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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 11 - TEXT TWO

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2019年02月08日

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Not all modern observers of Byzantium have been so willing to associate the city on the Bosphorus with universalism or cultural breadth. While Byzantium's rating has risen recently, it has not entirely shaken off the criticisms dished out in the 18th and 19th centuries, including the devastating verdict of William Lecky, an Irish historian, who in 1869 described the Byzantine empire as “the most thoroughly base and despicable form that civilisation has yet assumed”.
Even Byzantium's modern defenders have tended to set out their case in qualified terms, stressing the empire's relationship to other historical developments. Some see it as a connecting line between classical antiquity and the modern world; others, particularly those who think that civilisations are doomed perpetually to clash, stress the empire's role as a bulwark against Islam, without which Europe as a whole would have turned Muslim. Others again see it as a catalyst for the European Renaissance, especially after Hellenic talent was freed from Byzantine dogmatism.
Judith Herrin, a professor at King's College London, sets out to show that there are far better reasons to study and admire the civilisation that flourished for more than a millennium before the conquest of Constantinople in 1453, and whose legacy is still discernible all over southeast Europe and the Levant. She presents Byzantium as a vibrant, dynamic, cosmopolitan reality which somehow escaped the constraints of its official ideology. For example, despite the anti-Semitism of the empire's public discourse and theology, its complex, diversified economy could hardly have functioned without the 30-plus Jewish communities that Benjamin of Tudela, a 12th-century rabbi, described.
Ms. Herrin also shows that there was a fluid and perpetually evolving relationship between the competing influences of classical Greek learning, Greek Christianity and popular Byzantine culture. She pays particular attention to the powerful female voices that emerged from Byzantium: not just pious ladies who wrote saints' lives and hymns (including one breathtaking piece of sensual, almost erotic religious poetry) but the sophisticated political history that was penned by Anna Komnene, a frustrated would-be empress of the 12th century.
Ms. Herrin will certainly win over some sceptics. But it will remain the case that more people are drawn to Byzantine civilisation through its dazzling art and architecture than by its literature. In August 2006, for example, more than 1,000 academic specialists on Byzantium converged on London for a week-long conference. The success of the quinquennial event was a sign that Byzantine studies are flourishing in almost every corner of the world. But it is a reasonable bet that, whatever they ultimately studied, these scholars were first drawn to the Byzantine world by gazing in wonder at an icon or a frescoed church rather than by perusing the pages of Anna Komnene.
The brilliance of Byzantine art is proof enough that something extraordinary happened on the Bosphorus. And this brilliance remained undimmed even when the empire's geopolitical fortunes were collapsing. Snobbish Western classicists who called Byzantium a poor substitute for ancient Greece may have missed the point. True, the Byzantine world was weighed down by deference to classical Greek models. But that charge could also be laid against the pedagogues who used to dominate the study of the humanities in the Western world. Right now, Byzantine history is in vogue at many universities while old-fashioned classical studies are struggling to hold their own.
1. Modern observers and defenders do not highly praise Byzantium's culture because _____.
[A] the civilizations of the empire were short of universalism or cultural breadth
[B] William Lecky, who is the leading figure of the Byzantium's study, depreciated the culture of Byzantium greatly
[C] criticisms against the Byzantium in the history biased people
[D] Byzantium's culture was completely devastated in the 18th and 19th centuries
2. The example by Herrin in the third paragraph may prove that _____.
[A] the civilization of Byzantium is worth of studying and admiring
[B] Byzantium' civilization had flourished a much longer time than people usually perceive it and such influence has been neglected
[C] to some extent, it is not necessary to relate Byzantium the city with the whole empire's public discourse and theology
[D] the Jewish communities actually had made great contribution to Byzantium, which is against the conventional view of the study
3. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the academic conference on Byzantium?
[A] The scholars were only interested in studying icons or frescoes in Byzantium.
[B] The success of this conference proves the study on Byzantium is in vogue.
[C] Scholars were drawn to Byzantium civilization by its art at the very beginning.
[D] Scholars showed less interest in the literature of Byzantium.
