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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 基础版》第7章 医药类 Unit 89

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2019年01月23日

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Sleep is a funny thing.We’re taught that we should get seven or eight hours a night,but a lot of us get by just fine on less,and some of us actually sleep too much.① A study out of the University of Buffalo last month reported that people who routinely sleep more than eight hours a day and are still tired are nearly three times as likely to die of stroke—probably as a result of an underlying disorder that keeps them from snoozing soundly. 
Doctors have their own special sleep problems.Residents are famously sleep deprived.When I was training to become a neurosurgeon,it was not unusual to work 40 hours in a row without rest.Most of us took it in stride,confident we could still deliver the highest quality of medical care.Maybe we shouldn’t have been so sure of ourselves.An article in the Journal of the American Medical Association points out that in the morning after 24 hours of sleeplessness,a person's motor performance is comparable to that of someone who is legally intoxicated.② Curiously,surgeons who believe that operating under the influence is the reason for dismissal often don’t think twice about operating without enough sleep. 
“I could tell you horror stories,” says Jaya Agrawal,president of the American Medical Student Association,which runs a website where residents can post anonymous anecdotes.Some are terrifying.“I was operating after being up for over 36 hours,” one writes.“I literally fell asleep standing up and nearly face planted into the wound.” 
“Practically every surgical resident I know has fallen asleep at the wheel driving home from work,” writes another.“I know of three who have hit parked cars.Another hit a ‘Jersey barrier’ on the New Jersey Turnpike,going 65 m.p.h.”“Your own patients have become the enemy,” writes a third,because they are“the one thing that stands between you and a few hours of sleep.” 
Agrawal's organization is supporting the Patient and Physician Safety and Protection Act of 2001,introduced last November by Representative John Conyers Jr.of Michigan.Its key provisions,modeled on New York State's regulations,include an 80-hour workweek and a 24-hour work-shift limit.Most doctors,however,resist such interference.Dr.Charles Binkley,a senior surgery resident at the University of Michigan,agrees that something needs to be done but believes“doctors should be bound by their conscience,not by the government.” 
The U.S.controls the hours of pilots and truck drivers.But until such a system is in place for doctors,patients are on their own.If you’re worried about the people treating you or a loved one,you should feel free to ask how many hours of sleep they have had and if more-rested staffers are available.Doctors,for their part,have to give up their pose of infallibility and get the rest they need. 
注(1):本文选自Time; 
注(2):本文习题命题模仿对象:第1、2题分别模仿1999年真题Text 4第1题和Text 2第2题;第3题模仿1998年真题Text 3第2题;第4、5题分别模仿2004年真题Text 2第3题和Text 3第5题。 
1.We can learn from the first paragraph that ______. 
A) people who sleep less than 8 hours a day are more prone to illness 
B) poor sleep quality may be a sign of physical disorder 
C) stroke is often associated with sleep 
D) too much sleep can be as harmful as lack of sleep 
2.Speaking of the sleep problems doctors face,the author implies that ______. 
A) doctors often need little sleep to keep them energetic 
B) doctors’ sleep is deprived by residents 
C) doctors tend to neglect their own sleep problems 
D) sleep-deprived doctors are intoxicated 
3.Paragraphs 3 and 4 are written to ______. 
A) entertain the audience with some anecdotes 
B) discuss the cause of doctors’ sleep problems 
C) show the hostility doctors harbor against their patients 
D) exemplify the danger doctors face caused by lack of sleep 
4.By“doctors should be bound by their conscience,not by the government” (Lines 5~6,Paragraph 5),Dr.Charles Binkley means that ______. 
A) doctors should not abide by government's regulations 
B) the government is interfering too much 
C) the regulations about workweek and work shift are too specific 
D) law cannot force a doctor to sleep while his conscience can 
5.To which of the following is the author likely to agree? 
A) Patients should control the working hours of their doctors. 
B) Pilots and truck drivers work in safer environments than that of doctors’. 
C) Patients are facing more risks if their doctors are not adequately-rested. 
D) People concerned have the right to remove their doctors from their positions. 

睡眠是一件有趣的事情。我们被教导每晚要睡七八个小时,但我们很多人并没有睡够这个时间却依然身体健康,而我们中的一些人实际上睡得过多。上个月由布法罗大学所做的一项研究显示,那些每天习惯睡八个小时以上但仍然感觉疲劳的人死于中风的危险是普通人的近三倍——也许这是一种潜在的紊乱导致的结果,正是这种紊乱才让他们难以安睡。 
医生们也有自己特殊的睡眠问题。住院医生以缺少睡眠而著称。我在受训成为一名神经外科医生的时候,时常会连续工作40个小时。我们大多数人对此不以为意,自信我们仍然能够给病人提供最高质量的医疗护理。也许我们不应该对自己这么自信。《美国医学会杂志》上刊登的一篇文章指出,一个人如果连续24小时不睡,那么到了早晨,他的运动能力就和那些饮酒后酒精浓度超标的人差不多。令人好奇的是,那些认为醉酒后做手术应该被免职的外科医生却很少认真思考在睡眠不足的情况下操刀手术的后果。 
“我可以告诉你一些恐怖的故事,”美国医学生学会主席杰雅·阿格拉瓦说。阿格拉瓦经营着一个网站,住院医生们可以在那里匿名留言,讲一些奇闻轶事。有一些故事非常可怕。“我当时在做手术,已经有36个小时没有睡觉了,”其中一人写道。“我差不多站着睡着了,而且我的脸几乎碰到了伤口。” 
“实际上我认识的每个外科住院医生都曾经有过在下班开车回家的路上趴在方向盘上睡着的经历,”另一人写道。“我听说有三个人还曾经撞在停放好的汽车上。另一个人在纽约收费公路上行驶时以65英里的时速撞上了一个收费站栏杆。”“你自己的病人都成了敌人,”第三个人写道,因为“是他们使你无缘几个小时的睡眠。” 
阿格拉瓦的组织支持由密歇根众议员约翰·科尼尔斯去年11月提出的“2001年病人和医生安全保护规定”。该规定模仿纽约州的法规,其关键规定包括一周工作80小时,最多24小时轮一次班等。不过,大多数医生讨厌这种干涉。查尔斯·宾克利是密歇根大学的一位资深住院外科医生,他也认为需要采取一些措施,但在他看来“医生应该受到个人良心的约束,而不是政府的管制。” 
在美国,飞行员和卡车司机的工作时间都有着严格的控制。但除非也给医生们制定这样一套规定,否则病人就得听天由命了。如果你担心给你或你爱的人治病的人,你可以大胆问他们每天睡几个小时,可不可以找到休息得更好的职员。对医生来说,他们不能继续摆出一副从不出错的样子,而应该得到必要的休息。 
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