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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第7章 医药类 Unit 86

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2019年01月23日

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It was a big week for Alzheimer's disease,and not just because PBS aired The Forgetting,a first-rate documentary about Alzheimer's worth catching in reruns if you missed it the first time.There was also a flurry of scientific news that offered hope to the families already struggling with Alzheimer’s,as well as to the baby-boom generation that's up next.Unless something dramatic happens,the number of Americans living with this terrifying brain disease could triple,to about 16 million,over the next 50 years.There's still no cure in sight,but there is progress on several fronts.Among them: 
MEGADOSE VITAMINS Doctors knew vitamins E and C,both antioxidants,help stave off Alzheimer’s,at least in folks who haven’t already developed the disorder.① What they didn’t know—but a big study involving 4,740 participants published in the Archives of Neurology showed—was that the two vitamins taken together in huge daily doses(at least 400 IU of E and more than 500 mg of C) could reduce the risk of Alzheimer's a remarkable 78%. 
COMBINATION THERAPY A yearlong study of more than 400 Alzheimer's patients showed that two drugs that work differently on the brain's chemistry act well together to help slow down the disease.② Patients who were being treated with donepezil(sold as Aricept),an older drug that preserves the neurotransmitter acetylcholine,were also given memantine(Namenda),a new drug approved by the FDA last October that blocks overproduction of a harmful brain chemical called glutamate. The two drugs worked even better in combination than they did alone,providing substantial benefit for patients with moderate to severe Alzheimer’s,according to a report in the Journal of the American Medical Association. 
BRAIN IMAGING Finally,scientists at the University of Pittsburgh announced that they had successfully developed a procedure that allows them to peer into the brains of Alzheimer's patients with positron emission tomography(PET)scans to see telltale plaque deposits.Before now,doctors could not track the progress of these plaques until after the patient died,when the brain could be autopsied.Using the new technique,doctors may be able to begin treatment long before the first symptoms appear. 
None of these advances is a magic bullet for Alzheimer's disease.If you or your loved ones are concerned,the first step is careful evaluation by your doctor.Not all memory lapses are Alzheimer’s,and there are reversible causes of forgetfulness that can be treated if caught early.Also,remember the old adage “use it or lose it.” Mental exercise—reading,doing crossword puzzles,playing chess or Scrabble—is as good for preserving your mind as physical exercise is for your body. 
注(1):本文选自Time; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象:第1、3题分别模仿2002年Text 4第1题和Text 3第3题,第2题模仿1994年真题Text 2 第3题,第4~5题分别模仿2004年Text 3第4、5题。 
1.From the first paragraph,we learn that ______. 
A) the baby-boom generation will not suffer from Alzheimer's disease 
B) recent progress brings hope for Alzheimer victims 
C) the week was very important for Alzheimer’s,mainly because a documentary about it was shown on PBS 
D) the new achievements made on several fronts show that Alzheimer's disease can be cured 
2.The phrase“stave off ” (Line 1,Paragraph 2)most probably means ______ . 
A) getting 
B) treating 
C) curing 
D) preventing 
3.The report in the Journal of the American Medical Association shows that ______. 
A) combination therapy refers to combining two different ways of treatment 
B) donepezil helps block overproduction of a harmful brain chemical called glutamate 
C) combination therapy is of great benefit to all patients with Alzheimer’s 
D) Aricept and Namenda have better effect when used together than used separately 
4.Why is brain imaging considered progress in treating Alzheimer’s? 
A) Because it helps doctors diagnose and treat the disease in an early phase by tracking the progress of plaques in the brain. 
B) Because it helps doctors autopsy the brains of the patients after they died. 
C) Because it helps doctors see the plaque deposits clearly so that they can operate on the brain. 
D) Because it helps doctors develop a new procedure of tracking the progress of the disease. 
5.To which of the following is the author likely to agree? 
A) Alzheimer's disease can be cured thanks to the new advances. 
B) Forgetfulness can be cured by doing mental exercise. 
C) Careful evaluation is important because it can tell Alzheimer's from curable memory lapses,which can be treated if found in an early phase. 
D) Mental exercises do good only to forgetfulness caused by reversible causes. 

对于阿尔茨海默病来说,那是个重要的星期,不仅仅是因为美国公共广播公司播出了非常值得一看的纪录片《遗忘》,一部有关阿尔茨海默病的优秀纪录片。如果你错过了首播,建议你在重播时补看。此外,科学界喜讯频传,给众多与病魔做斗争的家庭以及在极可能患病的生育高峰期出生的一代带来了希望。除非有奇迹发生,否则在未来50年,美国患这种严重大脑疾病的患者人数将达到约1600万,是目前患者人数的3倍。虽然目前还没有治愈的办法,但科学家们在若干前沿领域的研究取得了新的成果。包括: 
大剂量服用维生素:医生们过去就知道氧化剂维生素E和C有助于预防阿尔茨海默病,至少对于那些没有患上这种疾病的人们来说,是有预防作用的。可是他们不知道其预防作用到底有多大。发表在《神经病学档案》杂志上的一项涉及4740名参加者的重大研究成果显示,每天同时大剂量服用这两种维生素(至少400国际单位维生素E和500毫克以上的维生素C)能大幅度降低阿尔茨海默病的患病几率,降低幅度为78%。 
联合治疗:对400多名阿尔茨海默病患者长达一年的研究表明,同时服用两种对大脑的化学特性起不同作用的药品有助于缓解病情。据发表在美国医学协会杂志上的一篇研究报告介绍,患者在服用保护神经传递乙酰胆碱的donepezil (药品销售名称为Aricept)的同时服用美国食品及药物管理局去年刚刚批准的一种用于抑制有害大脑的化学物质——谷氨酸盐——过剩的药物memantine(药品销售名称是Namenda)。报告还指出,同时服用两种药品对缓解中度和重度患者病情起到很大作用,疗效好于单独使用其中任何一种药物。 
大脑成像技术:最后一个新成果是匹兹堡大学的科学家新近宣布的,他们已经成功研发出察看病人大脑内部的技术。他们用正电子放射X线断层摄影术自动程序控制技术察看大脑内泄露疾病成因秘密的斑块。从前,医生只能在病人去世后解剖大脑时研究斑块的形成。新技术的出现使医生们可以在病人的早期症状出现很久之前就开始治疗。 
以上提到的成果都不能治愈阿尔茨海默病。如果您本人或您的亲朋好友不幸患上了这种疾病,第一步就是让医生做详细的测评。并不是所有的记忆力减退都意味着阿尔茨海默病,如果发现早,由可逆性病因造成的健忘症是可以治疗的。此外,请牢记那句古老的格言:“不用就会失去它。”正如体育运动锻炼身体一样,阅读、猜纵横字谜、下棋或玩拼字游戏等脑力训练有助于保持您的脑力。 
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