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高中英语语法之构词法(含巩固练习)

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2021年02月08日

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我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高中英语语法之构词法(含巩固练习)的资料,内容比较适合用来日常练习,希望对你有所帮助!

一.概念

英语的构词法主要有:合成法,转化法,派生法,混成法,截短法和词首字母缩略法.

二.相关知识点精讲

1.转化法

英语中,有的名词可作动词,有的形容词可作副词或动词,这种把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法。  1动词转化为名词

很多动词可以转化为名词,大多意思没有多大的变化(如下①);有时意思有一定变化(如下②);有的与一个动词和不定冠词构成短语,表示一个动作(如下③)。例如:

①Let's go out for a walk.我们到外面去散散步吧。

②He is a man of strong build.他是一个体格健壮的汉子。

③Let's have a swim.咱们游泳吧。

2名词转化为动词

很多表示物件(如下①)、身体部位(如下②)、某类人(如下③)的名词可以用作动词来表示动作,某些抽象名词(如下④)也可作动词。例如:

①Did you book a seat on the plane?你订好飞机座位了吗?

②Please hand me the book.请把那本书递给我。

③She nursed her husband back to health.她看护丈夫,使他恢复了健康。

④We lunched together.我们在一起吃了午餐。

3形容词转化为动词

有少数形容词可以转化为动词。例如:

We will try our best to better our living conditions.我们要尽力改善我们的生活状况。  4副词转化为动词

有少数副词可以转化为动词。例如:

Murder will out.(谚语)恶事终必将败露。

5形容词转化为名词

表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词(如下①);某些形容词如old, young, poor, rich, wounded, injured等与the连用,表示一类人,作主语时,谓语用复数(如下②)。例如:

You should be dressed in black at the funeral.你在葬礼中该穿黑色衣服。

The old in our village are living a happy life.我们村的老年人过着幸福的生活。派生法

在词根前面加前缀或在词根后面加后缀构成一个与原单词意义相近或截然相反的新词叫作派生法。

1前缀

除少数前缀外,前缀一般改变单词的意义,不改变词性;后缀一般改变词类,而不引起词义的变化。

(1)表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-, non-, un-等,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词。例如:

appear出现→disappear消失

correct正确的→incorrect不正确的

lead带领→mislead领错

stop停下→non-stop不停

(2)表示其他意义的前缀常用的有a-(多构成表语形容词), anti- (反对;抵抗), auto- (自动), co- (共同), en- (使), inter- (互相), re- (再;又), sub- (下面的;次;小), tele- (强调距离)等。例如:

alone单独的antigas防毒气的

autochart自动图表

cooperate合作enjoy使高兴

internet互联网reuse再用

subway地铁telephone电话

2后缀

英语单词不仅可以通过加前缀构成新词,也可加后缀构成新词。后缀通常会改变单词的词性,构成意义相近的其他词性;少数后缀还会改变词义,变为与原来词义相反的新词。

(1)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence,-(e)r/ -or (从事某事的人),-ese (某地人),-ess (雌性),-ful (一……),-ian (精通……的人),-ist (专业人员),-ment (性质;状态),-ness (性质;状态),-tion(动作;过程)等。例如:

differ不同于→difference区别

write写→writer作家

Japan日本→Japanese日本人

act表演→actress女演员

mouth口→mouthful一口

music音乐→musician音乐家

(2)构成动词的后缀常用的有-(e)n (多用于形容词之后),-fy (使……化),-ize (使……成为)。例如:

wide→widen加宽

beauty→beautify美化

pure→purify提纯

real→realize意识到

organ→organize组织

(3)构成形容词的后缀常用的有-al,

-able (有能力的),-(a)n(某国人的),-en (多用于表示材料的名词后),-ern (方向的),-ese(某国人的),-ful,-(ic)al,-ish,-ive,-less (表示否定),-like (像……的),-ly,-ous,-some,-y (表示天气)等。例如:

nature自然→natural自然的

reason道理→reasonable有道理的

America美国→American美国的

China中国→Chinese中国人的

gold金子→golden金的

east东→eastern东方的

child孩子→childish孩子气的

snow雪→snowy雪的

(4)构成副词的常用后缀有-ly (主要用于形容词之后表示方式或程度),-ward(s) (主要用于表示方位的词之后表示方向)。例如:

angry生气的→angrily生气地

to到→towards朝……,向……

east东方→eastward向东

(5)构成数词的后缀有-teen (十几),-ty (几十),-th (构成序数词)。例如:

