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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 5 - TEXT TWO

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2019年01月31日

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Richard Burton probably knew nothing of the small South African town of Cullinan when he bought yet another chunky diamond for Elizabeth Taylor in 1969. Now the Cullinan mine itself, like so many of the diamonds unearthed there, is about to change hands. On November 22nd De Beers, the diamond giant that has owned the mine since 1930, said it was selling it to a consortium led by Petra Diamonds, one of South Africa's emerging diamond producers, for 1 billion rand in cash. Provided regulators approve the deal, the transfer should take place by the middle of next year.
De Beers is selling because the mine is no longer profitable, despite attempts to turn it around. But Petra reckons the mine still has another 20 years of production in it and plans to extract at least 1m carats a year. The unexploited “Centenary Cut” deposit, which lies under the existing mine, could yield a lot more. This is good news for the mine's 1,000 or so employees and for the town, which has depended on the diamond business since Sir Thomas Cullinan discovered a prospect there in 1898 that contained kimberlite, a rock that can be rich in diamonds. The mine, established in 1903, is one of 30 or so kimberlite diamond mines in the world, and is believed to be still the world's second-most-valuable diamond resource.
Petra is a relatively small outfit, listed on London's Alternative Investment Market, that specialises in buying mines that bigger companies see as marginal. Its trick is to extract better returns by rationalising production and processing, and keeping operating costs and overheads down. Petra has already bought two of De Beers's loss-making South African mines—both of which are now profitable—and is finalising the 78.5m rand acquisition of the group's underground operation in Kimberley, which stopped working in 2005.
It already operates four mines in South Africa and has promising exploration in Angola (a joint-venture with BHP Billiton), Sierra Leone and Botswana. Petra expects to produce over 1m carats by 2010—quite a jump from 180,474 carats in the year to June. The company has yet to make a profit, but expects to be making money by the middle of next year.
In the 1990s De Beers decided that it was no longer a good idea to try to monopolise the diamond market. It started focusing on higher returns rather than market share, and has been revamping its mine portfolio, selling off mines that are no longer profitable and investing in more enticing operations, such as its mine off the west coast of South Africa, its Voorspoed operation in the Free State province, and two new mines in Canada.
This has opened the way for a new class of diamond firm that operates in the vast middle ground between the world's handful of large producers and a multitude of much smaller exploration firms. The Cullinan deal should entrench Petra in this middle tier, alongside firms such as Kimberley Diamond and Trans Hex. But even if it does reach its target of 1m carats a year, Petra will still not be able to match the sparkle of the giants. Last year De Beers produced 51m carats from its mines in Botswana, Namibia, South Africa and Tanzania, which amounted to 40% of the world's diamonds by value.
1. The Cullinan mine in deal was named after _____.
[A] the original name of the town
[B] the name of its first owner
[C] the name of its discoverer
[D] the name of the town's first colonist
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the Cullinan mine?
[A] The mine is the only business of the town which employs most of the local residents.
[B] It can be mined for another 20 years given Petra's advanced technology.
[C] It is the world's second largest diamond mine with a yearly capacity of 1m carats.
[D] Whether the mine will maintain its profitability is yet to know.
3. Petra's operating philosophy can be said as _____.
[A] to make profits by reducing the costs
[B] to exploit the surrounding areas of an existing mine
[C] to integrate the resources of all the money-losing small mines
[D] to restructure the mine portfolio and to optimize the process management
4. De Beers has made changes on its development strategy because _____.
[A] it plans to shrink its market share and ends its long-term monopoly
[B] it wants to open the way for the middle tier of diamond market
[C] it switches its attention to making larger profits
[D] it wants to turn around the loss-making mines by cooperating with companies of smaller size
5. The future of the new class of diamond firm is _____.
[A] promising
[B] dim
[C] unknown
[D] frustrating

