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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 3 - TEXT ONE

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2019年01月27日

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H.R. 676, the United States National Health Insurance Act, also known as “expanded and improved Medicare for all,” has moved through Congress, and is expected to be signed into law shortly. The legislation provides publicly funded health insurance, with a free choice of health care providers, for every United States citizen and permanent resident.
After the bill passed, Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi declared, “We can now proudly say that the United States has caught up with the rest of the developed world in granting all our citizens access to high-quality, comprehensive medical care.” Prior to the bill's passage, the U.S. health care system was widely regarded to be in a state of severe crisis. Over 46 million Americans have been without health insurance and another 50 million have been under-insured.
Despite spending more money per capita on health care than any other nation, the U.S. has lagged behind many countries in such key health-related categories as life preventable deaths. The Institute of Medicine estimates that in recent years approximately 22,000 people have died annually in the U.S. due to a lack of health insurance. Furthermore, nearly one million Americans, many who have private health insurance plans, have filed for bankruptcy each year because they have been unable to pay medical bills. In recent polls, a clear majority of Americans have said they believe government should guarantee health care for all U.S. residents.
Despite growing popular support for a single-payer system, Pelosi acknowledged that Congress would not have voted for this bill without the dedicated grassroots organizing of national groups like Healthcare-NOW and Physicians for National Health Program, regional groups like the California Nurses Association and the New York-based Private Health Insurance Must Go Coalition, and over 450 union organizations across the country that had endorsed H.R. 676. Pelosi said that many formerly undecided congressional representatives were also swayed by seeing Michael Moore's film, “Sicko,” and by the cogent arguments presented in a 2008 pocket-sized books, “10 Excellent Reasons for National Health Care,” edited by Mary E. O'Brien and Martha Livingston, which was given to every member of Congress.
Under the private insurance system that has been in place until now, 30 percent of health insurance premiums have gone toward administrative costs, including advertising, profits, and executive salaries. This compares with a 3 percent cost for administering Medicare. Moving from the private health insurance system to single-payer is expected to save $350 billion dollars each year, enough to fund health care for those who are currently uninsured or under insured.
Under the H.R. 676, the expanded Medicare for All system will be paid for through a 3.3 percent payroll tax on employers and employees, a stock transfer tax, an income tax surcharge on the top 5 percent of taxpayers, and by reversing the Bush tax cuts on the wealthiest Americans. According to the Congressional Budget Office, most U.S. residents—including those who previously received employer-based coverage—will pay less for this new public health insurance than they did for their private insurance, since there will no longer be any premium, copy, or deductible charges. Eliminating private insurance companies, including HMOs, and moving to a publicly administered system will be no simple ask. The private health-care industry is enormous, employing over 14 million people and costing 2.3 trillion dollars in 2007.
1. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the H.R. 676?
[A] It is expected to take effect soon.
[B] People enjoy freedom in choosing health care providers.
[C] The U.S. health care system once collapsed.
[D] The medical care is characterized by high quality and comprehensiveness.
2. The word “lagged” (Line 1, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] delayed
[B] not caught up with
[C] tracked
[D] left
3. According to Pelosi, the followings are the reasons that Congress voted for this bill except that _____.
[A] special grassroots organizations are formed
[B] the film “Sicko” has swayed Congress members' attitude
[C] 30% of the premiums were paid for the administrative expense
[D] persuasive theory in the pocket-sized book affects people's thought
4. The single-payer system is more beneficial than private insurance mainly because _____.
[A] the former provides high-quality, comprehensive medical care
[B] private insurance is more expensive
[C] it allows people to choose health care providers with freedom
[D] premiums in private insurance can't be distributed reasonably
5. Towards the legislation, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] affirmative
[B] negative
[C] biased
[D] neutral

