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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 4 - TEXT TWO

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2019年01月30日

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A line of water bottles that had become a symbol of environmental responsibility has been removed from the shelves of Canada's leading outdoor gear retailer over concerns about a chemical used in its manufacture.
The Mountain Equipment Co-op, which is based in Vancouver, British Columbia, removed the bottles, sold under the brand name Nalgene, and other polycarbonate containers from its 11 large-scale stores on Wednesday. The retailer said that it would not restock the bottles, which are made by Nalge Nunc International in Rochester, a unit of Thermo Fisher Scientific, until Health Canada completed a review of bisphenol-a, or B.P.A., a chemical used to make hard, transparent plastics as well as liners for food cans. “We've been following the B.P.A. issue for at least three years,” said Tim Southam, a spokesman for Mountain Equipment. “The decision we've taken this week does not mean that polycarbonate products will never return to our stores. We're just seeking some certainty about this chemical.”
Church and environmental groups in Canada have mounted campaigns against bottled water because of concerns about the huge amount of plastic used in containers. As a result, the reusable Nalgene bottles have become ubiquitous on college campuses and elsewhere.
Polycarbonate plastic, which can only be produced by using B.P.A., creates bottles that are transparent and almost as hard as glass, but particularly shatter-resistant. Recently, however, the use of B.P.A.-based plastics in food containers has been questioned in Canada by Environmental Defence, a Toronto-based group. Environmentalists in the United States are also raising concerns about the chemical. Last year, San Francisco's board of governors passed a local law banning the use of the chemical in children's products. B.P.A. was removed from the ordinance before it went into effect, however, after an industry lawsuit. Critics point to studies dating back to 1936 showing that the chemical can disrupt the hormonal system.
While there is little dispute about that, the plastics industry, supported by several studies from government agencies in Japan, North America and Europe, contends that polycarbonate bottles contain very little of the chemical and release only insignificant amounts of B.P.A. into the bodies of users. “Rarely has a chemical been the subject of such intense scientific testing and scrutiny, and still, important agencies across the globe agree that there is no danger posed to humans from polycarbonate bottles,” Tom Cummins, the director of Research and Development Department at Nalge Nunc, said in a statement.
Rick Smith, the executive director of Environmental Defence, said that a paper published by 38 scientists after a government-sponsored conference in the United States found that the lack of research on the effects of B.P.A. on humans was a concern that required further investigation. Steven G. Hentges, the executive director of the American Chemistry Council's polycarbonate group, takes issue with that report's worries and points to a separate expert panel report published by the United States Department of Health and Human Services last month. In its 396-page report, which looked only at the impact of B.P.A. on reproduction, the panel said it had “negligible concern” about the chemical's effect on adult reproductive systems but raised some concerns about its impact on children and pregnant women.
1. The word “ubiquitous” (Line 2, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] omnipresent
[B] popular
[C] common
[D] usual
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the local law passed by San Francisco's board of governors?
[A] This law forbade the use of B.P.A. in food containers for children.
[B] This law was not enforced because of an industry lawsuit that was against the use of B.P.A.
[C] This law was revised to allow B.P.A. be used in children's products.
[D] This law went into effect before B.P.A. was removed.
3. According to Tom Cummins, which one of the following is NOT true of B.P.A. ?
[A] B.P.A. is rarely tested and scrutinized so intensely.
[B] The testing and scrutiny done to the other chemical are no comparison with that to B.P.A.
[C] That Polycarbonate bottles containing B.P.A. are not dangerous to humans is supported by multiple evidences.
[D] Polycarbonate bottles containing B.P.A. can be used safely by humans.
