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高中英语语法之动词的时态(含巩固练习)

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2021年02月03日

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我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高中英语语法之动词的时态(含巩固练习)的资料,内容比较适合用来日常练习,希望对你有所帮助!

概念:

时态是英语谓语动词的一种形式,表示动作发生的时间和所处的状态.英语中的时态是通过动词形式本身的变化来实现的.英语有16种时态,但中学阶段较常用的有十种:一般现在时,一般过去时,一般将来时,过去将来时,现在进行时,过去进行时,将来进行时,过去完成时,英在完成时和现在完成进行时.

二.相关知识点精讲

1.一般现在时的用法

1) every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday。例如:

I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 每天早上我七点离开家。

2)

The earth moves around the sun. 地球绕太阳转动。

Shanghai lies in the east of China. 上海位于中国东部。

3)

Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

Columbus proved that the earth is round. 哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。

4)

I don't want so much. 我不要那么多。

Ann writes good English but does not speak well. 安英语写得不错,讲的可不行。

Now I put the sugar in the cup. 把糖放入杯子。

I am doing my homework now. 我正在做功课。

now是进行时的标志,表示正在进行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。例如:时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。例如:

Where did you go just now? 刚才你上哪儿去了?

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。例如:

When I was a child, I often played football in the street. 我是个孩子的时候,常在马路上踢足球。

Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome.

3)句型: It is time for sb. to do sth  "到……时间了"  "该……了"。例如:It is time for you to go to bed.

It is time that sb. did sth. "时间已迟了"  "早该……了" ,例如It is time you went to bed.   你早该睡觉了。

would (had) rather sb. did sth. 表示'宁愿某人做某事'。例如:I'd rather you came tomorrow.还是明天来吧。

4) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等,而一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。例如:I thought you might have some. 我以为你想要一些。

Christine was an invalid all her life.(含义:她已不在人间。)

Christine has been an invalid all her life.(含义:她现在还活着)

Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years. (含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)

1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。例如:

Did you want anything else? 您还要些什么吗?

I wondered if you could help me. 能不能帮我一下。

2)情态动词 could, would。例如:

Could you lend me your bike? 你的自行车,能借用一些吗?

一般将来时

1)下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return的一般现在时可以表示将来,主要用来表示在时间上已确定或安排好的事情。例如:

The train leaves at six tomorrow morning. 火车明天上午六点开。

When does the bus star? It stars in ten minutes. 汽车什么时候开?十分钟后。

2)以here, there等开始的倒装句,表示动作正在进行。例如:

Here comes the bus. = The bus is coming. 车来了。

There goes the bell. = The bell is ringing. 铃响了。

3)在时间或条件句中。例如:

When Bill comes (不是will come), ask him to wait for me. 比尔来后,让他等我。

I'll write to you as soon as I arrive there. 我到了那里,就写信给你。

4)在动词hope, take care that, make sure that等的宾语从句中。例如:

I hope they have a nice time next week. 我希望他们下星期玩得开心。

Make sure that the windows are closed before you leave the room. 离开房间前,务必把窗户关了。

下列动词come, go, arrive, leave, start, begin, return等现在进行时可以表示将来。例如:

I'm leaving tomorrow. 明天我要走了。

Are you staying here till next week? 你会在这儿呆到下周吗?

现在完成时

have (has) +过去分词。

1)一般过去时表示过去某时发生的动作或单纯叙述过去的事情,强调动作;现在完成时为过去发生的,强调过去的事情对现在的影响,强调的是影响。

2)一般过去时常与具体的时间状语连用,而现在完成时通常与模糊的时间状语连用,或无时间状语。

yesterday, last week,…ago, in1980, in October, just now等,皆为具体的时间状语。

for, since, so far, ever, never, just, yet, till/until, up to now, in past years, always等,皆不确定的时间状语。

this morning, tonight, this April, now, already, recently, lately 等。

3)现在完成时可表示持续到现在的动作或状态,动词一般是延续性的,如live, teach, learn, work, study, know.。

一般过去时常用的非持续性动词有come, go, leave, start, die, finish, become, get married等。例如:

I saw this film yesterday. (强调看的动作发生过了)

I have seen this film. (强调对现在的影响,电影的内容已经知道了)

Why did you get up so early? (强调起床的动作已发生过了)

Who hasn't handed in his paper? (强调有卷子未交,疑为不公平竞争)

He has been in the League for three years. (在团内的状态可延续)

He has been a League member for three years. (是团员的状态可持续)

句子中如有过去时的时间副词(如yesterday, last, week, in 1960)时,不能使用现在完成时,要用过去时。

Tom has written a letter to his parents last night.