six六→sixteen十六→sixteenth第十六

four四→forty四十→fortieth第四十

合成法  1合成名词

构成方式例词

名词+名词weekend周末

名词+动词daybreak黎明

名词+动名词handwriting书法

名词+及物动词+er/or pain-killer止痛药

名词+介词+名词editor-in-chief总编辑

代词+名词she-wolf母狼

动词+名词typewriter打字机

动名词+名词reading-room阅览室

现在分词+名词flying-fish飞鱼  形容词+名词gentleman绅士

副词+动词outbreak爆发

介词+名词afternoon下午

2合成形容词

名词+形容词snow-white雪白的

名词+现在分词English-speaking讲英语的

名词+to+名词face-to-face面对面的

名词+过去分词man-made人造的

数词+名词one-way单行的

数词+名词+形容词two-year-old两岁的

数词+名词+ed five-storeyed五层的

动词+副词see-through透明的

形容词+名词high-class高级的

形容词+名词+ed noble-minded高尚的

形容词+形容词light-blue浅蓝色的

形容词+现在分词good-looking相貌好看的

副词+形容词ever-green常青的

副词+现在分词hard-working勤劳的

副词+过去分词well-known著名的

副词+名词fast-food专门提供快餐服务的

介词+名词downhill下坡的

3合成动词

名词+动词sleep-walk梦游

形容词+动词white-wash粉刷

副词+动词overthrow推翻

4合成副词

形容词+名词hotfoot匆忙地

形容词+副词everywhere到处

副词+副词however尽管如此

介词+名词beforehand事先

介词+副词forever永远

5合成代词

代词宾格+self herself她自己

物主代词+self myself我自己

形容词+名词anything任何东西

6合成介词

副词+名词inside在……里面

介词+副词within在……之内

副词+介词into进入

截短法(缩略法)

截短法,即将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变,主要有截头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。

1截头

telephone→phone

aeroplane→plane

omnibus→bus

2去尾

mathematics→maths

co-operate→co-op

examination→exam

kilogram→kilo

laboratory→lab

taxicab→taxi

3截头去尾

influenza→flu

refrigerator→fridge

prescription→script

混合法(混成法)

混合法,即将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词。后半部分表示主体;前半部分表示属性。

news broadcast→newscast新闻广播

television broadcast→telecast电视播送

smoke and fog→smog烟雾

helicopter airport→heliport直升飞机场

首尾字母缩略法

首尾字母缩略法,即用单词首尾字母组成一个新词。读音主要有两种形式,即各字母分别读音;作为一个单词读音。

very important person→VIP (读字母音)要人;大人物

television→TV (读字母音)电视

Testing of English as a Foreign Language→TOEFL托福

Nato C.careless   D.carelessness

2.The soldier died for saving the child,so his________ is heavier than Mount Tai.

A.die B.dead C.died D.death

3.The child looked________at his brother who was badly wounded.

A.sadly B.sadness C.sadly D.sad

4.He is an expert at chemistry.We all call him a ________.

A.chemistry B.chemical

C.chemist D.physician

5.The three- ________chair isn’t suitable for a young child.He may fall off.

A.legging B.legged C.legs D.leged

6.Stephenson became the________railway engineer in the world.

A.lead B.leader C.leading D.leadership

7.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem,Jack looked________about at his classmates.

A.proud B.proudly C.pride D.pridely

8.To everyone’s ________,the girl finished the job quite well.

A.satisfied B.satisfactory

C.satisfying D.satisfaction

9.—What are you doing here?

—Oh,my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________in English.

—You can write________passage in English?

A.600 words;a 600-words

B.600-word;a 600-words

C.600 words;a 600-word

D.600 words;a 600-words

10.No one should enter the spot without the________of the police.

A.permit B.permission

C.permitting D.permittence

11.You must come with us to the police ________.Our head is waiting for you.

A.headquarters B.headline

C.headmaster D.headache

12.Letting that animal escape was no accident;you did it ________.

A.intend B.intention

C.intentionally   D.intentional

13.The shop owner welcomed all the guests with a________smile.

A.practice B.practise

C.practical D.practiced

14.The________ordered him to pay a $100 fine.

A.judger B.judgment

C.judge D.judgement

15.My TV is out of order.Can you tell me what is the________news about Iraq War?

A.lately B.latest

C.later D.latter

16.The Great Wall is more than 6000 li in ________.

A.longer B.length

C.long D.longing

17.To my ________,I passed the exam easily.

A.joy B.joyful

C.joyless D.joyness

18.Canada is mainly an________country.

A.English-speaking B.speak-English

C.spoken-English D.English-spoken

19.How________ he is! He is always acting________.He is really a ________.

A.foolish;foolishly;fool

B.fool;foolish;fool

C.foolish;fool;fool

D.foolishly;foolish;fool

20.The necklace that she lost is very expensive.It’s of great ________.

A.valuable B.value

C.valueless D.unvaluable

21.There were________fish in the river in South America.

A.in danger B.danger

C.dangerous D.dangerless

22.The letter “b” in the word “doubt” is________.

A.sound B.silent

C.silence D.sounded

23.The child looked at me________.

A.stranger B.strangely

C.strange D.strangeless

24.The black people were against slavery and fought for their________bravely.

A.free B.freely

C.freedom D.frees

25.What you said sounded________ but in fact it was untrue.

A.reasonable B.reasonful

C.reasonless D.unreason

26.We have to learn________technology from other countries.

A.advance B.advancing

C.advantage D.advanced

27.The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day.

A.nearby B.near

C.nearly D.near by

28.Mr Black is an ________in the army,not an________in the government.You can not easily find him in his________.

A.official;officer;office

B.officer;office;official

C.official;official;official

D.officer;official;office

29.You’d better give up smoking if you want to keep ________.

A.health B.healthy

C.healthily D.healthier

30.________ speaking,I didn’t do it on purpose.

A.Honestly  B.Honest

C.Honesty D.Dishonest


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