4. From the separate expert panel report it can be inferred that _____.
[A] B.P.A. has no effect on reproduction
[B] B.P.A. has trifling impact on children and pregnant women
[C] B.P.A. has trifling impact on adult reproductive systems
[D] B.P.A. has great effect on reproduction
5. The author's attitude to the use of Nalgene bottles can be said to be _____.
[A] negative
[B] positive
[C] biased
[D] unclear

1. The word “ubiquitous” (Line 2, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] omnipresent
[B] popular
[C] common
[D] usual
1. ubiquitous(第三段第二行)这个词最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 无所不在的
[B] 普遍的
[C] 普通的
[D] 平常的
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:猜词题。要根据上下文来判断该词的意思,文章第三段讲,当时由于加拿大教会和环境组织害怕大量使用塑料制造容器,所以发动了许多运动。而因为Nalgene牌的瓶子可以重复使用,具有环保特征,因此在校园和其他许多地方应该是普及了,到处能看得到了。因此,答案为A。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the local law passed by San Francisco's board of governors?
[A] This law forbade the use of B. P. A. in food containers for children.
[B] This law was not enforced because of an industry lawsuit that was against the use of B. P. A.
[C] This law was revised to allow B. P. A. be used in chil-dren's products.
[D] This law went into effect before B. P. A was removed.
2. 关于旧金山州长会议上通过的法律,下列哪个选项是正确的?
[A] 该法律禁止在儿童的食品容器的制造过程中使用B. P. A.。
[B] 该法律因为一个行业法反对使用B. P. A.而没有得以实施。
[C] 该法律经修订后,允许在儿童产品中使用B. P. A.。
[D] 该法律在移除B. P. A. 之前已经生效。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第四段提到,旧金山州长会议曾经通过了一项法律,该法律禁止在儿童产品中使用B. P. A. , 但是这个法律还没有实施的时候,就因为有一个行业诉讼,B. P. A. 就被从这项法律中除去了。由此可以推测,该法律可能同时规定了几种化学物质都不能用于制造儿童产品,后来只是重新修订了该法律,将B. P. A. 除去了。因此,答案C符合题意。
3. According to Tom Cummins, which one of the following is NOT true of B. P. A.?
[A] B. P. A. is rarely tested and scrutinized so intensely.
[B] The testing and scrutiny done to the other chemical are no comparison with that to B. P. A.
[C] That polycarbonate bottles containing B. P. A. are not dangerous to humans is supported by multiple evidences.
[D] Polycarbonate bottles containing B. P. A. can be used safely by humans.
3. 根据Tom Cummins所说的,关于B. P. A.,下列哪个选项是不正确的?
[A] B. P. A. 很少受到这么严格的审查和检测。
[B] 对其他化学物质所做的审查和检测无法与B. P. A. 相比。
[C] 有多种证据显示,含有B. P. A. 的聚碳酸酯瓶子对人类没有危险。
[D] 含有B. P. A. 的聚碳酸酯瓶子可以让人类安全地使用。
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。这个题目是有关Tom Cummins的看法的,这在第五段有所提及。选项A和B都针对他陈述的前半部分内容,关键是看这个句子如何理解:Rarely has a chemical been the subject of such intense scientific testing and scrutiny...,意思是说很少有一种化学物质能受到这么严格的测验,也就是说B. P. A. 受到的测验很严格,那么选项A是错误的。选项C和D符合后半句的陈述。因此,答案为A。
4. From the separate expert panel report it can be inferred that _____.
[A] B. P. A. has no effect on reproduction
[B] B. P. A. has trifling impact on children and pregnant women
[C] B. P. A. has trifling impact on adult reproductive systems
[D] B. P. A. has great effect on reproduction
4. 由独立专家小组的报告可以推断出 _____。
[A] B. P. A. 对生殖没有影响
[B] B. P. A. 对孩子和孕妇有很微弱的影响
[C] B. P. A. 对成人的生殖系统影响甚微
[D] B. P. A. 对生殖有很大的影响
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。题干是关于独立专家小组的报告的,这在文章第六段有所提及。这个报告只研究了B. P. A. 对于生殖的影响,它并不怎么担忧该化学物质对成人生殖系统的影响,但对该化学物质对儿童和孕妇的影响却有一定忧虑。由此可以推断,该化学物质可能对儿童和孕妇有一定影响,但对成人的生殖系统影响不大。选项A说对生殖没有影响,过于绝对,因为文中多次提到有一定影响,但不是很大。因此,答案为C。