(对)Tom wrote a letter to his parents last night.

8. 用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time.... that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。例如:

It is the first time that I have visited the city. 这是我第一次访问这城市。

This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing. 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

It was the third time that the boy had been late.

2)This is +形容词最高级+that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时。例如:

This is the best film that I've (ever) seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。  过去完成时

1)

----|----------|--------|----> 其构成是had +过去分词构成。

那时  现在

2)

a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。例如:

She said (that)she had never been to Paris. 她告诉我她曾去过巴黎。

b. 状语从句

在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。例如:

When the police arrived, the thieves had run away. 警察到达时,小偷们早就跑了。

c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"。例如:

We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't. 那时我们希望你能来,但是你没有来。

3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。例如:

He said that he had learned some English before. 他说过他以前学过一些英语。 By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself. 到了十二岁那年,爱迪生开始自己谋生。

Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.

汤姆失望了,因为他到达晚会时,大部分客人已经走了。

10. 用一般过去时代替过去完成时

1) 两个动作如按顺序发生,又不强调先后,或用then,and,but

When she saw the mouse,she screamed. 她看到老鼠,就叫了起来。

My aunt gave me a hat and I lost it. 姑妈给了我一顶帽子,我把它丢了。

2 两个动作相继发生,可用一般过去时;如第一个动作需要若干时间完成,用过去完成时。例如:

When I heard the news, I was very excited.

3) 叙述历史事实,可不用过去完成时,而只用一般过去时。例如:

Our teacher told us that Columbus discovered America in 1492.

11.将来完成时

1) 构成will have done

2) 概念

a.

They will have been married for 20 years by then. 到那时他们结婚将有二十年了。

b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或获得的经验。例如:

You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow. 明天此时,你已经到达上海了

1现在进行时

现在进行时的基本用法:

a. 表示现在(指说话人说话时)正在发生的事情。例如:

We are waiting for you. 我们正在等你。

b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。例如:

Mr. Green is writing another novel. 他在写另一部小说。(说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

c. 表示渐变,这样的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。例如:

The leaves are turning red. 叶子在变红。

It's getting warmer and warmer. 天越来越热了。

d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。例如:

You are always changing your mind. 你老是改变主意。

过去进行时

1)概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2)过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作延续的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while等。例如:

My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself.  我兄弟骑车时摔了下来,受了伤。

It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站时,正下着雨。

When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 我到达山顶时,阳光灿烂。

将来进行时

1)

She'll be coming soon. 她会很快来的。

I'll be meeting him sometime in the future. 将来我一定去见他。

"意志",不能说I'll be having a talk with her.

2)常用的时间状语有soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening等。例如:By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.

15. 一般现在时代替一般将来时

When, while, before, after, till, once, as soon as, so long as, by the time, if, in case (that), unless, even if, whether, the moment, the minute, the day, the year, immediately等引导的时间状语从句,条件句中,用一般现在时代替将来时。例如:

He is going to visit her aunt the day he arrives in Beijing. 他一到北京,就去看他姨妈。

1 ) "书上说","报纸上说"等。例如:

The newspaper says that it's going to be cold tomorrow. 报纸上说明天会很冷的。2) 叙述往事,使其生动。例如:

Napoleon's army now advances and the great battle begins.拿破仑的军队正在向前挺进,大战开始了

1) hear, tell, learn, write , understand, forget, know, find , say, remember等。例如:

I hear (= have heard) he will go to London. 我听说了他将去伦敦。

I forget (=have forgotten) how old he is. 我忘了他多大了。

2) 用句型 " It is … since…"代替"It has been … since …"。例如:

It is (= has been) five years since we last met. 从我们上次见面以来,五年过去了。

在Here comes…/There goes…等句型里,用一般现在时代替现在进行时。例如:

There goes the bell. 铃响了。

1)

Are you staying with us this weekend? 和我们一起度周末好吗?

