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高中英语语法之名词(含巩固练习)

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2021年02月07日

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我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高中英语语法之名词(含巩固练习)的资料,内容比较适合用来日常练习,希望对你有所帮助!

一.概念

名词是表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称的词,有专有名词和普通名词之分,还有可数名词与不可数名词之分.

二.相关知识点精讲

1.名词复数的规则变化

情况 构成方法 读音 例词 一般情况 加 -s 清辅音后读/s/ map-maps 浊辅音和元音后读 /z/ bag-bags /car-cars 以s, sh, ch, x等结尾 -es 读 /iz/ bus-buses/ watch-watches 以ce, se, ze,等结尾 -s 读 /iz/ license-licenses 以辅音字母+y结尾 y 为i再加es /z/ baby---babies 2.其它名词复数的规则变化

1) y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数。例如:

two Marys     the Henrys

monkey---monkeys  holiday---holidays

2) 以o

a. 加s,如: photo---photos   piano---pianos

radio---radios   zoo---zoos;

b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes  tomato--tomatoes

c. 上述a和b两种方法均可,如zero---zeros / zeroes。

3) 以f或fe

a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs  roof---roofs

safe---safes  gulf---gulfs;

b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves

knife---knives leaf---leaves  wolf---wolves

wife---wives  life---lives  thief---thieves;

c. a和b两种方法均可,如handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves。

1) child---children  foot---feet  tooth---teeth

mouse---mice    man---men  woman---women

man 或 woman构成的合成词,其复数形式也是 -men 和-women,如an Englishman,two Englishmen。但German不是合成词,故复数形式为Germans;Bowman是姓,其复数是the Bowmans。

2) deer,sheep,fish,Chinese,Japanese ,li,jin,yuan,two li,three mu,four jin等。但除人民币的元、角、分外,美元、英镑、法郎等都有复数形式。如:a dollar, two dollars; a meter, two meters。

3)集体名词,以单数形式出现,但实为复数。例如:

people police cattle a people,a police,a cattle,但可以说a person,a policeman,a head of cattle, the English,the British,the French,the Chinese,the Japanese,the Swiss The Chinese are industries and brave. 中国人民是勤劳勇敢的。

4) s结尾,仍为单数的名词,如:

a. maths,politics,physics等学科名词,一般是不可数名词,为单数。

b. news

c. the United States,the United Nations 应视为单数。

The United Nations was organized in 1945. 联合国是1945年组建起来的。

d.

"The Arabian Nights" is a very interesting story-book. 《一千零一夜》是一本非常有趣的故事书。

5) glasses (眼镜) trousers, clothes等,若表达具体数目,要借助数量词 pair(对,双); suit(套); a pair of glasses; two pairs of trousers等。

6) goods货物,waters水域,fishes(各种)鱼。

4. 不可数名词量的表示

1)物质名词

a.

比较:Cake is a kind of food. 蛋糕是一种食物。 (不可数)

These cakes are sweet. 这些蛋糕很好吃。 (可数)

b.

This factory produces steel. (不可数)

We need various steels. (可数)

c.

Our country is famous for tea. 我国因茶叶而闻名。

Two teas, please. 请来两杯茶。

2)

four freedoms 四大自由 the four modernizations四个现代化

a glass of water 一杯水/ a piece of advice 一则建议。

5.

名词作定语一般用单数,但也有以下例外。

用复数作定语。例如:

sports meeting 运动会 students reading-room

talks table 谈判桌 the foreign languages department 外语系

2) man, woman, gentleman等作定语时,其单复数以所修饰的名词的单复数而定。例如:

men workers  women teachers  gentlemen officials

3) s结尾的名词,作定语时,s保留。例如:

goods train (货车) arms produce 武器生产

customs papers 海关文件 clothes brush 衣刷

4) 数词+名词作定语时,这个名词一般保留单数形式。例如:

two-dozen eggs 两打鸡蛋  a ten-mile walk 十英里路

two-hundred trees 两百棵树 a five-year plan. 一个五年计划

国籍 总称(谓语用复数) 单数 复数 中国人 the Chinese a Chinese  two Chinese the Swiss a Swiss two Swiss 澳大利亚人 the Australians  an Australian two Australians the Russians a Russian two Russians 意大利人 the Italians an Italian two Italians 希腊人 the Greek a Greek two Greeks 法国人 the French a Frenchman two Frenchmen 日本人 the Japanese a Japanese two Japanese 美国人 the Americans an American two Americans 印度人 the Indians an Indian two Indians 加拿大人 the Canadians a Canadian two Canadians 德国人 the Germans a Germans two Germans 英国人 the English an Englishman two Englishmen 瑞典人 the Swedish a Swede two Swedes 7. 名词的格

"'s"来表示所有关系,带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格,如:a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下:

1) "'s",复数名词词尾没有s,也要加"'s",如the boy's bag 男孩的书包,men's room

2) -s ,只加" ' ",如:the workers' struggle 工人的斗争。

3) "'s"的名词,都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系,如:the title of the song

4) the barber's 理发店。

5) 's,则表示"分别有";只有一个's,则表示'共有'。例如:

John's and Mary's rooms(两间)  John and Mary's room(一间)

6) 's 加在最后一个词的词尾。例如:a month or two's absence

1.He was eager to make some extra money, since during these years he could hardly live on his_______.

a. little wage b. few wage c. wage d. wages

2.Most of the houses in the village were burnt to ______ during the war.

a. an ash b. the ash c. ash d. ashes

3.The students at colleges or universities are making ______ for the coming New Year.

a. many preparations b. much preparation c. preparations d. preparation

4.Paiting in _____ is one of their spare-time activities.

a. oil b. an oil c. oils d. the oil

5.In the view of the foreign experts, there wasn’t ____ oil here.

a. much b. lots of c. a great deal of d. many

6.The large houses are being painted, but ______.

a. of great expense b. at a great expense c. in a lot of expenses d. by high expense

7.The room was small and contained far too ______.

a.much new furniture c. much new furnitures

b.many new furniture d. many new furnitures

8.Jim was late for two classes this morning. He said that he forgot both of the ______.

a. rooms number b. room number c. room’s numbers d. room numbers

9.Computers can do ______ work in a short time, but a man can not do ______ by himself.

a great many…many c. much…a great deal

b.great deal of…much d. many…a great many

10.She didn’t know _____ he had been given.

a. how many information c. how many informations

b. the number of information d. how much information

11.He invited all of his ______ to join his wedding party.

a. comrade-in-arms c. comrades-in-arm

b. comrades-in-arms d. comrade-in-arm

12.All the ______ in the hospital got a rise last month.

a. women doctors c. woman doctors

b. women doctor d. woman doctor

13.After ten years, all these youngsters became_____.

a. growns-ups c. growns-up

b. grown-up d. grown-ups

14.The police investigated those _____ about the accident.

a. stander-by c. standers-by

b. stander-bys d. standers-bys

15.The Nazi kept those ______ in their concentration camp.

a.prisoner-of-wars c. prisoners-of-war

b.prisoners-of-wars d. prisoner-of-war

16.The manager was greatly appreciate that _____ made by Linda lately.

a. new reel b. news reel c. new-reels d. news reels

17.Mary’s dress is similar in appearance to her ______.

a. elder sister b. elder sister’s c. elder sisters d. elder sisters dress

18.All the people at the conference are ______.

a. mathematic teachers c. mathematics teacher

b.mathematics teachers d. mathematic’s teachers

19.Professor Mackay told us that ______ of lead are its softness and its resistance.

a. some property c. properties

b. some properties d. property

20.Physics _____ with matter and motion.

a. deal b. deals c. dealing d. are


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