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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 12 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年02月10日

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Kids heading back to enlightened schools this fall may find nutrition and exercise on the agenda even in math class. In an effort to reverse the alarming increase of obesity in children, some schools have found ways to encourage healthful lifestyle changes without emphasizing the negative—too much body weight. Planet Health, developed by Harvard University researchers and now used in hundreds of schools throughout the country, integrates obesity prevention lessons into the science, math, and social studies curricula, for example. Students come to appreciate the importance of reducing TV time by calculating during math class the amount of their lifetime they've spent in front of the set. In gym, they decide on goals for subbing in physical activity instead.
The program costs only about $15 per student annually, a bargain, considering the payoffs: A 2005 study published in the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine found that middle-school girls who had Planet Health in their schools were half as likely to purge or use diet pills as those in schools without it. “It really focuses on the positive, and that's why we think it's protective against these dangerous behaviors,” says study author Bryn Austin, an assistant professor of pediatrics at Harvard Medical School.
A second program adopted by 7,000 elementary schools nationwide, the Coordinated Approach to Child Health (CATCH), similarly puts the focus on good health habits instead of weight. In class, students use a traffic-light system to identify “go”, “slow”, and “whoa” foods and take breaks to do jumping jacks. In the cafeteria, fruits, vegetables, low-fat milk, and whole-grain starches are labeled with green-light tags, and pizza gets a yellow light. Gym activities are designed to keep students constantly moving. “Every kid gets a ball to dribble or a hula hoop; there's no lining up and waiting to take a turn.” says Phil Nader, professor of pediatrics emeritus at the University of California—San Diego, who helped develop CATCH.
A three-year study comparing CATCH schools with others without the program found that CATCH increased the proportion of gym class spent in motion, from 40 percent to 50 percent, and reduced the consumption of fat in schools from 39 percent of total calories to 32 percent. A second study found that the program prevented the growth in number of overweight students that normally occurs from grade 3 to grade 5. CATCH students in El Paso, Texas (with one of the highest obesity rates in the nation), held the line between those grades, but in schools without the program, the share of overweight girls increased from 26 percent to 40 percent and of overweight boys from 29 percent to 39 percent.
Glen Cove Elementary School, near El Paso in Ysleta, was one of the first schools to adopt CATCH, and parents there have learned to eat better and exercise more along with their kids. “We have a day where everyone comes to fly kites and Wellness Wednesdays where family members run around for 20 minutes with their kids,” says physical education teacher Ben Avalos, who brought the program to Glen Cove in 1998. “Parents also tell me their kids have gotten them to throw out the ‘whoa’ foods in the house.” Avalos uses walking sticks, pogo sticks, and Chinese yo-yos in gym class—and nobody relaxes on the sidelines.
1. The study published in the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine shows _____.
[A] that girls who had Planet Health were less obese than those who had not
[B] that girls who had Planet Health were of a healthier lifestyle than those who had not
[C] that girls who had Planet Health were more confident than those who had not
[D] that girls who had Planet Health were more used to control weight in positive means than those who had not
2. The word “whoa” (Line 3, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] fast
[B] stop
[C] pause
[D] no
3. In the CATCH, pizza is a kind of _____ food.
[A] dangerous
[B] yellow-light
[C] highly-nutritious
[D] less healthy
4. According to the second study of comparing CATCH schools with others without the program, CATCH students in El Pasco _____.
[A] were not growing weight from grade 3 to grade 5
[B] were prevented from normal weight growth from grade 3 to grade 5
[C] were not growing to over weight from grade 3 to grade 5
[D] were losing weight from grade 3 to grade 5
5. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Glen Cove Elmentary School?
[A] The school adopt CATCH in order to change lifestyle of the school children's family.
[B] The school applied CATCH to the school children's parents.
[C] The school wanted to help children to form good health habits with the help of their parents.
[D] The CATCH school children also teach their family how to live healthily.

