发生在谓语动词所表示的动作之前,则用现在分词的完成形式(having done)。

  Having lived in New York for years, I know each part of it very well.

  由于住在纽约多年,我对这里的每一处都很熟悉。

  (5)若与句中主语之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,且先于谓语动词动作发生,用现在分词完成式的被动形式(having been done)。

  Having been ignored for a long time, the boy sitting at the back felt bored and went out.

  因长时间被忽视,坐在后面的男孩感到枯燥就出去了。

  3.独立成分作状语

  有些分词或不定式短语作状语,其形式的选择不受上下文的影响,称作独立成分。常见的有:

  generally speaking       一般来说

  frankly speaking 坦白地说

  judging from/by 根据……来判断

  considering .../taking ...into consideration考虑到……

  to tell you the truth 说实话

  seeing 鉴于/由于……

  supposing 假设,如果

  assuming 假使

  given 考虑到,鉴于

  provided (that ...) 如果

  Generally speaking, the family, not the school, plays the primary role in educating children for life.

  一般来讲,在孩子的终生教育中起着主要作用的是家庭而不是学校。

  Considering your health, you'd better have a rest.

  考虑到你的健康,你最好休息一下。

  二、非谓语动词作宾语

  1.下列动词只能用不定式作宾语,请牢记下面的口诀:

  决心学会想希望,    拒绝设法愿假装。

  主动答应选计划,    同意请求帮一帮。 decide/determine, learn, want (想), expect/hope/wish; refuse, manage, care (希望,想要), pretend; offer, promise, choose, plan; agree, ask/beg, help。 此外,afford, strive, happen, wait, threaten等也要用不定式作宾语。

  She pretended not to see me when I passed by.

  当我经过时,她假装没看见我。

  2.下列动词或词组只能用动名词作宾语,请牢记下面的口诀:

  考虑建议盼原谅,   承认推迟没得想。

  避免错过继续练,   否认完成就欣赏。

  禁止想象才冒险,   不禁介意准逃亡。 consider, suggest/advise, look forward to, excuse/pardon; admit, delay/put off, fancy (想象,设想); avoid, miss, keep/keep on, practice; deny, finish, enjoy/appreciate; forbid, imagine, risk; can't help (禁不住), mind, allow/permit, escape。 The young man admitted having driven the car without insurance.

  这个年轻人承认驾驶了这辆没有保险的轿车。

  3.be used/accustomed to, lead to, devote to, stick to, object to, get down to, pay attention to, can't stand (无法忍受), give up, feel like, insist on, apologize for, be busy (in), have difficulty/trouble (in), have a good/wonderful/hard time (in), spend (in)等短语后也要用动名词作宾语。

  Parents should pay more attention to the cases where their children have difficulty (in) adapting to new surroundings.

  当孩子们对新环境不适应时,父母们应多加关注。

  4.下列动词或词组既可以接动名词作宾语,也可以接不定式作宾语,但意义上有区别:

  mean

  forget

  regret

  try

  go on

  remember

  What a poor memory!I forgot borrowing money from him yesterday.But today I forgot to return the money to him.

  多么差的记忆力!昨天我忘了向他借过钱,但今天我又忘了把钱还给他。

  三、非谓语动词作宾补

  1.感官动词(词组)see, watch, observe, look at, notice, hear, listen to, feel的宾语补足语有四种形式,以see为例:

  I looked up and noticed a snake winding its way up the tree to catch its breakfast.

  我抬头看,注意到一条蛇正沿树蜿蜒而上,捕捉它的早餐。

  2.使役动词make, let, have, get后加复合宾语的情况:

  (1)make+宾语+

  She tried her best to make herself heard.

  她尽最大努力让自己被别人听见。

  (2)let+宾语+

  Let those in need understand that we will go all out to help them.

  让那些需要(帮助)的人明白我们会尽全力去帮他们。

  He had the light burning all night, which made his parents very angry.

  他让灯亮了整晚,这使他父母很生气。

  [名师指津] have 还可用于have sth.to do/to be done结构,该结构中have作“有”讲,不定式作定语。

  I have a lot of readings to complete before the end of this term.

