考研英语 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 考研英语 > 考研英语阅读 >  内容

《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 11 - TEXT THREE

所属教程:考研英语阅读

浏览:

qinting

2019年02月08日

手机版
扫描二维码方便学习和分享

The main ingredient of a semiconductor is silicon, but it might as well be pyrite, or fool's gold. That is because consistently making money out of chips is notoriously difficult. Cyclical demand means that profits are volatile, and new kinds of chips quickly become commoditised. The business is also highly capital-intensive: a new fabrication plant, or fab, costs $3 billion-5 billion, and new facilities must be built every few years as technology advances.
Accordingly, many Western technology firms, such as Philips, Hewlett-Packard, Motorola and Siemens, long ago spun off their chipmaking units in order to focus on the final products, rather than the bits inside them. Japan's huge electronics conglomerates have largely resisted this “fab lite” strategy. This now seems to be changing, though the companies' willingness to let go fully is still in doubt.
On October 18th Sony said it would put its processor-chip division into a joint venture with Toshiba, which will also buy Sony's chipmaking facilities. Sony will no longer have to make huge investments in chip technology, and will still be sure of a supply of processors for its PlayStation 3 games consoles and other products. Its chip division lost ¥10 billion($90m) last year, and the company has been getting rid of non-core businesses. Last month it floated its financial-services arm, raising nearly $3 billion. For its part Toshiba, one of the world's biggest chipmakers, will gain economies of scale.
Sanyo, another Japanese electronics firm, had hoped to do something similar. But its plan to sell its semiconductor unit for nearly $1 billion to Advantage Partners, a private-equity fund, fell through on October 16th. Sanyo is owned by a number of investors, including Goldman Sachs, which are doing their best to revive the struggling company by slimming it down to focus on its solar-panel and battery businesses. But the banks financing the purchase of Sanyo's chip unit balked at the price and at Advantage's plan to retain the existing management. Sanyo's announcement that it would keep the unit sent its share price plummeting.
Meanwhile, NEC, which in 2002 turned its chip business into a separate, publicly listed subsidiary, NEC Electronics, has spurned an offer from Perry Capital, a New York fund. Perry is willing to pay $1.3 billion to raise its stake from roughly 5% to 30%, on the condition that NEC relinquishes control of the chipmaker's board. (That works out at a premium of 60% over the average share price in the past three months.) Now Perry is quietly trying to convince other shareholders of the merits of its offer.
Taken together, this action (and inaction) adds up to a test of the willingness of managers at Japan's electronics firms to take rational but uncomfortable decisions. Spin-offs make sense because there are too many firms doing the same thing on too small a scale, and the need to finance new fabs is a drag on the firms' main businesses. In Japan, however, corporate pride often trumps economic logic. Electronics giants are used to being diversified and vertically integrated: They regard selling a subsidiary as akin to amputating an arm. Still, some now see the need for surgery.
1. Profits in chips industry are unsteady because _____.
[A] there is no great demand of chips
[B] the technology advances fast
[C] the demand is periodic
[D] the production of silicon is unstable
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of “fab lite” strategy?
[A] Japan's electronics conglomerates are now commencing to consider implementing this strategy.
[B] The attitude of Japan's electronics conglomerates towards the strategy is still quite dubious.
[C] The strategy is beneficial in promoting companies' manufacturing more focused on final products.
[D] The strategy is applicable the captive-intensive industry.
3. Sony hands over its processor-chip division to Toshiba in order to _____.
[A] float its financial-services arm through saving huge investment from chip-making
[B] cater to help Toshiba's strategy of gaining economies of scale
[C] focus on its main business by cutting off non-core branches
[D] supply processors for its PlayStation 3 games consoles
4. Sanyo's plan of selling its semiconductor unit miscarried mainly due to _____.
[A] the high price it charged
[B] the dispute among the investors, some of whom pays great effort to revive the company
[C] the difficulty of retaining the management of the chip-manufacturing
[D] the sudden fall of its share price
5. NEC refused the offer from Perry Capital because _____.
[A] the bit by Perry is not ideal
[B] it is afraid of losing its chip unit
[C] the condition raised by Perry is unreasonable
[D] it regards its chip unit as an inseparable part