1. The study published in the Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine shows _____.
[A] that girls who had Planet Health were less obese than those who had not
[B] that girls who had Planet Health were of a healthier lifestyle than those who had not
[C] that girls who had Planet Health were more confident than those who had not
[D] that girls who had Planet Health were more used to control weight in positive means than those who had not
1. 发表于《儿童与青少年医学档案》上的一项研究说明了 _____。
[A] 参加“健康行星”项目的女孩比没有参加的女孩瘦
[B] 参加“健康行星”项目的女孩比没有参加的女孩的生活方式更健康
[C] 参加“健康行星”项目的女孩比没有参加的女孩更自信
[D] 参加“健康行星”项目的女孩比没有参加的女孩控制体重的方式更加积极
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第二段提到,该研究发现,参加“健康行星”项目的中学女生服用泻药或减肥药的比例是没有参加该项目的学校的女生的一半,她们之所以不服用泻药就是因为她们不胖,再结合上面提到的“健康行星”项目的目标是防止肥胖的,可以推断,参加了这个项目的女孩们控制体重的方式更加健康和积极,因此选项D是正确答案。选项B的错误在于,文中只说明了女孩们控制体重的方式更加健康,但没有涉及她们全面的生活方式,该选项的表述过于宽泛。选项A和C在文中则没有明确的表述。
2. The word “whoa” (Line 3, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] fast
[B] stop
[C] pause
[D] no
2. whoa这个词(第三段第三行)最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 快的
[B] 停止
[C] 暂停
[D] 不
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆
分析:推理题。第三段提到,学生们用红绿灯系统来标示食物,前面的两种标示为“通行”和“减速”,分别是绿灯和黄灯表示的意思,那么剩下的就应该是红灯了,红灯的意思为“停止”,因此,选项B是正确答案。
3. In the CATCH, pizza is a kind of _____ food.
[A] dangerous
[B] yellow-light
[C] highly-nutritious
[D] less healthy
3. 在“儿童健康合作方法”项目中,比萨是一种 _____ 食品。
[A] 危险的
[B] 黄灯的
[C] 有丰富营养的
[D] 不那么健康的
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第三段提到,比萨是用黄灯来标示的,黄灯的意思是“减速”,也就是说,该食物没有健康食物那么有利于人体,但也算不上是不健康的食品,因此,选项D最为符合。B是干扰选项,考生不能一看到就立刻选择该选项,而应加以分析。
4. According to the second study of comparing CATCH schools with others without the program, CATCH students in El Pasco _____.
[A] were not growing weight from grade 3 to grade 5
[B] were prevented from normal weight growth from grade 3 to grade 5
[C] were not growing to overweight from grade 3 to grade 5
[D] were losing weight from grade 3 to grade5
4. 根据第二项研究,即对比实行CATCH的学校和未实行该项目的学校,在El Pasco的CATCH学生 _____。
[A] 从三年级到五年级体重没有增加
[B] 从三年级到五年级都没有在正常范围内增加体重
[C] 从三年级到五年级体重没有增加至超重
[D] 从三年级到五年级体重减轻了
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。第四段提到,一般从三年级到五年级超重学生的数量会上升,但该项目却遏制了这种上升,hold the line的意思为“保持不变”,由此可以推断,实施了该项目的学生从三年级到五年级超重的人数没有增加,也就是说他们的体重在增长,但是没有向着超重的方向发展,而是正常的增长。因此选项C最为符合这个意思。其余三个选项都与这个意思不符合。
5. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Glen Cove Elmentary School?
[A] The school adopt CATCH in order to change lifestyle of the school children's family.
[B] The school applied CATCH to the school children's parents.
[C] The school wanted to help children to form good health habits with the help of their parents.
[D] The CATCH school children also teach their family how to live healthily.
5. 关于Glen Cove小学,下列哪个陈述是正确的?
[A] 该学校采用“儿童健康合作方法”是为了改变学校学生家庭的生活方式。
[B] 该学校将“儿童健康合作方法”应用到学生家长身上。
[C] 该学校想通过家长的帮助,让学生养成健康的生活习惯。
[D] 实施了“儿童健康合作方法”的学校的学生也教会了他们的家庭如何健康地生活。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。最后一段提到,在该小学实施了“儿童健康合作方法”后,家长们也在孩子的带动下注意健康饮食和多做运动了,学校还另外举行了带动家长一起参与的活动。但是该学校实施“儿童健康合作方法”面向的还是学生,因此,选项D是正确的陈述。

今年秋天孩子们返回学校时可能会发现,数学课上居然也有营养和锻炼科目。一些学校为了改变肥胖儿童不断增多的现状,寻找了一些鼓励健康生活方式的方法,但是也不过分强调肥胖。比如,“健康行星”是哈佛大学研究者们开发的成果,目前已经在全国的上百所学校中推行,该项目将防止肥胖课程与科学、数学和社会学等课程结合了起来。学生们在数学课上通过计算自己一生花费在电视前的时间,就会明白减少看电视时间的重要性。在体育馆里,他们可以自己设定体育运动的目标。
参与该项目的每个学生每年只需要花费约15美元,这是考虑了成本后的一个优惠的价格:2005年发表在《儿童与青少年医学档案》上的一项研究表明,实施“健康行星”项目的中学女生服用泻药或减肥药的比例为没有实施该项目学校的女生数量的一半。“该项目关注好的方面,这也就是为什么我们认为它可以预防危险行为。”该研究报告的作者,哈佛医学院儿科助理教授Bryn Austin说道。
另一个项目,即“儿童健康合作方法”目前已在全国7,000所小学中施行,同“健康行星”项目类似,该项目注重良好的健康习惯而不是体重。在课上,学生用红绿灯系统来标示“通行”、“减速”、“停止”吃食物,课间可以玩抓子游戏。在自助餐厅里,水果、蔬菜、低脂牛奶和全麦淀粉类食物都用绿灯标签标示,而比萨则用黄灯标示。体育馆运动的设计目的,就是要让学生一直不停地运动。“保证每个孩子都有球或呼啦圈玩;不需要排队,也不需要等着轮流玩。”圣地亚哥加州大学儿科荣誉教授Phil Nader说道,他协助研发了“儿童健康合作方法”。
一项为期三年的研究对比了实施“儿童健康合作方法”的学校和未实施该方法的学校,结果发现,“儿童健康合作方法”增加了体育课活动的比例,从40%提高到50%,同时也降低了学生在校期间对脂肪的摄取量,热量的摄入量从39%降到了32%。另外一项研究表明,该项目遏制了三年级到五年级超重学生数量的增加。得克萨斯州埃尔帕索城(该市学生的肥胖率居全国首位)参加“儿童健康合作方法”的学生从三年级到五年级保持体重没变,但是在没有实施该项目的学校里,超重女生从26%增加到了40%,超重男生从29%增加到了39%。
Ysleta市El Paso附近的Glen Cove小学是最先采用“儿童健康合作方法”的学校之一,家长们也在孩子的带动下注意健康饮食、多做运动。“我们确定了一个风筝日,每个人都来放风筝;还有‘健康星期三’,在这一天家庭成员和孩子们一起跑20分钟。”体育老师Ben Avalos说道,他于1998年将该项目引入了Glen Cove小学。“家长也告诉我,孩子们让他们把家里那些‘停止’食品扔掉。”Avalos在体育课上使用了手杖、弹簧单高跷和悠悠球让学生运动,没有人在一旁闲待着。
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