1. The Cullinan mine in deal was named after _____.
[A] the original name of the town
[B] the name of its first owner
[C] the name of its discoverer
[D] the name of the town's first colonist
1. 正在交易的Cullinan矿是以 _____ 命名的。
[A] 小镇原来的名字
[B] 第一个矿主的名字
[C] 矿场发现者的名字
[D] 小镇第一个殖民者的名字
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆
分析:细节题。该矿的名字为Cullinan,从第一段可以看到,它所在的小镇的名字也是这个,但是第二段提到1898年Thomas Cullinan爵士发现了这个矿含有金伯利岩,1903年该矿成立。那么可以推断,这个镇和矿的名字都是以Cullinan爵士、即其第一个发现者的名字命名的。因此,正确答案为C。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the Cullinan mine?
[A] The mine is the only business of the town which employs most of the local residents.
[B] It can be mined for another 20 years given Petra's advanced technology.
[C] It is the world's second largest diamond mine with a yearly capacity of 1m carats.
[D] Whether the mine will maintain its profitability is yet to know.
2. 关于Cullinan矿,以下的陈述中哪个是正确的?
[A] 该矿是小镇唯一的工业,大多数当地人在这里工作。
[B] 有了Petra的先进技术,该矿还可以继续开采20年。
[C] 它是世界上第二大钻石矿,年产钻石100万克拉。
[D] 该矿是否还会保持赢利还是一个未知数。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第二段指出,小镇上的大部分人都依赖钻石产业为生,但这并不意味着他们都在矿上工作,因此选项A错误。文章第三段谈到,Petra的赢利策略主要是改进流程、降低成本,并没有强调使用先进的技术,因此选项B错误。选项C,在第二段提到Cullinan目前仍被认为是世界第二大最有价值的钻石矿,但并不一定在规模上也是第二大的,而且年产100万克拉指的不是该矿的年产量,而是Petra公司的计划年产量。选项D,文章没有明确指出该矿将来究竟是否会赢利,因此,选项D为正确的陈述。
3. Petra's operating philosophy can be said as _____.
[A] to make better profits by reducing the costs
[B] to exploit the surrounding areas of an existing mine
[C] to integrate the resources of all the money-losing small mines
[D] to restructure the mine portfolio and to optimize the process management
3. Petra的运营理念可以说是 _____。
[A] 通过削减成本来取得更好的收益
[B] 从已经存在的矿山周围寻找资源
[C] 整合那些亏损的小矿的资源
[D] 调整矿产组合并且优化流程管理
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第三段提到,Petra专门收购大公司认为没有价值的矿产,其秘诀就在于通过合理化的生产和加工,降低运营和管理成本来获得更好的收益。可以看出,公司的运营理念就是通过自己的努力,比如使生产、加工合理化,降低费用来赢利,因此,选项A最为符合。
4. De Beers has made changes on its development strategy because _____.
[A] it plans to shrink its market share and ends its long-term monopoly
[B] it wants to open the way for the middle tier of diamond market
[C] it switches its attention to making larger profits
[D] it wants to turn around the loss-making mines by cooperating with companies of smaller size
4. De Beers改变了自己的发展战略,因为 _____。
[A] 它计划缩小其市场份额并中止长期的垄断
[B] 它希望可以为钻石市场的中间阶层开辟道路
[C] 它把注意力转移到如何谋取更大的利润上
[D] 它想要通过与小公司合作来扭转那些亏损的矿
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第五段提到,De Beers认为试图垄断市场已经不是什么好策略了,它开始关心更高的利润而不是市场份额了,还采取了一系列的措施来实现这个策略。因此,它改变了自己的发展策略,主要是想要谋取更大的利润,选项C为正确答案。选项A是公司改变策略的方式。选项B不符合原文内容。选项D具有一定的迷惑性,但要注意De Beers只是将一些矿卖给小公司,这并不意味着它与小公司合作,因此该选项错误。
5. The future of the new class of diamond firm is _____.
[A] promising
[B] dim
[C] unknown
[D] frustrating
5. 钻石业新阶层的未来是 _____。
[A] 有前景的
[B] 暗淡的
[C] 未知的
[D] 困难重重的
答案:C 难度系数:☆
分析:推理题。关于钻石业新出现的中间阶层,文章只是介绍了其刚刚开始发展的情况,但是未来会怎么样文章并没有给出明确的看法,因此,答案为C,其余三个选项的态度显然不符合题意。

Richard Burton在1969年为Elizabeth Taylor新购一块钻石时,他可能对南非小镇Cullinan一无所知。现在Cullinan连同埋在地下的钻石一起都将易主了。11月22日,De Beers,这个从1930年起就一直是该矿矿主的钻石巨头,说要以10亿兰特现金的价格将其卖给以Petra Diamonds为首的财团。Petra Diamonds是南非新兴的钻石制造商。如果管理者同意达成这笔交易,该矿将于明年年中易手。
De Beers要做这笔买卖是因为尽管采取了很多措施,该矿却不再能提供丰厚的利润了。但是Petra估计,该矿还可以再开采20年,并计划每年最少挖掘100万克拉。而位于该矿下方尚未被开采的“百年切割”层,其储量更为丰富。这对于该矿1000名左右的雇工以及这个小镇来说是一个好消息,从1898年Thomas Cullinan爵士发现该矿含有金伯利岩(可能富含钻石的一种岩石)后,这个小镇就一直依赖钻石生意生活。该矿建立于1903年,是世界上约30个金伯利岩钻石矿之一,现在仍被认为是世界上第二大最有价值的钻石矿。
Petra是一个比较小的商业组织,在伦敦交易所另类投资市场上市。该组织专门收购大公司认为不重要的矿产,其秘诀在于,通过合理化的生产和加工,以及降低运营和管理成本来获得更好的收益。Petra已经在南非收购了De Beers的两家亏损的矿(这两个矿目前都在盈利),目前也即将完成以7850万兰特收购该组织在金伯利地下矿的业务。该矿已于2005年停产。
目前该公司在南非经营着四座矿,在安哥拉(与PEP Billiton的合资公司)、塞拉利昂和博茨瓦纳也有前景非常好的勘探项目。Petra希望到2010年时,产量可以超过100万克拉,相比6月份前的180474克拉的年产量来说是一个飞跃。公司现在还未赢利,但可望从明年年中开始赚钱。
在20世纪90年代,De Beers认为试图垄断钻石市场不再是个好做法了,它开始关心更高的回报率而不是市场份额了,也一直在修改它的矿产组合,卖掉不再盈利的矿产,投资于更让人动心的项目,如它在南非西海岸的矿产、自由州省的Voorspoed项目以及加拿大的两处新矿。
这就为钻石行业的一个新阶层开辟了道路,这个阶层处于世界上少数的大生产商和众多小勘探公司之间的那片广阔的区域。Cullinan的这笔交易确立了Petra在这个中间阶层中的地位,类似的公司还有Kimberley Diamond和Trans Hex。不过即使达到了其年产量100万克拉的目标,Petra还是远不能与那些钻石业巨头相比。去年,De Beers在博茨瓦纳、纳米比亚、南非和坦桑尼亚的矿的产量为5100万克拉,估计价值占到全世界钻石总价值的40%。
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