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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第1章 经济类 Unit 1

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2019年01月03日

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The very loans that are supposed to help seniors stay in their homes are in many cases pushing them out. 
Reverse mortgages,which allow homeowners 62 and older to borrow money against the value of their homes and not pay it back until they move out or die,have long been fraught with problems.But federal and state regulators are documenting new instances of abuse as smaller mortgage brokers,including former subprime lenders,flood the market after the recent exit of big banks and as defaults on the loans hit record rates. 
Some lenders are aggressively pitching loans to seniors who cannot afford the fees associated with them,not to mention the property taxes and maintenance.Others are wooing seniors with promises that the loans are free money that can be used to finance long-coveted cruises,without clearly explaining the risks.Some widows are facing eviction after they say they were pressured to keep their name off the deed without being told that they could be left facing foreclosure after their husbands died. 
Now,as the vast baby boomer generation heads for retirement and more seniors grapple with dwindling savings,the newly minted Consumer Financial Protection Bureau is working on new rules that could mean better disclosure for consumers and stricter supervision of lenders. More than 775,000 of such loans are outstanding,according to the federal government. 
Concerns about the multibillion-dollar reverse mortgage market echo those raised in the lead-up to the financial crisis when consumers were marketed loans—often carrying hidden risks—that they could not afford. 
“There are many of the same red flags,including explosive growth and the fact that these loans are often peddled aggressively without regard to suitability,” said Lori Swanson,the Minnesota attorney general,who is working on reforming the reverse mortgage market. 
注(1):本文选自The New York Times; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象:第1题模仿2011年真题(二)Text 1第2题;第2题模仿2009年真题Text 2第4题;第3、4题模仿2010年真题Text 2第3、2题;第5题模仿2011年真题(二)Text 3第5题。 
1.What can we learn about mortgage loans from the first two paragraphs? 
A) The loans help seniors stay in their homes. 
B) The loans are actually expelling seniors. 
C) The reverse mortgage only welcomes seniors 62 and older. 
D) Seniors can apply for reverse mortgage freely. 
2.The problem of reverse mortgage refers to ______. 
A) some lenders are pleased to lend money to seniors 
B) the borrowers cannot pay back the money as expected 
C) federal and state regulators are documenting new instances of abuse 
D) former subprime lenders go bankrupt 
3.The word“foreclosure”(Line 5,Paragraph 3) most probably implies ______. 
A) the widows were pressured to lose their names 
B) the seniors couldn’t enjoy their cruises finally 
C) the widows may be evicted from their houses 
D) the widows had misunderstood the reverse mortgage 
4.Which of the following is true about the new rules from CFPB? 
A) The rules are good for lenders while adverse to borrowers. 
B) The baby boomer phenomenon helps seniors to save money. 
C) Consumers can better understand reverse mortgage. 
D) The rules will be stricter for consumers. 
5.The“red flags” of reverse mortgage don’t include ______. 
A) explosive growth 
B) never considering suitability 
C) leading to financial crisis 
D) the reform of reverse mortgage market 

那种原本可以确保老年人居有定所的贷款,在很多情况下,却使得他们居无定所。 
反向抵押贷款允许62岁及62岁以上的屋主以房子作抵押从银行贷款,直到他们搬离或者逝世后再偿还。这种方式一直问题重重。然而,随着一些业务规模较小的抵押代理人,包括之前的一些次贷方,在大银行近期退出后涌入市场,并且还贷拖欠情况屡创新高,联邦政府和各州调控机构正在记载新的滥用案例。 
一些贷款方竟然大胆地把钱贷给那些无力支付贷款相关费用,更不用提支付财产税和维护费的老年人。另一些人则在争取老年客户时并未清晰地解释其中的风险,只向他们承诺:贷款是免费的,可以用来支付他们梦寐以求的出游。一些孤寡妇人称,当初她们是被迫让自己的名字不出现在契约上的,但却并未被告知,如果她们的丈夫离世,她们将丧失抵押品赎回权,现在她们却面临着被强行驱逐出自己的房子的困境。 
目前,随着大量婴儿潮时代出生的人步入退休阶段,更多的老年人正在努力解决积蓄减少这一困境。新成立的消费者金融保护局开始着手制定新的政策,这一举措可能意味着消费者会拥有更好的知情权,借贷方面临更为严格的监管。据联邦政府透露,有超过77.5万此类贷款尚未偿还。 
对于这个价值数十亿美元的反向抵押贷款市场的担忧让人们联想起在经济危机的前奏时期人们产生的担忧,那时消费者们根本无力偿还贷款,而且这些贷款常常带有潜在的风险。 
“有很多这样的危险信号,包括爆炸性增长,包括积极地兜售这些借贷却并未考虑过是否合适。”明尼苏达州的首席检察官洛里·斯旺森这样说。他正致力于反向抵押贷款市场的改革。 
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