5. The author's attitude to the use of Nalgene bottles can be said to be _____.
[A] negative
[B] positive
[C] biased
[D] unclear
5. 作者对于使用Nalgene牌瓶子的态度可以说是 _____。
[A] 否定的
[B] 肯定的
[C] 有偏见的
[D] 不明朗的
答案:B 难度系数:☆
分析:态度题。这篇文章分析了人们对于聚碳酸酯瓶子中的化学物质B. P. A. 的看法和争议,列出了一些科学研究和判断的结果,可以得出结论,就是该瓶子中的B. P. A. 对人类的影响有限,因此作者对使用该瓶子的态度是肯定的。

由于担心在其制造过程中使用了一种化学物质,一款本来已经成为环保标志的水瓶在加拿大最有名的户外用品零售柜台下架。
周三,位于不列颠哥伦比亚省温哥华市的高山设备合作商店将其11个大型商场中Nalgene牌的瓶子和其他聚碳酸酯容器下架。该零售商称,不会再重新进这些瓶子,直到加拿大卫生署完成了双酚-a(即B.P.A.)的调查后再予以考虑是否恢复进货。这些瓶子由位于罗彻斯特的Nalge Nunc国际公司制造,该公司隶属Thermo Fisher Scientific。双酚-a是一种用于制造高硬度透明塑料及食物罐镶条的化学物质。“高山设备”的发言人Tim Southam说:“我们跟踪B.P.A.事件至少已经有三年了,我们这周所做的决定并不说明今后聚碳酸酯制品永远都不会上架了。我们目前试图得到关于这种化学物质的确切信息。”
加拿大教会和环境组织曾经因为担心制造容器需要使用大量的塑料而发动了反对瓶装水的运动。最后,这种可重复使用的Nalgene牌的瓶子就在大学校园和其他地方普及开来。
聚碳酸酯塑料只能用B.P.A.制造,用这种塑料制造的瓶子是透明的,硬度几乎与玻璃一样,却非常防摔。但是最近,总部在加拿大多伦多的环境防卫组织对使用B.P.A.塑料制造的食品容器提出了质疑。美国的环境保护主义者也日益关注该化学物质。去年,旧金山的州长会议通过了一项地方法律,禁止将该化学物质用于儿童用品。但是,在该法令还没有实施之前,B.P.A.就在一起行业诉讼后被从该法律中移除了。批评者指出,早在1936年就有研究表明,这种化学物质可以破坏荷尔蒙系统。
虽然在这点上没有争议,但是塑料行业引用了日本、北美洲和欧洲政府机构的几项研究,认为聚碳酸酯中该化学物质的含量极少,且只会将微量的B.P.A.释放到使用者体内。“对一种化学物质进行如此周密的科学测验和审查是很罕见的,再说全世界的重要机构都认为聚碳酸酯瓶对人体没有危害。” Nalge Nunc研发部主任Tom Cumins在一次声明中这样说。
环境防卫组织的执行理事Rick Smith称,38名科学家在一次政府资助的会议结束后在美国发表了一篇论文,该论文指出,B.P.A.对人类的影响方面的研究不足,需要进行进一步的调查。美国化学委员会聚碳酸酯小组执行理事Steven G. Hentges反对该报告提出的担忧,指出上个月美国健康与人类服务部发表了一篇独立的专家小组报告。这个长达396页的报告中仅仅侧重于B.P.A.对于生殖的影响,该专家小组在报告中表示,该化学物质对成人的生殖系统“影响甚微”,但表示对孩子和怀孕的妇女有一定影响。
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