  这个学期结束前,我有很多阅读要完成。

  Alexander tried to get his work recognized in the medical circles.

  亚历山大试图使他的工作被医学界认可。

  四、非谓语动词作定语

  1.现在分词(短语)作定语与所修饰的名词之间存在着主动关系,表示该动作的主动和进行。

  Laura was away in Paris for over a week.When she got home, there was a pile of mail waiting for her.

  劳拉去巴黎待了一周多的时间。当她返回家的时候,有一大堆邮件等着她(处理)。

  2.过去分词(短语)作定语与它所修饰的名词之间是被动关系,表示该动作的被动和完成。

  Tsinghua University, founded in 1911, is home to a great number of outstanding figures.

  建于1911年的清华大学是无数杰出人物的摇篮。

  3.不定式作定语表示未做的事情。

  His first book to be published next month is based on a true story.

  他下个月将要出版的第一本书是以一个真实的故事为依据写的。

  五、非谓语动词作主语和表语

  1.动词不定式作主语

  不定式作主语时常用it作形式主语,而把真正的主语,即动词不定式,放到句子的后面。

  It's necessary to hold another meeting to discuss the issue again.

  有必要再举行一次会议来讨论这个问题。

  [名师指津] 在“It is/was+adj.+for/of sb. to do sth.”结构中:若形容词侧重于评价人物的特性、特征,则构成不定式复合结构的介词应用of,此时形容词常为kind, nice, foolish等词,且sb.与形容词之间可构成逻辑上的系表关系;若形容词侧重于描写不定式动作的特征、特点,则构成不定式复合结构的介词应用for。

  It was silly of you to trust such a man.

  你太愚蠢竟然相信这样一个人。

  It won't be easy for you to find a new job.

  找一份新工作对你来说不容易。

  2.动名词作主语

  下列句型中常用动名词作主语:

  (1)It is/was a waste (of ...)/no use/no good doing sth.

  It is no good coming before that.

  在那之前来没有用。

  (2)There is/was no sense/no point (in) doing sth.

  There is no sense (in) worrying about it now.

  现在大可不必为那件事忧虑。

  3.不定式与动名词作表语

  不定式表示某一次具体的、特定的或有待实现的动作,而动名词表示通常的情况。

  Your task today is to wash the curtains.

  你今天的任务是洗窗帘。

  The doctor's job is healing the wounded and rescuing the dying.

  医生的工作是救死扶伤。

  4.分词作表语

  表示事物的特征或性质时,表语用现在分词;表示人的内心感受时,表语用过去分词。

  The frightened look on her face suggested that she was frightened by the frightening scene.

  她脸上惊恐的表情表明她被这个惊恐的场面吓坏了。

  六、with复合结构

  with+

  With so many people looking at him, he felt very nervous.

  那么多人看着他,他感到很紧张。

  With the problem solved, the quality has been improved.

  问题解决了,质量也提高了。

  With so much work to do, I can't go swimming with you.

  有那么多工作要做,我不能和你一起去游泳。

  七、独立主格结构

  名词或代词+

  So many children to support, they both have to work full time.

  有这么多孩子要养,他们俩不得不全日工作。

  The guide leading the way, we had no trouble getting out of the forest.

  向导领着路,我们毫不费劲地走出了森林。

  Jim was listening attentively to the lecture, all his attention fixed upon it.

  吉姆专心致志地听着讲座,所有注意力都集中在上面了。

  He came out of the library, (with) a large book under his arm.

  他夹着一大本书,走出了图书馆。

  [名师指津] 独立主格结构从语法上来讲不是句子,在句中通常作状语。具有以下特点:(1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,不是同一个人或同一事物;(2)独立主格结构一般置于句首,有时也置于句中或句末。

  八、非谓语动词的时态和语态

  1.动词不定式的时态和语态

  形式 意义 构成 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 与句子谓语动词的动作同时发生或在谓语动词的动作之后发生 to do to be

  done 进行式 在谓语动词的动作发生时正在进行 to be

  doing - 完成式 在谓语动词的动作之前发生 to have

  done to have

  been done 完成

  进行式 发生在谓语动词的动作之前并且持续到谓语动词的动作发生时仍在进行 to have

  been doing - The boy pretended to be studying hard when his teacher came in.