4. According to the passage, Byzantine culture _____.
[A] is merely a replica of the ancient Greece
[B] is quite independent from Greek culture in almost all aspects
[C] is of no relation with the ancient Greece in a subtle way
[D] is influenced by the Greek culture and theology
5. Towards the classical studies on Byzantium, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] biased
[B] negative
[C] skeptical
[D] objective

1. Modern observers and defenders do not highly praise Byzantium's culture because _____.
[A] the civilizations of the empire were short of universalism or cultural breadth
[B] William Lecky, who is the leading figure of the Byzant-ium's study, depreciated the culture of Byzantium greatly
[C] criticisms against the Byzantium in the history biased people
[D] Byzantium's culture was completely devastated in the 18th and 19th centuries
1. 现代的研究者和拥护者对拜占庭文化没有高度赞誉,是因为 _____。
[A] 这个帝国的文明缺乏普适性或文化宽度
[B] 研究拜占庭的领军人物William Lecky大大贬低拜占庭的文化
[C] 历史上针对拜占庭的批评让人们产生了偏见
[D] 拜占庭文化在18世纪和19世纪的时候遭到了彻底的毁灭
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第一段提到,虽然近来对拜占庭的评价有所提高,但是18和19世纪时对它的批评一直有影响,因此人们对它有偏见。从文章其他部分也可以看出,拜占庭文明实际上是很辉煌的,因此这只是一种偏见而已。选项C最为符合题意。选项A的universalism or cultural breadth对应于文章第一段第一句话,但原句的意思是“并不是所有研究拜占庭的现代人都愿意将这个博斯普鲁斯海峡的城市和普世或文化宽度联系起来”,显然是与选项A的表述有出入的。B的错误在于,William Lecky只是一个研究拜占庭的学者,文章没有提到他是一个领军人物。选项D明显错误,拜占庭文化从来没有被彻底毁灭过。
2. The example by Herrin in the third paragraph may prove that _____.
[A] the civilization of Byzantium is worth of studying and admiring
[B] Byzantium's civilization had flourished a much longer time than people usually perceive it and such influence has been neglected
[C] to some extent, it is not necessary to relate Byzantium the city with the whole empire's public discourse and theology
[D] the Jewish communities actually had made great contribution to Byzantium, which is against the conventional view of the study
2. 第三段中,Herrin举的例子证明了 _____。
[A] 拜占庭文明值得研究和敬仰
[B] 拜占庭文明的兴起比人们普遍认可的时期要长得多,这种影响都被人们忽略了
[C] 在某种程度上,拜占庭这个城市和整个帝国的公共言论以及神学没有必然的联系
[D] 犹太社区实际上为拜占庭做出了很大贡献,这与传统研究的观点是相反的
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。在文章第三段Herrin举的例子中,尽管该帝国的意识形态是反犹太的,但是如果没有那三十多个犹太社区的作用,其经济就得不到发展。结合上文,即拜占庭摆脱了官方意识形态的束缚,那么可以看出,这个例子是为了说明这一点的,选项C中的public discourse and theology可以视为对文章中official ideology这个短语的解读或解释。因此选项C为正确答案。而其余几项都不是这个例子直接要说明的问题。
3. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of the academic conference on Byzantium?
[A] The scholars were only interested in studying icons or frescoes in Byzantium.
[B] The success of this conference proves the study on Byzantium is in vogue.
[C] Scholars were drawn to Byzantium civilization by its art at the very beginning.
[D] Scholars showed less interest in the literature of Byzantium.
3. 关于拜占庭的学术会议,下列哪个陈述是错误的?
[A] 学者们只对研究拜占庭的雕像或壁画感兴趣。
[B] 这次会议的成功证明了拜占庭研究是热点。
[C] 学者们最开始是因其艺术而被拜占庭文明吸引的。
[D] 学者们对拜占庭的文学兴趣不大。
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,第五段末尾指出,不论他们最终的研究内容是什么,他们一开始是因为被其雕像和有壁画的教堂吸引来的。由此可以看出,他们目前不一定只研究雕像和壁画,只是起因是这些而已。因此A的说法不正确。C和D的表述从第五段可以看出。B,第五段也提到了拜占庭研究正在流行。因此,答案为A。