1. Profits in chips industry are unsteady because _____.
[A] there is no great demand of chips
[B] the technology advances fast
[C] the demand is periodic
[D] the production of silicon is unstable
1. 芯片行业的利润不稳定,是因为 _____。
[A] 芯片的需求量不大
[B] 技术更新快
[C] 需求有一定的周期性
[D] 硅的产量是不稳定的
答案:C 难度系数:☆
分析:细节题。文章第一段提到,周期性的需求也就意味着利润是不稳定的,关键在于理解cyclical这个词的意思。因此,答案为C。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of “fab lite” strategy?
[A] Japan's electronics conglomerates are now commenc-ing to consider implementing this strategy.
[B] The attitude of Japan's electronics conglomerates towards the strategy is still quite dubious.
[C] The strategy is beneficial in promoting companies' manufacturing more focused on final products.
[D] The strategy is applicable to the captive-intensive industry.
2. 关于“轻生产”策略,下列哪项陈述是正确的?
[A] 日本的电子业巨头目前正在开始考虑实施该策略。
[B] 日本的电子业巨头对于这个战略的态度仍然很含糊。
[C] 该策略对于促进公司更加注重最终产品的制造是有益的。
[D] 该策略适用于资金密集型产业。
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,文章第二段指出,日本的电子业巨头本来对该策略非常抵触,但现在这种态度也在发生变化,因此可以推断,他们也在考虑实施该策略。B,文章第二段最后一句话指出:“日本大型的电子集团以前强烈抵制这种“轻制造”的策略,但现在它们的态度似乎也发生了变化,尽管还不一定会全面放开”,从中我们还是可以很明显地看出这些企业态度的变化的,因此该选项错误。C,文章中没有明确指出这个策略是否是beneficial,因此也不正确。D的内容文章中并没有提到。因此,选项A为正确答案。
3. Sony hands over its processor-chip division to Toshiba in order to _____.
[A] float its financial-services arm through saving huge investment from chip-making
[B] cater to Toshiba's strategy of gaining economies of scale
[C] focus on its main business by cutting off non-core branches
[D] supply processors for its PlayStation 3 games consoles
3. 索尼将自己的芯片处理器部门转让给东芝是为了 _____。
[A] 通过从取消芯片生产节省下来的投资资金来创立自己的金融服务公司
[B] 迎合东芝获得规模效益的策略
[C] 通过砍掉非核心部门来专注于自己的主营业务
[D] 为其游戏站3个游戏控制台提供服务器
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第三段提到索尼的举措,索尼的芯片处理器部门是亏损的,将其转让给东芝后,就不必再往该部门投入大量的资金了,但是又可以有服务器供应;索尼还把其他非核心业务部门也裁掉了。而文章举索尼的例子也是为了说明这种策略,即将辅营业务去除,专营主营业务。因此,选项C是正确的。
4. Sanyo's plan of selling its semiconductor unit miscarried mainly due to _____.
[A] the high price it charged
[B] the dispute among the investors, some of whom pay great effort to revive the company
[C] the difficulty of retaining the management of the chip-manufacturing
[D] the sudden fall of its share price
4. 三洋出售其半导体部门的计划流产了,主要是因为 _____。
[A] 三洋要价过高
[B] 投资者有分歧,其中一些力图重振公司
[C] 保持芯片生产管理困难重重
[D] 其股价的突然下跌
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第四段指出,银行停步在价格和Advantage想要保留目前的管理的计划上,由此可以推断,该计划流产就是因为价格过高,而且Advantage想要维持原来的管理模式。因此,选项A为正确答案。其他三项的内容在该段中都有所提及,但却不是该计划流产的原因。
5. NEC refused the offer from Perry Capital because _____.
[A] the bit by Perry is not ideal
[B] it is afraid of losing its chip unit
[C] the condition raised by Perry is unreasonable
[D] it regards its chip unit as an inseparable part
5. NEC公司拒绝Perry Capital的收购,是因为 _____。
[A] Perry的出价不理想
[B] 它担心失去芯片公司
[C] Perry提出的条件不合理
[D] 它将芯片部门看作自己不可分割的一部分
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆
分析:推理题。文章最后一段是对上文的总结,说这种做法或拒绝这样做可以检验日本是否愿意采取这种理性的策略,日本的电子业巨头习惯了多样化经营的模式,他们认为失去一个子公司或业务部门就好像失去了自己身体的一部分,因此不愿意这样做,即使明白这样有利于公司长远的发展。由此可以推断,NEC这样做是因为把芯片部门看作自己不可分割的一部分,因此,选项D最为符合题意。

