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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 12 - TEXT THREE

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2019年02月09日

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He gave no steer on future interest rate decisions and no assessment of where he sees the economy going. Yet Ben Bernanke's speech at the Cato Institute in Washington, D.C., on November 14th may be judged as the one in which he stamped his mark on America's monetary policy.
The Federal Reserve's chief used his speech to unveil the central bank's new strategy for communicating with the public. In short, the Fed plans to talk more—and more often—about its assessment of the economic outlook. While the Fed is not about to join the band of central banks that are guided by an explicit goal for prices, it will borrow some of the inflation-targeters' clothes. More than one Fed-watcher dubbed the new public-relations policy “inflation targeting-lite”. Until now, the Fed has published two forecasts a year. Starting on November 20th it will publish projections once a quarter. The end-point for forecasts will be pushed out from two to three years hence. And alongside the forecasts will be a “narrative” that gives more detail on the differences on the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), the Fed's rate-setting body.
Lengthening the forecasts from two to three years is more important than it sounds. Three-year forecasts should be untainted by transitory factors that blow the economy off course. As a result, they will say a lot about how quickly policymakers think the economy can grow and how low they believe the jobless rate can safely go. And since forecasts are conditional on an “appropriate” setting for monetary policy, the longer-term projections will reveal the inflation rate the FOMC is aiming for. If views diverge, then Fed-watchers will have not one but several inflation “targets” to focus on.
Ever the diplomat, Mr. Bernanke said that the new communications set-up is a “work in progress” and stressed it would not affect policy decisions. Yet his speech gives a clear sense of the kind of central bank he wants to run. The emphasis on providing a deeper insight into the spread of views on the FOMC signals a different approach from that of his predecessor, Alan Greenspan. Mr. Bernanke said allowing diverse views reduces the risk that one voice becomes “unduly dominant”.
Another theme is a more prominent role for explicit benchmarks. Mr. Bernanke acknowledged that his preference for an inflation target is not compatible with the Fed's “dual mandate”, which puts the goal of maximum employment on an equal footing with price stability. But he has nevertheless managed to find a way to get the Fed to be much clearer about its objectives. He acknowledged that one benefit of extending the Fed's forecasts for an extra year is that it will provide “an evaluation of certain long-run features of the economy”. And by agreeing to publish forecasts for headline inflation, as well as the less volatile core data, Mr. Bernanke has also addressed the growing perception that the Fed thinks fast-rising food and energy costs are not its problem.
This is an opportune time to make the Fed's policymaking more open. As Mr. Bernanke made clear, greater transparency will bolster the Fed's legitimacy and help preserve its independence. Since recent readings on inflation and activity are sending conflicting signals, the Fed will need an understanding and informed public if it is to make the right choices.
1. Which one of the following is NOT the change brought by the new strategy?
[A] Economic forecasts will be issued at a higher frequency.
[B] More details will be provided on economic outlook.
[C] The Fed's functions begin to resemble those of the central banks of other countries.
[D] It is of significant importance to lengthen the forecasting years.
2. The “inflation-targeters” (Line 4, Paragraph 2) refers to _____.
[A] Fed-watchers
[B] central banks
[C] the rate-setting body
[D] the public
3. The word “untainted” (Line 2, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] affected
[B] uninfluenced
[C] unmarked
[D] guided
4. Compared with the approach of his predecessor, Mr. Bernanke's approach is more _____.
[A] complex
[B] democratic
[C] reasonable
[D] practical
5. The second theme of Mr. Bernanke's speech is that _____.
[A] the goal of price stability is not supposed to be of the same importance as that of maximum employment
[B] it is very important to set a clear standpoint
[C] the Fed should establish new ways to find better objects
[D] inflation target should be the main focus for the coming economic forecasts

