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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 4 - TEXT ONE

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2019年01月29日

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It has been one year since media magnate and incurable womanizer SiSlvio Berlusconi resigned his job as Italian prime minister in a disgraceful display of collective national embarrassment. On November 12, 2011, Berlusconi tendered his resignation at a late night meeting with Italian president Giorgio Napolitano and, as his motorcade left the presidential palace, thousands of Italians who had gathered for the momentous occasion threw coins and spat on his car as an orchestral chorus sang “Hallelujah.” His departure marked the end of T&A era in which salacious stories of his orgiastic parties were far more prevalent than press about policy.
Many believed that with Berlusconi's departure, there would be a new dawn for the country—especially women. But one year later, Italian women are actually faring far worse than they were when Berlusconi resigned—at least according to the 2012 World Economic Gender Gap report, which ranks women in 135 countries according to workforce equality, wage parity, health, and education. According to the report, Italian women slipped six slots from 74th to 80th on the overall scale, behind countries including Moldova, Ghana, and Peru. In some areas, Italian women did far worse—ranking 101st in employment and economic opportunity. In educational attainment, Italian women are 65th, but 20 countries including Botswana, Barbados and the Bahamas tied with the United States, France and Norway for the first place ranking.
To be fair, Berlusconi's replacement Mario Monti, who was assigned the job as prime minister by Napolitano last November, has focused his attention on saving the economy from the abyss and has not made gender equality a priority.
But also to his credit, Monti has put women in powerful positions in his government, even though the Global Gender Gap statistics slightly skew the reality on the ground. In the 2012 report, Italy plunged from 46th to 70th place in the category of government participation, which takes into account the number of women in decision making positions in government. The number of Italian women in ministerial positions in Italy may have dropped from 22 to 17 since Berlusconi left office, but it can be easily argued that though fewer, the women in government now are far more qualified for the job than during Berlusconi's era. Berlusconi famously promoted women like former topless calendar model Mara Carfagna, who held the position of his equal opportunity minister, and who the playboy famously once said he'd marry if he wasn't already betrothed. Those women have been replaced by women like Elsa Fornero, a Thatcher-esque leader who was an economics professor before taking the equal opportunity and gender equality portfolio under Monti. She has spoken openly about the over-sexualization of women on Italian television and how it “offends” her to the point that she no longer watches most Italian programming. She has called for reeducating the nation's youth to help change stereotypes that continue to reflect Italian women as subordinates to their male counterparts.
Documentarian Lorella Zanardo, whose cult video and book Corpo della Donna has made an enormous impact in exposing societal sexism in Italy agrees that improvement must come from the next generation. But she believes that the end of the Berlusconi political era will have little impact on the society as long as he still controls so much of the media. “Sexist television worsens the situation,” she told The Daily Beast. “Our television has never had an educational objective and therefore deeply sexist images that still give to men the idea that women are objects continue to dehumanize us.”And that will take more than a year without Berlusconi in office to recover from.
1. Berlusconi tendered his resignation mainly because _____.
[A] Italians didn't like his behavior any more
[B] he was an incurable womanizer
[C] he exacerbated the phenomenon of gender discrimination in Italy, leaving women in a bad situation
[D] he had the orgiastic parties with salacious stories, making people unsatisfied
2. Which of the following is the reason why women in Italy are still in the bad position after Berlusconi's departure?
[A] Monti has not made gender equality a priority.
[B] There haven't been so many women working in the government.
[C] The stereotypes that Italian women are subordinate to their male counterparts still exist.
[D] Women themselves have been disappointed with the government.
3. The phrase “Thatcher-esque leader” (Line 9, paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] strict leader
[B] precise leader
[C] a leader like Thatcher
[D] honest leader
4. Which way is the best one to change the situation of sexual discrimination?
[A] Never watch most of the television programming.
[B] Don't let Berlusconi control so much of the media.
[C] Change the prejudice of men to women that women are objects.
[D] Make television programmes have the educational objective.
5. According to the last paragraph, documentarian Lorella Zanardo's attitude to the future of Italy's gender gap is _____.