4. According to the passage, Byzantine culture _____.
[A] is merely a replica of the ancient Greece
[B] is quite independent from Greek culture in almost all aspects
[C] is of no relation with the ancient Greece in a subtle way
[D] is influenced by the Greek culture and theology
4. 根据这篇文章,拜占庭文化 _____。
[A] 只是古希腊的复制品而已
[B] 几乎在所有的方面都独立于希腊文化
[C] 从细微的角度上来说,与古希腊没有关系
[D] 受到希腊文化和神学的影响
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,第六段指出,那些认为拜占庭是古希腊替代品的古典学家错了,因此该陈述错误,其中replica这个词的意思就是“复制品”。选项B,文章第四段指出,拜占庭文化和希腊学术与宗教有着某种不固定的但一直发展的关系。那么可以看出,拜占庭文化和古希腊文化还是有一定关系的。同时选项C也是错误的。因此,只有选项D是正确的。
5. Towards the classical studies on Byzantium, the author's attitude can be said to be _____.
[A] biased
[B] negative
[C] skeptical
[D] objective
5. 对于拜占庭的古典研究,作者的态度可以说是 _____。
[A] 有偏见的
[B] 否定的
[C] 怀疑的
[D] 客观的
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆
分析:态度题。从文中作者形容古典研究的词汇就可以看出作者的态度,他将西方古典学家称作是“假装内行的”,认为他们的观点有问题。因此,作者对于古典研究的态度是否定的。选项B是正确答案。

并不是所有研究拜占庭的现代人都愿意将这个位于博斯普鲁斯海峡的城市和普世或文化宽度联系起来。尽管近来对拜占庭的评价有所提高,但它还是不能完全摆脱18和19世纪时对它的那些批评,包括爱尔兰历史学家William Lecky对其猛烈的抨击,他于1869年将拜占庭帝国描述为“所有文明中最低级、最卑劣的形式”。
拜占庭的现代拥护者也倾向于用一些低调的词语来形容这座城市,重在强调该帝国与其他历史发展的关系。一些人将它看作是古代世界与现代世界的连接线,而还有一些人,特别是那些持文明冲突论的人强调,拜占庭的作用主要是作为对抗伊斯兰教的屏障,如果没有拜占庭,整个欧洲都可能变为穆斯林国家。还有一些人认为,拜占庭是欧洲文艺复兴的催化剂,尤其是在希腊智慧摆脱了拜占庭的教条主义之后。
伦敦国王学院教授Judith Herrin表示,拜占庭文明值得研究和敬仰,在1453年君士坦丁堡被征服之前,拜占庭文明已经兴盛了一千多年,其遗迹在整个东南欧和累范特(地中海东部地区)还是依稀可见的。她将拜占庭看作是充满活力的、生机勃勃且兼容并包的世界,并且摆脱了官方意识形态的束缚。比如,尽管该帝国的公众演说和神学带有反犹太的色彩,但是如果没有12世纪Tudela的犹太法学博士Benjamin描述的那三十多个犹太社区,帝国那复杂多样的经济就得不到发展。
Herrin女士也表示,希腊的古典学术和基督教与拜占庭流行文化之间的竞争关系是不断变化和进化的。她特别关注拜占庭出现的强有力的女性声音:不仅仅是那些描写圣人生活和书写圣歌的虔诚妇女(包括一篇令人心惊的情色的、甚至可以说是淫秽的宗教诗歌),而且还有12世纪那位失意的未来女皇Anna Komnene书写的复杂的政治历史。
Herrin女士肯定击败了那些怀疑论者。但是一个不变的事实是,更多的人是因为拜占庭炫目的艺术和建筑而迷上了拜占庭文明,而不是因为其文学的影响。比如2006年8月,一千多名研究拜占庭的学术专家汇聚伦敦,举行了为期一周的会议。这个五年一次的会议的成功举办是拜占庭研究在世界各个角落兴盛的标志。但是不管这些学者的最终的研究内容是什么,一个比较理性的观点就是,他们一开始都是因为看到了雕像或画有壁画的教堂才被拜占庭吸引的,而不是因为细读了Anna Komnene的文字。
拜占庭辉煌的艺术足以证明,在博斯普鲁斯海峡曾经发生过一些非凡的大事。而这种辉煌即使在拜占庭帝国地理政治的财富被摧毁之后仍然存在。那些假装内行的西方古典学家称,拜占庭是古希腊可怜的替代品,其实他们错了。确实,拜占庭世界因为遵循古希腊的模式而被低估。但这一点也可以用来反驳那些过去在西方人文研究方面拥有权威的学究。现在,拜占庭历史在许多学校都很热门,而那些过时的正统研究也在竭力坚守着自己的立场。
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