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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 5 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年02月01日

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European Union environmental officials have determined that two kinds of genetically modified corn could harm butterflies, affect food chains and disturb life in rivers and streams, and they have proposed a ban on the sale of the seeds, which are made by DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta. The preliminary decisions are circulating within the European Commission, which has the final say. Some officials there are skeptical of a ban that would upset the powerful biotechnology industry and could exacerbate tensions with important trading partners like the United States. The seeds are not available on the European market for cultivation.
In the decisions, the environment commissioner, Stavros Dimas, contends that the genetically modified corn, or maize could affect certain butterfly species, specifically the monarch, and other beneficial insects. For instance, research this year indicates that larvae of the monarch butterfly exposed to the genetically modified corn “behave differently than other larvae”. In the decision concerning the corn seeds produced by Dow and Pioneer, Mr. Dimas calls “potential damage on the environment irreversible”. In the decision on Syngenta's corn, he says that “the level of risk generated by the cultivation of this product for the environment is unacceptable”.
A decision by the European Union to bar cultivation of the genetically modified crops would be the first of its kind in the trade bloc, and would intensify the continuing battle over genetically modified corn. Banning the applications for corn crops also would mark a bold new step for European environmental authorities, who are already aggressively pursuing regulations on emissions from cars and aircraft, setting it at odds with the United States and angering industries.
“These products have been grown in the U.S. and other countries for years,” said Stephen Norton, a spokesman for the United States trade representative. “We are not aware of any other case when a product has been rejected after having been reviewed and determined safe by European food safety authorities,” he said.
Barbara Helfferich, a spokeswoman for Mr. Dimas, declined to comment on the specifics of the procedure because commissioners had not yet made a final decision. But she said that the European Union was within its rights to make decisions based on the “precautionary principle” even when scientists had found no definitive evidence proving products can cause harm. She said that the decisions by Mr. Dimas could go before the commission within a few weeks, but she said that no date had been set. In the decisions, Mr. Dimas cited recent research showing that consumption of genetically modified “corn byproducts reduced growth and increased mortality of nontarget stream insects” and that these insects “are important prey for aquatic and riparian predators” and that this could have “unexpected ecosystem-scale consequences”.
Although still preliminary, his decisions could drastically tilt the policy against future approvals of genetically modified crops, said Nathalie Moll, a spokeswoman for Europabio, an industry group with 80 members including Syngenta, Pioneer and Dow. Europabio says that the crops grown using the genetically modified corn are already imported into several European countries, including France and Germany, where they are used to feed animals like cows and chickens.
Rob Gianfranceschi, spokesman at the United States mission to the European Union in Brussels, said it was too early to comment on a decision that had not yet been formalized. But he made clear that the United States remained frustrated with European policies on genetically modified crops.
1. The preliminary decisions are made by _____.
[A] DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta
[B] European Union environmental officials
[C] European Commission
[D] Starvros Dimas
2. To the decisions, the European Commission officials' attitudes are _____.
[A] skeptical
[B] controversial
[C] contradictory
[D] divergent
3. About the decisions, which one of the following statements is TRUE?
[A] The decisions aim to put a ban against the sale of the seeds of genetically modified corn due to political and biological concerns.
[B] The decisions are warmly embraced by all EU members but bitterly rejected by their trade partners.
[C] The decisions could probably be made even if no definitive evidence proving the products harmful is found.
[D] There is low possibility that the decisions would be approved by the European Commission.
4. Mr. Dimas cited many researches on the genetically modified corn in his decisions in order to _____.
[A] dispel some officials' doubt on his decisions
[B] enhance the strength of his decision-making
[C] show the latest achievements on the research
[D] assure that they can be presented before the commission with solid evidence
5. The word “tilt”(Line 1, Paragraph 6) most probably means _____.
[A] incline
[B] affect
[C] induce
[D] evoke