1. Which of the following statements is NOT true about the H.R. 676?
[A] It is expected to take effect soon.
[B] People enjoy freedom in choosing health care providers.
[C] The U.S. health care system once collapsed.
[D] The medical care is characterized by high quality and comprehensiveness.
1. 下面关于H.R. 676的说法哪项是错误的?
[A] 它有望在近期生效。
[B] 人们可以自由选择医疗服务机构。
[C] 美国的医疗保险制度曾一度崩溃。
[D] 这种医疗保险制度的特点在于高质量且全方位。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。题目要求找出对H.R. 676表述错误的一项。A项在第一段有所提及,...is expected to be signed into law shortly说明有望近期签署生效。B项在第一段也有体现,...with a free choice of health care providers说明可以自由选择医疗服务机构。第二段中的the U.S. health care system was widely regarded to be in a state of severe crisis说的是医疗保险制度面临严重危机,并未表明一度崩溃,且它不属于该法案的特点,因此C项表述错误。D项在第二段中有体现,说美国已经赶上其他发达国家,拥有高质量且全方位的医疗保险制度,其实也就是H.R. 676本身具备了high-quality and comprehensiveness的特点。
2. The word “lagged” (Line 1, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] delayed
[B] not caught up with
[C] tracked
[D] left
2. 单词“lagged”(第三段第一行)最有可能的意思是_____。
[A] 延迟
[B] 赶不上
[C] 跟踪
[D] 离开
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆
分析:猜词题。句首处despite表转折,说“与其他国家相比,尽管美国在人均医疗服务方面投入了更多的资金,但……”, 而且lagged后面接的是behind,据此大概能猜出这个短语是落在了后面的意思,结合上下文可知,尽管投了这么多钱,但还是赶不上其他国家。所以lagged是“落后,赶不上”的意思。
3. According to Pelosi, the followings are the reasons that Congress voted for this bill except that _____.
[A] special grassroots organizations are formed
[B] the film “Sicko” has swayed Congress members' attitude
[C] 30% of the premiums were paid for the administrative expense
[D] persuasive theory in the pocket-sized book affects people's thought
3. 根据佩洛西所说,下列选项中除了_____都是国会为这项法案投票的原因。
[A] 成立了一些专门的基层组织
[B] 电影《医疗内幕》动摇了国会议员的态度
[C] 30%的保险费用花在了行政开销上
[D] 口袋书中具有说服力的理论影响了人们的思想
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆
分析:细节题。国会议员为这项法案投票的原因出现在第四段:Congress would not have voted for this bill without the dedicated grassroots organizing of... 由此可得出A是正确的。由Pelosi said that many formerly undecided congressional representatives were also swayed by...可知国会议员的态度受到了下文提到的电影和书的影响,sway意为“动摇”,可见,这些还是触动了议员,故 B和D 也正确。C项说的是私人保险费用花在了哪些方面,与议员投票没有直接关系,故答案为C项。
4. The single-payer system is more beneficial than private insurance mainly because _____.
[A] the former provides high-quality, comprehensive medical care
[B] private insurance is more expensive
[C] it allows people to choose health care providers with freedom
[D] premiums in private insurance can't be distributed reasonably
4. 单一给付体制比私人保险更有益的主要原因是 _____。
[A] 前者能提供高质量且全方位的医疗服务
[B] 私人保险费用更昂贵
[C] 它允许人们自由选择医疗服务机构
[D] 私人保险中的保险费得不到合理分配
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。最后两段通过和私人保险做对比,显示出单一给付体制的优越性。其中提到,30%的医疗保险费用都花在了行政开销上,如广告、利润以及工资支出等,而用于医疗保险实施的支出只占全部的3%左右。在新的公共医疗保险制度下,额外保险费、重复缴费或扣费都不复存在,因此人们可以支付比购买私人保险更少的费用。归根结底,私人保险费用不能被合理分配,而实际用于医疗保险方面的只有3%。相比而言,单一给付体制将避免这些问题,因此益处更多,当然受到人们的青睐。故D项为正确答案。
5. Towards the legislation, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] affirmative
[B] negative
[C] biased
[D] neutral
5. 作者对这项法案的态度可以认为是_____。
[A] 肯定的
[B] 否定的
[C] 有偏见的
[D] 中立的
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:态度题。文章虽然措辞比较客观,但是从作者的论述过程中还是可以发现,作者对这项医疗保险法案还是很赞同的,如拿私人保险与单一给付体制做对比,突出单一给付体制的优势,这些都可以看出作者肯定的态度。故A项为正确答案。

H.R. 676, 美国国家医疗保险方案,又名“扩大改进全民医疗保险方案”目前国会已通过,并有望于近期签署生效。该法案将为每一位美国公民和在美国永久居住的公民提供公共医疗保险基金,并允许他们自主选择医疗服务机构。
该法案通过后,众议院发言人南希·佩洛西发表声明说,“我们现在可以自豪地说,在保障公民享受高质量且全方位的医疗服务方面,美国已经赶上了世界其他发达国家的步伐。”而在该法案通过之前,人们都普遍认为美国的医疗保险制度已经面临严峻危机。超过4600万美国民众一直没有医疗保险,另有5000万人享受的保险服务低于应有水平。
与其他国家相比,尽管美国在人均医疗服务方面投入了更多的资金,但与健康息息相关的关键领域,如可预防性死亡等方面,还是落后于许多国家。据美国医学研究所预测,近年来,每年约有2.2万人因为没有医疗保险而死亡。此外,每年,近一百万美国人尽管有私人医疗保险,但是由于无力支付医疗费而申请破产。最近的民意调查显示,绝大多数美国人认为政府应该保障其公民的医疗服务项目。
佩洛西认为,尽管越来越多的人支持单一给付体制(由单一机构[政府]提供医疗服务所需的所有资金,让原本无法获得医疗服务的民众获得医疗保障,实现全民医疗保险,而且民众无论是否就业,都可获得单一给付体制的保障),但是如果没有专门的基层国家组织,如“医疗保健—就是现在”和“国民健康医师项目”等,以及区域组织,如“加州护士协会”和“纽约私人医保联盟”等类似组织的参与,以及全国超过450个联合组织同意H.R. 676,国会议员将不会为该法案投票。他还指出,许多以前态度就摇摆不定的国会代表在看了迈克尔·摩尔拍摄的电影《医疗内幕》以及2008年由玛丽·E. 奥布赖恩和玛莎·利文斯顿共同编写的《国民医疗保险的10大主因》这部口袋书里所列举的强大理论后,现在态度也发生了改变,其中这本口袋书国会议员人手一本。
自私人保险制度实施以来,30%的医疗保险费用都花在了行政开销上,如广告、利润以及工资支出等,而用于医疗保险实施的支出相比之下却只占全部的3%左右。如果把私人医保制度转变成单一给付体制,每年将有望节省3500亿美元,这些将足以为目前尚未投保或无力投保的人提供足够的医疗服务基金。
按照H.R. 676的条款,医疗保险范围扩大,其费用将会通过向雇主和雇员征收3.3%的工资所得税、股票转让以及对排名前5%的最高纳税人征收收入附加税来实现,该政策结束了布什时期向最富有的美国人实施的减税政策。美国国会预算办公室称,大多数美国公民,包括之前有雇主责任保险的公民,在新的公共医疗保险制度下,将支付比购买私人保险更少的费用,因为在这项政策下,缴纳额外费用、重复缴费或扣费的现象都将不复存在。根除诸如像健康保护组织HMOs这样的私人保险公司,进而转向公共管理体制并非易事。私人医疗行业十分庞大,2007年其员工就超过1400万人,运营成本为2.3万亿美元。
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