1. Which one of the following is NOT the change brought by the new strategy?
[A] Economic forecasts will be issued at a higher frequency.
[B] More details will be provided on economic outlook.
[C] The Fed's functions begin to resemble those of the central banks of other countries.
[D] It is of significant importance to lengthen the forecasting years.
1. 下列哪个不是新政策带来的变化?
[A] 经济预报的频率会更高。
[B] 会对经济前景给出更多的细节。
[C] 美联储的作用开始变得和其他国家的中央银行相似。
[D] 延长预报年限具有重要的意义。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,第二段提到,美联储要增加对经济前景进行评论的数量和频率,因此,该陈述正确。选项B也是正确的。选项C,第二段提到:“美联储不会加入明确以价格为目的的中央银行群”,而文章中并没有将其功能与其他国家中央银行的功能进行比较,因此,该陈述是错误的。D,第二段提到了这一点,后面几段也反复提到了这点。因此,选项C为正确答案。
2. The “inflation-targeters” (Line 4, Paragraph 2) refers to _____.
[A] Fed-watchers
[B] central banks
[C] the rate-setting body
[D] the public
2. “以通胀为目标的群体”(第二段第四行)指的是 _____。
[A] 联邦储备观察员
[B] 中央银行
[C] 利率设定机构
[D] 公众
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据上下文,本句为:“虽然美联储不会加入明确以价格为目的的中央银行群,但打算借用这些以通胀为目标的群体的外衣。”中央银行群以通胀为目标,那么可以推断出这里说的“以通胀为目标的群体”就是中央银行。因此,正确答案为B。
3. The word “untainted” (Line 2, Paragraph 3) most probably means _____.
[A] affected
[B] uninfluenced
[C] unmarked
[D] guided
3. untainted这个词(第三段第二行)最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 受影响的
[B] 不受影响的
[C] 未被注意到的
[D] 指导的
答案:B 难度系数:☆
分析:猜词题。根据上下文,将经济预报定为三年,因为期限延长,就不会受到短期因素的影响。因此,选项B最为符合题意。
4. Compared with the approach of his predecessor, Mr. Bernanke's approach is more _____.
[A] complex
[B] democratic
[C] reasonable
[D] practical
4. 和他前任的方法相比,Bernanke的方法更为 _____。
[A] 复杂
[B] 民主
[C] 合理
[D] 实际
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第四段,Bernanke的方法和其前任的不同之处就是:他强调允许有不同的观点存在,因此,他的方法相对来说更为民主一些。选项B最为符合题意。
5. The second theme of Mr. Bernanke's speech is that _____.
[A] the goal of price stability is not supposed to be of the same importance as that of maximum employment
[B] it is very important to set a clear standpoint
[C] the Fed should establish new ways to find better objects
[D] inflation target should be the main focus for the coming economic forecasts
5. Bernanke先生演讲的第二个主题为 _____。
[A] 价格稳定的目标不如就业最大化的目标重要
[B] 确定清晰的立足点非常重要
[C] 美联储应该建立寻找更好目标的机制
[D] 对于以后的经济预测来说,通胀目标应该是其主要的焦点
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第五段提到了Bernanke先生提到的第二个主题,他认为美联储应当给出更为明确的目标,而不是觉得最大程度的就业和价格稳定一样重要,因此,明确的基准点很重要。选项B最为符合题意。而选项A是明显错误的。选项C和D都不是第二个主题的重点内容。

Ben Bernanke没有表示今后利率会如何调整变化,也没有评论经济的走势将会如何,但是,他于11月14日在华盛顿特区加图学院的讲话可以表明他对美国货币政策的看法。
通过这次演讲,这位美联储主席透露了中央银行和公众交流的新政策。简要地说,美联储计划增加对经济前景评论的数量和频率。虽然美联储不会加入明确以价格为目的的中央银行群,但打算借用这些以通胀为目标的群体的外衣。不止一位美联储观察员认为,新的公众关系策略是“以通货膨胀为目的”。到目前为止,美联储在一年内已经发布了两次经济预测。从11月20日起,它将于每季度发布一次经济预测。而经济预测的期限将从两年推到三年。除了经济预测外,还有关于联邦开放市场委员会(美联储的利率设定机构)变化细节的陈述。
将经济预测期限从两年延长至三年,这比听起来更重要。三年的经济预测不受那些会使经济偏离轨道等短期因素的影响。因此,经济预测将会更多地涉及决策者认为经济发展会有多快、失业率能安全地降到多少的问题。而因为预测取决于货币政策是否“合理”,长期计划可以表示联邦开放市场委员会对于通货膨胀率的目标。如果意见有分歧,美联储观察员就不得不关注几个通货膨胀“目标”,而不仅是一个目标。
Bernanke先生曾经担任过大使,他说,建立新的交流是一项“正在进行的工作”,并强调这不会影响政策的制定。但是他的讲话阐明了他希望经营怎样的中央银行。他强调,要对联邦开放市场委员会发表的意见有更为深刻的认识,这一点体现了他与其前任Alan Greenspan完全不同的策略。Bernanke先生说,允许有不同观点存在可以减少一种声音“过分独裁”的风险。
另外一个主题是明确基准点的重要性。Bernanke先生承认,他对通胀目标的偏好与美联储的“双重委任”有冲突,“双重委任”把最大程度的就业和价格稳定视为同等重要。但是他仍然希望找到一种方法,可以让美联储更为明确自己的目标。他认为,将美联储预测延长一年的好处,就是可以提供“经济长期发展特征的评估”。Bernanke先生同意发布总通货膨胀预测以及比较稳定的核心数据,他还提到,美联储日渐认识到,飞速上涨的食品和能源价格并不是它的问题。
这是使美联储政策的制定更为公开的一个契机。正如Bernanke先生所说,增加透明度可以支持美联储的合理性,并有助于保持其独立性。因为近来人们对于通胀和行动的看法有一些分歧,如果美联储要做出正确的抉择,就需要有理解力的、消息灵通的公众的支持。
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