We are leaving soon.  我们马上就走。

2) get, run, grow, become, begin以及瞬间动词die等。例如:

He is dying. 他要死了。

时态一致

1) 如果从句所叙述的为真理或相对不变的事实,则用现在时。例如:

At that time, people did not know that the earth moves. 那时,人们不知道地球是动的。

He told me last week that he is eighteen. 上星期他告诉我他十八岁了。

2) 宾语从句中的,助动词ought, need, must, dare 的时态是不变的。例如:

He thought that I need not tell you the truth. 他认为我不必告诉你真相。

1、I’ ll give the book to him as soon as he back. 2、the baby ________ crying yet? (stop) 3、I don’ t know whether Mother me to Beijing next month.(take) 4、She on her coat and went out. (put) 5、 “What are they doing?” “They ready for the sports meeting.” (get) 6、The boy asked his motherhim go and play basketball.(let) 7、I’m sorry to keep you for a long time. (wait) 8、It (take) him half an hour _______ (finish) his homework yesterday. 9、If it an interesting film, we’ll see it tomorrow. (be) 10、They usually (do) their homework after supper. 11、Listen! Who(sing) in the next room now? 12、(be) your parents in Shanghai last year? 13、Mr. Yu (teach) us maths since 1982. 14、They will have a trip to the Great Wall if it (not rain) tomorrow. 15、Li Ming often(listen) to the radio in the morning. 16、 “Father, may I go out and play football?” B: “_____you ____(do) your homework?” 17、All the people in the town are glad(hear) that a famous musician ___ a concert this Saturday evening.( give) 18、Our teacher told us if it(not snow) we would visit the Science Museum the next day. 19、They often (play) football in the afternoon. 20、What’re you doing Dad? B: I _______ (mend) the radio.

21、Let’s (carry) the boxes to the house. 22、Yesterday she (want) very much to see the film, but she couldn’t __(get) a ticket. 23、I (write) to you as soon as I get to Shanghai. 24、Mike (visit) several places since he came to Beijing. 25、He (write) four letters to his wife every month. 26、Don’ t make any noise, Grandma (sleep). 27、His aunt (do) some cooking when he came in . 28、When they (reach) the station, the train had already left. 29、There (be) a meeting next Monday. 30、We (know) each other since our boyhood.. 31、Sometimes my father (come) back home late. 32、They (have) an English evening next week. 33、I’m very glad (hear) that. 34、Wei Fang isn’t here. She (go) to the reading-room. 35、The story (happen) long ago. 36、They (visit) the History Museum last week. 37、Zhang Hong (make) many friends since she came to Paris. 38、She (go) to the cinema with her classmates tomorrow evening. 39、Stay here, bag. Don’t go out. It(rain) now. 40、Li Ping (write) a composition every week. 41、The scientist (give) us a talk yesterday. 42、My parents (live) in Beijing since 1949. 43、Look! The young worker (show) the students around the factory now. 44、They (build) a new bridge over the river next year. 45、The students (clean) their classroom tomorrow.

46、The windows of our lab (clean) once a week. 47、Our teacher (join) the party twenty years ago. 48、The boys (have) a basketball match now. Let’s ___(go) and _____(watch). 49、She (work) in this factory for ten years. 50、 “What makes you (think) I’m a farmer?” the Frenchman asked.

四.答案

comes

stopped

will take

put

are getting

to let

waiting

took … to finish

is

do

is singing

Was

has taught

doesn’t rain

listens

Have … done

to hear … will give

didn’t snow

play

am mending

carry

wanted , get

will write

has visited

writes

is sleeping

was doing

reached

will be

have known

comes

will have

to hear

has gone

happened

visited

has made

will go

is raining

writes

gave

have lived

is showing


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