  当老师进来的时候,那个男孩假装正在努力学习。

  The meeting to be held tomorrow is of great importance.

  明天要举行的会议很重要。

  2.动名词和现在分词的时态和语态

  形式 意义 主动语态 被动语态 一般式 与谓语动词的动作同时或稍后发生 doing being done 完成式 先于谓语动词的动作完成 having done having been

  done I still remember being sent to school for the first time.

  我仍记得第一次被送到学校上学的情景。

  Having been told many times, he still repeated the same mistake.

  虽然被告诉过好多次了,但他仍然重复犯同样的错误。

  Having finished the letter, he folded it and put it into the envelope.

  他写完信后,把信折起来装进了信封。

  3.非谓语动词的主动语态表示被动意义

  (1)不定式作表语形容词的状语,和句子的主语之间构成逻辑上的动宾关系时,不定式用主动形式表示被动意义。

  How did the accident happen was difficult to find out because there were few people on the street at that time.

  很难查明这起事故是如何发生的,因为那时街上几乎没人。

  (2)动词need, want, require作“需要”讲时,后跟动名词的主动形式表示被动意义,也可跟不定式的被动结构;be worth后也用动名词的主动形式表示被动意义。

  The figures need to be checked/checking again before we draw a conclusion.

  在我们得出结论前,这些数据需要再检查一遍。

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)Abercrombie & Kent, a travel company in Hong Kong, says it regularly arranges quick getaways here for people living (live) in Shanghai and Hong Kong.

  2.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)The adobe dwellings (土坯房) built (build) by the Pueblo Indians of the American Southwest are admired by even the most modern of architects and engineers.

  3.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)In addition to their simple beauty, what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their ability to “air condition” a house without using (use) electric equipment.

  4.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)When a new day breaks, the walls have given up their heat and are now cold enough to_cool (cool) the house during the hot day.

  5.(2015·广东高考语法填空)Since the plants took a while to grow, he started cutting down trees to_sell (sell) the wood.

  6.(2015·北京高考单选)The park was full of people, enjoying (enjoy) themselves in the sunshine.

  7.(2015·天津高考单选)Absorbed (absorb) in painting, John didn't notice evening approaching.

  8.(2015·天津高考单选)Having_worked (work) for two days, Steve managed to finish his report on schedule.

  9.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)It took years of work to_reduce (reduce) the industrial pollution and clean the water.

  10.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver, but he refused to_stop (stop) until we reached the next stop.

  11.(2014·全国卷Ⅱ语法填空)One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about being (be) late for school.

  12.(2014·辽宁高考语法填空)Keep holding (hold) your position for a while.

  13.(2014·广东高考语法填空)We got a little sunburned/sunburnt (sunburn), but the day had been so relaxing that we didn't mind.

  14.(2014·北京高考单选)There are still many problems to_be_solved (solve) before we are ready for a long stay on the Moon.

  15.(2015·陕西高考单选)Back from his two­year medical service in Africa, Dr. Lee was very happy to see his mother taken (take) good care of at home.

  16.(2014·湖南高考单选)Understanding (understand) your own needs and styles of communication is as important as learning to convey your affection and emotions.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)A woman saw him crying and telling him to wait outside the shop.telling→told

  2.(2015·全国卷Ⅱ短文改错)After looks at the toy for some time, he turned around and found his parents were missing.looks→looking

  3.(2015·陕西高考短文改错)My favorite picture at the party is of my coach and me enjoy the biscuits with happy laughter!enjoy→enjoying

  4.(2015·四川高考短文改错)We've been spending a lot of time sing in karaoke bars.sing→singing

  5.(2015·浙江高考短文改错)I enjoyed sit close to the windows and looking at the view.sit→sitting