1. The preliminary decisions are made by _____.
[A] DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences and Syngenta
[B] European Union environmental officials
[C] European Commission
[D] Starvros Dimas
1. 这些初步决议是由 _____ 拟定的。
[A] DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences和Syngenta公司
[B] 欧盟环境官员
[C] 欧洲委员会
[D] Starvros Dimas先生
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。本题具有一定的难度,文章一开头就提到,欧盟环境官员确定了一些事实,并且建议禁止销售转基因作物的种子。然后就提到决议在欧盟委员会内部通报。这样给人的感觉仿佛是这些官员拟定的决议,但文章下面的论述多次提到Dimas先生在决议中的观点,第六段也提到他的决议虽然是初步的,但可能有很大影响。由此看来,该决议是Dimas先生提出的可能性大,答案为D。
2. To the decisions, the European Commission officials' attitudes are _____.
[A] skeptical
[B] controversial
[C] contradictory
[D] divergent
2. 欧洲委员会官员对于这些决议的态度为 _____。
[A] 怀疑的
[B] 有争议的
[C] 矛盾的
[D] 有分歧的
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第一段提到,这些决议目前在欧洲委员会内部通报,一些官员对禁令表示怀疑,主要是害怕禁令会影响外交关系。而从文章下面的部分可以看出,这些决议仿佛在欧洲委员会中间得到了一些支持,那么可见,这些官员所持的态度是有分歧的。因此,选项D最为符合题意。选项B有一定的合理性和迷惑性,但是相比选项D显得不够准确。
3. About the decisions, which one of the following statements is TRUE?
[A] The decisions aim to put a ban against the sale of the seeds of genetically modified corn due to political and biological concerns.
[B] The decisions are warmly embraced by all EU members but bitterly rejected by their trade partners.
[C] The decisions could probably be made even if no definitive evidence proving the products harmful is found.
[D] There is low possibility that the decisions would be approved by the European Commission.
3. 关于这些决定,以下陈述中哪一个是正确的?
[A] 这些决定禁止出售转基因谷物的种子,主要是出于政治和生物上的原因。
[B] 这些决议受到欧盟成员国的热烈欢迎,但是却遭到了其贸易伙伴的反感和拒绝。
[C] 即使找不到可以证明这些产品有害的确凿证据,这些决议也有可能获得通过。
[D] 这些决议被欧洲委员会批准的可能性不大。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,从全文可以看出,这些决议只是初步拟定的,还没有最后确定,而且文章也没有明确说明是否同时出于政治和生物上的考虑,因此该选项不正确。选项B,文章并没有提到欧盟所有成员国是否都对该项决议表示热烈欢迎。选项C,文章第五段中,Dimas先生的发言人谈到了这一点,说即使没有确凿证据,欧洲委员会也可以基于“预防原则”做出决定,因此这个选项是正确的。选项D,目前关于该决议还没有明确的说法,所以该选项错误。因此,答案为C。
4. Mr. Dimas cited many researches on the genetically modified corn in his decisions in order to _____.
[A] dispel some officials' doubt on his decisions
[B] enhance the strength of his decision-making
[C] show the latest achievements on the research
[D] assure that they can be presented before the commission with solid evidence
4. Dimas先生在其决议中引用了许多关于转基因谷物的研究,他这样做是为了 _____。
[A] 打消一些官员对他的决议的疑虑
[B] 使自己的决议更有说服力
[C] 展示这方面研究的最新成果
[D] 确保他的决议在欧洲委员会面前有强有力的证据支持
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。Dimas先生在其拟定的决议中多次引用了关于转基因产品的研究,其目的是要证实自己的决议是有根据的,这样就更有说服力。因此选项B是正确的。选项A,他自己拟定决议在先,这些官员怀疑在后,因而拟订时官员们不一定存在这种想法。选项C在文中没有提到。选项D,这不是其主要的目的。
5. The word “tilt” (Line 1, Paragraph 6) most probably means _____.
[A] incline
[B] affect
[C] induce
[D] evoke
5. tilt(第六段第一行)这个词最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 使倾向于
[B] 影响
[C] 导致,引起
[D] 引起,博得
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆
分析:猜词题。根据上下文Although still preliminary, his decisions could drastically tilt the policy against future approvals of genetically modified crops, said Nathalie Moll, a spokeswoman for Europabio, an industry group with 80 members including Syngenta, Pioneer and Dow.可见,尽管他的决议还是初步的,但是却能够让政策倾向于反对未来批准转基因食品。因此,A最为符合题意。

欧盟环境官员已经确定,有两种转基因作物会伤害蝴蝶、影响食物链、妨害水生物。他们还建议,禁止出售该作物的种子,这些种子是由DuPont Pioneer, Dow Agrosciences和Syngenta公司研制的。初步决议在欧盟委员会内部通报,由该委员会做出最终决定。该禁令对蓬勃发展的生物技术业是一个打击,也可能会恶化与重要贸易伙伴(如美国)之间的紧张关系,因此一些官员对禁令持怀疑态度。目前在欧洲市场还没有销售这些种子用于耕作。
在决议中,环境专员Stavros Dimas称,转基因谷物或玉米可能对一些蝴蝶品种有害,尤其是黑脉金斑蝶,对其他一些益虫也有害处。比如,今年的一项研究表明,在转基因谷类中生长的黑脉金斑蝶幼虫“和其他幼虫的表现不一样”。在关于Dow和 Pioneer公司生产的种子的决议中,Dimas先生认为“对环境潜在的危害是不可逆转的”。而就Syngenta公司生产的谷物,他说“培育这种产品带来的风险级别对环境来说是不能接受的”。
欧盟决定禁止种植转基因作物,这在贸易集团中是首例,也将激化一直以来围绕转基因作物的斗争。禁止将该技术用于谷类作物也标志着欧洲环境机构大胆地迈出新的一步,这些机构已大手笔地为汽车和飞机的废气排放制定了规则,而这项禁令使得他们将自己置于与美国及对此不满的行业的纷争中。
“这些产品已经在美国和其他国家生长数年了,”美国贸易代表发言人Stephen Norton这样说,“我们还不知道有这样的先例,那就是一种产品已经通过欧洲卫生安全机构的审查并被认定为安全,现在却又被否定。”
Dimas先生的女发言人Barbara Helfferich不愿意评论程序的细节,因为委员们还未做出最后的决定。但是她说,欧盟有权基于“预防原则”做出决定,即使科学家并未发现确凿的证据来证明该产品有害。她说Dimas先生的决定在未来几周内就可出台,但具体日期还未确定。在这些决定中,Dimas引用了最近的一些研究,这些研究表明,对转基因“谷物副产品”的消费会“抑制生长,增加非目标性水生昆虫的死亡率”,而且这些昆虫“是水生动物的重要食物”,因此这可能产生“无法预料的影响整体生态系统规模的后果”。
尽管他的决定还是初步的,但是却会使未来反对批准转基因谷物的政策向一边倾斜,这是Europabio的女发言人Nathalie Moll的观点。Europabio是一个拥有80名成员的行业组织,Syngenta, Pioneer和Dow都是其成员。Europabio称,运用转基因谷物种子种植的作物已经进口到几个欧洲国家,包括法国和德国,用于饲养牛和鸡这样的家畜家禽。
赴欧盟的美国代表团发言人Rob Gianfranceschi称,目前就对尚未正式出台的决定做出评论还为时过早,但是他明确表示,美国对于欧洲对转基因作物的政策表示失望。
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