[A] indifferent
[B] sorrowful
[C] pessimistic
[D] desperate

1. Berlusconi tendered his resignation mainly because _____.
[A] Italians didn't like his behavior any more
[B] he was an incurable womanizer
[C] he exacerbated the phenomenon of gender discri-mination in Italy, leaving women in a bad situation
[D] he had the orgiastic parties with salacious stories, making people unsatisfied
1. 贝卢斯科尼提出辞职的主要原因是_____。
[A] 意大利人民不再喜欢他的行为了
[B] 他是一个无可救药的好色之徒
[C] 他加剧了意大利的性别歧视现象,使女性处于不好的境地
[D] 他举办色情狂欢派对,使人民感到不满
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。虽然第一段提到,当贝卢斯科尼辞职时,意大利人的行为表现出了对他的不满,但这并非他辞职的主要原因。B和D选项都只是表面现象。其真正的原因从下文可知,是由于他使女性的处境变糟,性别歧视现象加剧,引起社会不满。所以C选项符合题意。
2. Which of the following is the reason why women in Italy are still in the bad position after Berlusconi's departure?
[A] Monti has not made gender equality a priority.
[B] There haven't been so many women working in the government.
[C] The stereotypes that Italian women are subordinate to their male counterparts still exist.
[D] Women themselves have been disappointed with the government.
3. 下列选项中哪一项是贝卢斯科尼辞职后意大利女性处境依旧不好的原因?
[A] 蒙蒂没有把实现性别平等放在首位。
[B] 还没有那么多的女性在政府中就职。
[C] 意大利女性只是男性的附属物的陈旧思想依然存在。
[D] 女性本身已经对政府失望了。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。第三段提到蒙蒂没有把性别平等问题置于首位,而且女性在政府中就职的人数有所减少。但这些只是女性的现状,而不是导致女性处境不好的原因。D选项文中并未提及。第四段提到女性是男性附属物的陈旧思想依然存在,使得女性在很多方面都很被动,这才是女性处境不好的原因。因此,选项C符合题意。
3. The phrase “Thatcher-esque leader” (Line 9, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] strict leader
[B] precise leader
[C] a leader like Thatcher
[D] honest leader
3. “Thatcher-esque leader”(第四段第九行)这一词组最有可能的意思是_____。
[A] 严厉的领袖
[B] 严谨的领袖
[C] 像撒切尔一样的领袖
[D] 正直的领袖
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:猜词题。Thatcher是英国的女首相,人称“铁娘子”。而在文中我们知道,埃尔萨·福尔内罗是一位意大利的女领导人,优秀、能干,像撒切尔夫人一样。因此可知,Thatcher-esque leader意为“撒切尔式的领袖”,故答案为选项C。
4. Which way is the best one to change the situation of sexual discrimination?
[A] Never watch most of the television programming.
[B] Don't let Berlusconi control so much of the media.
[C] Change the prejudice of men to women that women are objects.
[D] Make television programmes have the educational objective.
4. 下列选项中哪一个是改善性别歧视最好的方式?
[A] 绝不看大部分电视节目。
[B] 不让贝卢斯科尼控制太多的媒体。
[C] 改变男人认为女人就是玩物的偏见。
[D] 让电视节目具有教育意义。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第四段中提到埃尔萨·福尔内罗不看很多电视节目是因为电视节目中的性别歧视让她觉得受到了极大的冒犯。但即使不看,歧视还是存在的,这不能从根本上解决问题。因此,选项A不恰当。选项D和A有着相同的错误。而第五段说贝卢斯科尼控制了大量的媒体,所以性别歧视不会有太大的改观。但是即使不让他控制媒体,只要人们的思想观念不改变,问题还是无法根本解决。最后一段还提到,必须改变女性只是玩物这一根深蒂固的性别歧视概念。因此,改变男性带有偏见的观念是最好的方式,只有选项C符合题意。
5. According to the last paragraph, documentarian Lorella Zanardo's attitude to the future of Italy's gender gap is _____.