  6.(2014·辽宁高考短文改错)Although we've been delighted to have you as neighbors, we're hoping to settle something that bothers to us. In a word, your dog — Cleo.去掉bothers后的to

  7.(2014·辽宁高考短文改错)It is difficult to understanding why she barks every minute she's outside.understanding→understand

  8.(2014·四川高考短文改错)Stay close to your teacher and classmates. Don't panic or get out of line, and trying to remain quiet and calm.trying→try

  9.(2014·陕西高考短文改错)My father took me out camping for the first time when I was seven. He wanted teach me about animals, insects and trees.wanted后加to

  10.(2014·陕西高考短文改错) None of the arrows hit the target.Suddenly the arrows were flying down at us from the sky — they were looked like rain!去掉第二个were或looked

  对点集训即时巩固·提升知能Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.To_save (save) energy, we turn off the lights for Earth Hour on the last Saturday in March.

  2.(2016·郑州模拟)An explosion happened in the mine, leaving (leave) twenty­two miners trapped.

  3.I have learned a lot about Asian customs, having_lived (live) in the small village for three years in the early 1990s.

  4.Pleased (please) with the effect of the color change, the woman smiled with satisfaction.

  5.(2016·唐山综合练习)The houses for the low­income families being_built (build) at present in our city will be completed next year.

  6.(2016·邯郸模拟)—Can those seated (seat) at the back of the classroom hear me?

  —No problem, sir!

  7.—How did you know the surprising news?

  —I happened to_be_covering (cover) the event then.

  8.The witnesses questioned (question) by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the fight.

  9.Not knowing (know) which university to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice.

  10.(2016·济南质检)All the tickets sold (sell) when they arrived, they went away, disappointed.

  11.The airport to_be_completed (complete) next year will help promote tourism in this area.

  12.At the party, the pretty girl wore a very attractive skirt to make herself noticed (notice).

  13.Being_surrounded (surround) by beautiful green mountains and located at the foot of Mount Lu makes it a famous tourist attraction.

  14.(2016·石家庄模拟)With several problems remaining (remain) to be solved, we still needed to hold another meeting as soon as possible.

  15.Disappointed (disappoint) at the way he had been treated in the hotel, John complained to the manager.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2016·长春诊断)He became my first guitar teacher. It took me such a long time choose a guitar among several wonderful models.choose前加to

  2.In the night we stayed in a cave hotel.I couldn't do anything but to sleep.去掉to

  3.When I was a child, I spent more than ten years learn the violin.learn→learning

  4.Comparing with other jobs, teaching is harder and the pay is lower.Comparing→Compared

  5.The man did as told and slept really well, wake up before the alarm had even gone off.wake→waking

  6.At the beginning, I always kept silent in oral class to avoid make mistakes.make→making

  7.After divided into three groups, we started to work.After后加being

  8.(2016·宁夏质检)He is such a learning person that we all admire him very much.learning→learned

  9.Classes teaching in English provide students with a better environment.teaching→taught

  10.In fact, I once won the first prize in the English speech competition hold in our school.hold→held

  Ⅲ.语法填空

  (2016·河南重点中学盟校联考)The local elementary school had just let out and I found myself behind a school bus as I was driving home. The bus stopped by a house 1.standing (stand) on top of a hill. A little girl no more than seven years old jumped down the bus steps and 2.started (start) running up the driveway toward the house.

  I looked up the hill to see where she was going and saw her Dad 3.waiting (wait) for her. As she got closer and

  closer her Dad smiled and bent down 4.to_greet (greet) her. When she got to him, he folded her in his powerful arms and gave her a huge hug.

  My eyes watered a bit as I watched this scene and remembered all the times 5.when_ my own children had run into my arms with 6.smiling (smile) faces. Every single hug from them 7.was (be) a fountain of youth and a treasure of joy.

  My lovely trip down memory lane was interrupted when I heard the car behind me sound its horn (喇叭). I saw 8.the school bus quickly pulling away. I started to follow it again with a 9.lighter_ (light) spirit than I had before. I took that beautiful moment and stored it 10.safely (safe) in my soul where I knew it would remain forever.


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