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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第3章 信息技术类 Unit 41

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2019年01月12日

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As he lays out his vision for the future of open-source software,Mark Shuttleworth is enthusiastic,but he looks tired.He has been up late negotiating yet another deal as part of his mission to bring open source to a wider audience.A successful South African entrepreneur during the dotcom era,he wants open-source advocates to lose their religion and concentrate on ease-of-use instead.And he is putting his money where his mouth is.Since 2004,he has been using his fortune to fund the Ubuntu project,which makes a user-friendly version of Linux,the open-source operating system. Ubuntu is a Zulu and Xhosa term that roughly means“universal bond of sharing between humans”.Ubuntu's slogan is“Linux for human beings”,and it is aimed at mainstream computer users.For although Linux is popular on servers,it is not,so far,used on many desktops. 
In part that is because open-source software tends to polarise opinion.It has many critics who suspect that software written by idealistic guys,and made available free to anyone who wants to download it,must be some kind of communist plot.Zealous believers,meanwhile,long for open source to triumph over the evil empires of commercial software.This clash is often depicted as an epic struggle between Linux and Microsoft's proprietary Windows operating system.But the truth is that most computer users do not know or care about the politics of open-source software.Mr Shuttleworth says most people simply want to read their e-mail,browse the web and so on. 
“It's very easy to declare victory,” says Mr Shuttleworth,describing the conceited attitude of some open-source supporters.“There are big chunks of the software world that depend on free software.” But Ubuntu's aim is not to conquer the software establishment and replace its products.Rather than seeing open-source software as one of two competing ideologies and focusing on the struggle,Ubuntu thinks about the user.Ubuntu is a complete bundle of software,from operating system to applications and programming tools,that is updated every six months and,says Mr Shuttleworth,will always be free.Taking the debate out of open source is intended to move adoption beyond politically motivated enthusiasts and encourage mass adoption of the software on its merits. 
It is a bold scheme,but Mr Shuttleworth is not a man to think small.He was raised in a suburb of Cape Town,an unlikely place from which to join the internet revolution.Yet that was his goal from the day he first used a web browser.When he saw that the internet was switching from a text-based to a graphical medium,“I sensed that everything was going to change,” he says.He spent a couple of years looking for the right way to get involved,given his situation.“I had to find something to do that was cutting-edge,without requiring much bandwidth or venture capital,” he says.He succeeded handsomely by setting up a company,Thawte,that made digital certificates and security software to support internet commerce.He sold the firm for over $500m to VeriSign in 1999,near the peak of the dotcom boom. 
注(1):本文选自Economist; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象为2004年真题Text 3。 
1.By the word“religion”(Line 4,Paragraph 1),the author means _______. 
A) Christianity 
B) religious advocation 
C) mysterious thoughts 
D) crazy belief 
2.How does the author feel about the Ubuntu project? 
A) Objective. 
B) Optimistic. 
C) Discouraged. 
D) Confused. 
3.When mentioning“Mr Shuttleworth is not a man to think small” (Line 1,Paragraph 4)the author means _______. 
A) Mr Shuttleworth does not look small 
B) Mr Shuttleworth is very ambitious 
C) Mr Shuttleworth does not like to think about small projects 
D) Mr Shuttleworth only cares about important and great things 
4.What is the difference between Mr Shuttleworth and some zealous open-source advocates? 
A) Mr Shuttleworth focuses on the popularity and mass applicability of the open-source software. 
B) Mr Shuttleworth intends to arouse the public awareness of the political controversy on open-source. 
C) Zealous advocates only care about the political fight against Microsoft's commercial operating systems. 
D) Zealous advocates are not aware of the open-source merits in terms of everyday use. 
5.Which of the following is NOT the characteristic of the Ubuntu software? 
A) It is free to download from Internet and is updated regularly. 
B) It is user-oriented and can therefore be used with ease. 
C) It tends to replace the current commericial software. 
D) It can be used by anyone who has access to Internet. 

当展望开源软件的未来时,马克·沙特尔沃思热情十足,但是他看起来非常疲惫。他最近正在为另一桩生意谈判,这也是他立志要把开源带给更多人的使命的一部分。作为一名在信息时代成功的南非企业家,他希望开源倡导者们能放弃他们的盲目崇拜,而把精力集中到如何使开源软件更加方便地为人们使用上来。他自己也把钱都投在他说的这些事情上。自从2004年以来,他一直以个人财产资助Ubuntu项目,该项目致力于为开源操作系统Linux开发一个更加便于用户使用的版本。Ubuntu是一个祖鲁语和科萨语的术语,大意就是“在人类之间分享的广泛联系”。Ubuntu项目的口号是“为全人类服务的Linux”,其目标人群是主流电脑使用者。这是因为尽管Linux在服务器上非常流行,但到目前为止却很少为台式机所使用。 
这部分是因为开源软件会使人们的观点分为两个极端。许多批评家怀疑这种由理想主义者设计、任何人都可以下载使用的软件一定是一种共产主义的阴谋。同时,那些开源软件的狂热支持者却渴盼开源能够最终战胜商业软件的邪恶帝国。人们经常把这一冲突描绘成Linux和微软拥有版权的视窗操作系统之间史诗般的斗争。但是事实上,大部分电脑使用者都不知道或者不关心关于开源软件的政治斗争。沙特尔沃思说,大部分人在电脑上想做的事情只不过是收发电子邮件、浏览网页等等。 
“我们很容易就可以宣布胜利,”沙特尔沃思先生在谈及一些开源支持者的偏见时说道,“软件世界的很大一部分都取决于免费软件。”但是Ubuntu项目的目的不是征服已有的软件世界并以其他产品取而代之。Ubuntu并不把开源软件看成是两种计算机理念的一种,也不关注其中的斗争,Ubuntu只是在为客户考虑。沙特尔沃思先生介绍道,Ubuntu是一组完整的软件包,包括操作系统和各种应用及编程工具,每六个月更新一次,而且永远都是免费的。让开源远离斗争,让开源不仅仅是一些有政治目的的狂热者的话题,而把重点放在鼓励大众都充分利用这种软件的价值。 
这是一个大胆的计划,但是我们不可以小看沙特尔沃思先生。他成长于开普敦的郊区,那是一个并不像是能够参与到互联网革命的地方。但是从他使用网页浏览器的第一天开始,他就给自己立了这个目标。当他看到原先基于文本的互联网向图像媒体转移的时候,“我感到事情将要开始变化了,”他说。在那种情形下,他花了几年的时间寻找如何介入这一领域的最佳方式。“我想找一些最前沿的东西来做,而不用花很多的精力或投机资本,”他说道。他成功地成立了一家名为Thawte的公司,致力于制作数码证书和安全软件,从而支持网络商务。1999年,信息泡沫时代发展接近高峰的时期,他以5亿美元的价格将该公司卖给了VeriSign。 
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