[A] indifferent
[B] sorrowful
[C] pessimistic
[D] optimistic
5. 根据最后一段,纪录片导演罗瑞·拉扎纳对意大利的性别差距的未来的态度是_____。
[A] 漠不关心的
[B] 悲伤的
[C] 悲观的
[D] 乐观的
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:态度题。通过最后一段可以得知,罗瑞·拉扎纳说只要贝卢斯科尼控制大量媒体,他政治时代的结束就不会对社会产生很大的影响,而这种性别歧视观念的改变还需要很长时间,所以她有些悲观。故答案选C。

距传媒巨头、无可救药的好色之徒西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼辞去意大利总理一职已经一年了。他以一种让整个国家尴尬的不光彩的方式结束了他的政治生涯。2011年11月12日深夜,贝卢斯科尼在与意大利总统乔治·纳波利塔诺会谈时递交了辞呈。当他的车队离开总统府时,成千上万的意大利人为了见证这一重要时刻,聚集在街上,向他的车投掷硬币、吐痰并齐声高唱“哈利路亚”。他的离开标志着T&A时代的结束。在这个时代,关于他在那些狂欢派对上的淫秽故事比媒体报道的政治消息更为风行。
很多人认为,随着贝卢斯科尼的离职,意大利,特别是意大利女性将会迎来一个新的黎明,但是一年以后,意大利女性的处境事实上比贝卢斯科尼刚辞职时还糟,至少2012年世界经济论坛的《全球性别差距报告》公布的情况是这样的。该报告通过劳动力平等、工资均等、健康以及教育这几个指标对135个国家的女性进行了排名。该报告显示,意大利女性的排名总体上下降了6位,从74位跌落到80位,落后于包括摩尔多瓦、加纳和秘鲁在内的一些国家。在一些领域,意大利女性的情况更加糟糕——在就业和经济机遇方面排名第101位。在教育程度方面,意大利女性处于第65位,但是有20个国家位居前列,包括与美国、法国和挪威不相上下的博茨瓦纳、巴巴多斯和巴哈马。
贝卢斯科尼的继任者马里奥·蒙蒂在去年11月份被纳波利塔诺总统任命为总理。说句公道话,这位继任总理把工作重心放在了如何拯救经济以走出低谷上,而没有把性别平等问题置于首位。
但是,还值得称赞的是,蒙蒂在他的政权中将女性置于要职。尽管《全球性别差距报告》的数据跟实际情况有些偏颇。2012年的报告显示,在政府参与这一项里,由于考虑进了政府中担任决策制定职务的女性数量,意大利的排名从第46位骤降到第70位。自贝卢斯科尼离职以来,虽然意大利内阁职位中女性的人数可能已经从22位减少到了17位,但显而易见的是,尽管人数少了,现任政府中的女性却比贝卢斯科尼时期的要称职得多。众所周知,贝卢斯科尼提拔过包括前日历封面上无上装裸模马拉·卡尔法尼亚在内的一些女性。马拉·卡尔法尼亚担任过机会均等部部长。贝卢斯科尼这个花花公子曾公开表示假如他还未婚的话会娶她。这些女子如今已被像埃尔萨·福尔内罗这种如撒切尔般的女性所取代。福尔内罗女士在蒙蒂政府担任机会均等部兼性别平等部部长之前是一位经济学教授。她曾公开说意大利的电视过于强调女性的性别,而这点让她觉得受到了极大的冒犯,因此她拒绝再看大多数的意大利电视节目。她提倡对意大利的青年一代进行再教育,帮助他们改变继续认为意大利女性只是男性附属物的陈旧思想。
纪录片导演罗瑞·拉扎纳备受追捧的视频和书籍《女人的身体》在揭露意大利社会性别歧视方面产生了巨大的影响,她认为这一现象必须靠下一代来改善,但是她也相信,只要贝卢斯科尼还控制着大量媒体,他政治时代的结束就不会对社会产生什么影响。“性别歧视类的电视节目更加剧了这样的情况。”她告诉《每日野兽》说:“我们的电视从来都没有教育意义,因此仍在传递给男性的根深蒂固的性别歧视概念——‘女性只是玩物’还在使我们丧失人性。”这样一来,贝卢斯科尼离任后还需要不止一年的时间来恢复。
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