半导体的主要成分为硅,但也可以是黄铁矿,黄铁矿也被称作“傻瓜的金子”,因为大家都知道,总是依靠芯片赚钱是非常难的。周期性的需求意味着利润是不稳定的,新型芯片很快就会成为平价商品。同时,这也是一个资金高度密集型的产业,新建一个加工厂需要投资30至50亿美元,而且每隔几年,随着技术进步,就需要增添新设备。
因此,许多西方科技公司,如飞利浦、惠普、摩托罗拉和西门子在很早以前就把芯片制造部门分离出来,而专注于制造终端产品而非里面的芯片。日本大型的电子集团以前强烈抵制这种“轻制造”的策略,但现在它们的态度似乎也发生了变化,尽管还不一定会全面放开。
10月18日,索尼称要将其信息处理芯片部门并入与东芝成立的一家合资企业中,而东芝也购买了索尼的芯片制造设备。由此,索尼不再需要向芯片技术投入大量资金,且仍然不用担心其第三游戏站游戏控制台和其他产品处理器的供应。其芯片分部去年损失了100亿日元(合9000万美元),同时,公司也将非核心业务都分割了出去。上个月,索尼创立了金融服务公司,筹集了近30亿美元。而世界最大的芯片制造商之一的东芝公司也将获得规模效应。
另外一家日本电子公司三洋也希望效法索尼。但是它以近10亿美元的开价将其半导体部门卖给私立基金公司Advantage Partners的计划于10月16日失败了。三洋目前由一些投资者控股,包括高盛公司,他们正努力削减三洋的规模,以便使其专注于太阳能板和电池行业,从而让勉强经营的三洋可以重新振作起来。但是提供资金收购三洋芯片部门的银行却因价格问题以及Advantage想要保留目前的管理权等因素而停了手。而后三洋宣布将保留该部门,这使得公司的股价直线下降。
同时,NEC公司于2002年将其芯片业务转为一个独立的公开上市的子公司,即NEC电子。纽约的一家基金公司Perry Capital愿意支付13亿美元,将自己在NEC的股份从大约5%提高到30%,条件是NEC放弃对芯片制造部门董事会的控制,但遭到NEC的拒绝。(若成功,会使股价比过去三个月的平均股价高出60%。)现在Perry正悄悄地试图说服其他股东,收购会带来利益。
总的说来,通过这种行为(和无行为)可以看出日本电子公司的经理是否愿意采取这种合乎理性却不合乎心意的决定。分离还是有必要的,因为太多的公司都在以很小的规模做同一件事情,给新的工厂投资也会拖累公司的主营业务。但是在日本,公司的荣誉往往会战胜经济逻辑。电子巨头们习惯于业务多样化和上下结合:他们觉得卖掉分公司就好像是被斩掉了一条胳膊。不过,一些人发现,现在也有必要来一台“手术”。
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