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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 7 - TEXT THREE

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2019年02月03日

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Breaking records can become monotonous after a while. The Baltic Dry Index, which tracks the costs of shipping “dry” goods such as iron ore, coal and grain around the world, dipped this week after hitting an all-time high on November 13th. But it is still up 154% from a year earlier.
As with so much to do with commodities, the extraordinary rise in freight rates is partly because of China's appetite for raw materials. A dearth of new ships, and flotillas waiting to berth in overcrowded ports (especially in Australia), are also driving rates higher. The cost of shipping iron ore from Brazil to China is now more than the cost of digging up the ore itself. Yet what makes the problem worse (or better, if you are a ship-owner) are the ways in which shifts in supply and demand are altering trade patterns around the world, especially in commodities like iron ore and coal, which are the most frequently traded cargoes in international shipping.
Take iron ore. China's biggest suppliers—Australia and India—have been unable to cope with the surge in demand. According to Icap Hyde, a firm of shipbrokers, Australia's market share of China's iron-ore imports fell from 70% around 15 years ago to about 40% last year. Earlier this year, to ensure enough iron ore for its own industries, India imposed tariffs on sales of iron ore abroad. Over the years, Chinese steel producers have scouted elsewhere for the metal—mainly in Brazil, where they have secured long-term supply contracts. But it takes three times as long to move cargo from Brazil to China as it does from Australia, which, in effect, reduces shipping capacity for each shipment of Brazilian iron ore to China that comes at Australia's expense.
Meanwhile, China used to export much more coal than it imported, according to Jon Chappell of JPMorgan. As recently as 2001, its net exports of coal were 89m tons. So far this year, it has imported almost as much as it has exported. Other East Asian countries such as Japan, South Korea relied heavily on China for coal and now have to import it from Australia, South Africa and the Americas. So does India. Meanwhile, drought in Australia has meant that large Asian importers have had to ship grain from as far away as America.
In general, points out Icap Hyde, there is an “oceanic imbalance” between the Atlantic and Pacific. Supply is spread across both oceans, even as demand is concentrated in Asia. Shipping ton-miles for the major “dry” goods, which indicates the extent to which more freight is moved over longer distances, rose by 45% between 2001 and 2006. That is good news for freight rates, if any more were needed. By all accounts, the bull run is likely to last until 2009, when a huge number of new ships are due to be launched. Let's hope they are built for trans-oceanic travel.
1. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the Baltic Dry Index?
[A] The index is increased by 154% compared with the previous year.
[B] The index keeps track on the trade cost of all sorts of dry goods.
[C] The index has been breaking records for at least a few years.
[D] The index is monotonous during this period.
2. The word “scout” (Line 4, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] change
[B] turn
[C] seek
[D] outsource
3. Australia's market share of China's iron-ore imports went through a steep fall because _____.
[A] the ports in Australia are overcrowded
[B] the shipping capacity is reduced
[C] the iron-ore demand of China is increased greatly
[D] the tariffs are imposed on sales of iron ore
4. The “oceanic imbalance” between Atlantic and Pacific refers to _____.
[A] the imbalance in dry goods supply
[B] the imbalance in dry goods demand
[C] the imbalance in shipping ton-miles for the dry goods
[D] the imbalance in freight rates
5. The bull run of dry goods shipping will most probably be ended by _____.
[A] rise of the shipping ton-miles for the major “dry” goods
[B] the shifts in supply and demand
[C] the increase of the shipping capacity
[D] the launch of new ships in great number

1. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the Baltic Dry Index?
[A] The index is increased by 154% compared with the previous year.
[B] The index keeps track on the trade cost of all sorts of dry goods.
[C] The index has been breaking records for at least a few years.
[D] The index is monotonous during this period.
1. 关于波罗的海干货系数,下列哪个陈述是正确的?
[A] 和前一年相比,该系数增长了154%。
[B] 该系数追踪各种干货的交易成本。
[C] 该系数已经保持了几年的高位增长。
[D] 该系数在这一阶段一直没变。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第一段有关该系数的描述,选项A,原文意为该系数是上一年的154%,也就是增长了54%,因此该陈述错误。选项B,目前该系数在到达历史最高位后有了回落,但未来走势如何还不能确定。选项C,第一段提到每天这个系数都在刷新纪录,现在出现了一个回落,那么可以推断该系数处于历史高位。同时,文章第一句话也指出:Breaking records can become monotonous after a while. 可见,这种打破纪录式的增长也不是什么新鲜事了,而是不断出现的。选项D,从系数每天刷新纪录可以看出,系数一直在变化。因此,选项C是正确描述。
2. The word “scout” (Line 4, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] change
[B] turn
[C] seek
[D] outsource
2. scout这个词(第三段第四行)最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 改变
[B] 转向
[C] 寻找
[D] 外包
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:猜词题。原文的句子为:Over the years, Chinese steel producers have scouted elsewhere for the metal—mainly in Brazil, where they have secured long-term supply contracts. 该句中文意为“这些年来,中国钢铁制造商在其他地方寻找铁矿石,主要是在巴西。他们与巴西签署了长期的供货合同”,通过上下文可以发现,“寻找”最符合本题的含义。
3. Australia's market share of China's iron-ore imports went through a steep fall because _____.
[A] the ports in Australia are overcrowded
[B] the shipping capacity is reduced
[C] the iron-ore demand of China is increased greatly
[D] the tariffs are imposed on sales of iron ore
3. 对中国的铁矿石出口中,澳大利亚的份额减少了,这是因为 _____。
[A] 澳大利亚的港口过于拥挤
[B] 运输能力下降了
[C] 中国对铁矿石的需求量大增
[D] 对铁矿石的销售征收关税
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第三段提到,澳大利亚和印度现在满足不了中国对铁矿石激增的需求,中国不得不到巴西去签订铁矿石供货合同。因此,澳大利亚占中国铁矿石进口份额的减少主要是中国对铁矿石需求的增加,它不能够满足这种需求导致的。因此,答案为C。
4. The “oceanic imbalance” between Atlantic and Pacific refers to _____.
[A] the imbalance in dry goods supply
[B] the imbalance in dry goods demand
[C] the imbalance in shipping ton-miles for the dry goods
[D] the imbalance in freight rates
4. 太平洋和大西洋之间的“海洋失衡”指的是 _____。
[A] 干货供应的失衡
[B] 干货需求的失衡
[C] 干货运输吨英里的失衡
[D] 运费的失衡
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章最后一段提到,大西洋和太平洋间存在着“海洋失衡”,虽然需求集中在亚洲,但是供应却是跨越两个大洋,那么,这种失衡其实就是干货需求的失衡。可见,选项B为正确答案。
5. The bull run of dry goods shipping will most probably be ended by _____.
[A] rise of the shipping ton-miles for the major “dry” goods
[B] the shifts in supply and demand
[C] the increase of the shipping capacity
[D] the launch of new ships in great number
5. 干货运输的牛市最有可能因为 _____ 结束。
[A] 主要干货运输吨英里增加
[B] 供求波动
[C] 运输能力的提高
[D] 大量新船下水
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆
分析:细节题。文章最后一段提到,牛市可能于2009年结束,到那时会有大量新船下水。船的数量增加,运费就会降低,干货运输系数就可能降低。因此,选项D最为符合题意。

过不了多久,打破纪录就会变得司空见惯。波罗的海干货系数是用来追踪显示全球运送“干”货物的成本的,这些干货包括铁矿石、煤炭以及粮食。该指数在11月13日创下最高纪录后于本周出现回落,但仍然是前一年的154%。
除了货物本身的诸多原因外,海运价格的急剧增长部分程度上是因为中国对原材料的需求。而由于新船舶紧缺,且小型船队经常要在过于拥挤的码头等待停泊(特别是在澳大利亚),这也使得运输价格高涨。目前从巴西往中国运送铁矿石的费用比采掘铁矿石的费用都要高。供需变化正在改变着全世界的贸易形式,特别是对于像铁矿石和煤炭这样的货物,而这些货物又是国际船运中运送最多的货物。而这使得这个问题变得更糟(或者说更好,如果你是船主的话)。
就拿铁矿石来说。中国对最大的供应商——澳大利亚和印度已经不能满足其对铁矿石日益增长的需求。船舶经纪人公司Icap Hyde称,澳大利亚对中国铁矿石出口的份额已经由大约15年前的70%降到了去年的40%。今年年初,印度为确保本国工厂有足够的铁矿石供应,增加了铁矿石的出口关税。这些年来,中国钢铁制造商在其他地方寻找铁矿石,主要是在巴西。他们与巴西签署了长期的供货合同。但是从巴西运货物到中国花费的时间是从澳大利亚到中国的三倍,在运费与从澳大利亚起运相同的情况下,运载量实际上降低了。
另一方面,JPMorgan公司的Jon Chappell说,中国以前出口的煤炭数量要比进口的多得多。2001年,中国净出口的煤炭为8900万吨,而今年到目前为止,其出口和进口几乎持平。其他东亚国家如日本和韩国等,以前的煤炭进口主要依靠中国,而现在也不得不从澳大利亚、南非和美洲进口。印度也是一样。除此之外,澳大利亚的旱灾也使得亚洲的大进口商必须从美洲进口粮食。
Icap Hyde指出,总的来说,大西洋和太平洋之间存在一种“海洋失衡”。虽然需求主要集中在亚洲,但供应却要跨越两洋。主要干货的运输吨英里数是用来衡量长途船运载量的情况的,该数据在2001年到2006年之间增长了45%。如果有更多的船运需求的话,这对于船运费用是个好消息。所有评论都认为,这种牛市行情能延续到2009年,到那时会有许多新船下水。希望这些船只是用于跨洋船运。
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