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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 15 - TEXT ONE

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2019年02月13日

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Albert Ellis, who died last month at age 93, believed that psychotherapy should be short term, goal-oriented, and efficient; his method, introduced in 1955 and now known as rational emotive behavior therapy, is one of the foundations of today's cognitive-behavioral therapy.
The theory: Irrational ways of thinking underlie most psychological conditions, and patients can get better by tackling these skewed thinking patterns, correcting them, and developing new ones. In a 2006 survey of social workers and psychologists conducted by Psychotherapy Networker in partnership with Joan Cook, an adjunct assistant professor of medical psychology at Columbia University, over 60 percent said that they employ cognitive-behavioral techniques in their work.
“What cognitive therapy does is focus on the present,” says Judith Beck, director of the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research outside Philadelphia. Beck is the daughter of Aaron Beck, who developed his own form of cognitive-behavioral therapy, simply called cognitive therapy, in the early 1960s when he was a psychiatrist at the University of Pennsylvania. Rather than exploring in depth the issues surrounding a patient's childhood, dreams, past relationships, and life experiences—essential in Freudian psychoanalysis—the short-term cognitive approach focuses on developing skills the patient can use to “have a better week”. Cognitive therapists may go into those deeper issues if necessary, but “the goal is not insight alone but also practical problem solving and symptom reduction,” says Beck.
Techniques used to that end may include weighing evidence to evaluate whether a patient's self-image is skewed, developing a more realistic worldview, prioritizing problems, and setting an agenda for dealing with them. According to research by Aaron Beck and others, cognitive therapy is as effective as antidepressants in initially treating mild, moderate, and severe depression, and patients who had used cognitive therapy and stopped were less likely to relapse than those who stopped medication. Cognitive therapy has also been shown to decrease the risk for repeated suicide attempts in seriously depressed patients.
REBT, on the other hand, focuses on “disputing irrational beliefs”, as Ellis's disciplines put it, or directly confronting and challenging a patient's thoughts about a situation. The method is used to treat the spectrum of psychological problems, from depression and anxiety to post-traumatic stress disorder. Therapists may draw from the wider tradition of cognitive-behavioral methods, but they owe an intellectual debt to Albert Ellis whenever they dispute a patient's irrational beliefs. Though that approach has gained a reputation for confrontation and tough-mindedness, Kristene Doyle, associate executive director of the Albert Ellis Institute in New York City and a clinical psychologist specializing in REBT, says that collaboration between the therapist and patient, a patient's complete self-acceptance, and the therapist's unconditional acceptance of the patient are also essential to REBT.
Some psychotherapists see cognitive-behavioral therapies as too simplistic—approaches that ignore the complexities of a typical patient's problems. Today, many therapists use a combination approach, integrating both psychoanalytic and cognitive-behavioral techniques to suit patient needs. “Practicing therapists [are] often happy to have more than one way to think about somebody,” says Nancy McWilliams, president of the division of psychoanalysis at the American Psychological Association. Adds Jonathan Slavin, who teaches psychology at Harvard Medical School and is founding president of the Massachusetts Institute for Psychoanalysis: “There's considerable evidence that all psychotherapy is effective. All versions [that] provide people with a relationship that includes any kind of empathy and understanding change the actual workings of the brain.”
1. The passage mainly talks about _____.
[A] different psychotherapies to treat psychological problems
[B] the brief history of cognitive-behavioral therapy's development
[C] different branches of cognitive-behavioral therapy
[D] the approach of the cognitive-behavioral therapies
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the comparison of cognitive therapy approach and Freudian psychoanalysis?
[A] Both of them aim to probe into the deeper issues for an insight of the patient's mind.
[B] Cognitive therapy approach is more effective than Freudian psychoanalysis in analyzing patients' symptoms.
[C] Cognitive therapy approach focuses on more present psychological condition of patients than Freudian psychoanalysis.
[D] Cognitive therapy approach pays more attentions to immediate efficiency.
3. The word “disputing” (Line 1, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.
[A] denying
[B] debating
[C] opposing
[D] resisting
4. The difference of cognitive therapy and REBT lies in that _____.
[A] the basic theoretical principles that they adopt differ from each other
[B] REBT pays more attention to the collaboration between the therapist and patient
[C] cognitive therapy is more constructive and effective than REBT in terms of curing different levels of depression
[D] REBT is more widely applicable than cognitive therapy given its wide reputation and innovative methods
5. A combination approach of treating psychopath is chosen by many therapists rather than cognitive-behavioral therapies because _____.
[A] cognitive-behavioral therapies are not so effective as the combination approach
[B] the combination approach could treat patients more comprehensively
[C] the combination approach is more down to earth than cognitive-behavioral therapies
[D] the combination approach is easier to grasp than cognitive-behavioral therapies

1. The passage mainly talks about _____.
[A] different psychotherapies to treat psychological problems
[B] the brief history of cognitive-behavioral therapy's development
[C] different branches of cognitive-behavioral therapy
[D] the approach of the cognitive-behavioral therapies
1. 这篇文章主要讲述了 _____。
[A] 治疗心理问题的不同精神疗法
[B] 认知行为疗法发展的简短历史
[C] 认知行为疗法的不同分支
[D] 认知行为疗法的治疗方法
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:主旨题。这篇文章主要讲述了认知疗法,具体包括其理论基础以及采取的方法等等,选项D最为符合题意。文章从第三段开始的主要内容分别是:第三段讲述认知疗法的主要特点就是着眼于当前;第四段讲述具体的治疗方法;第五段讲述REBT方法的特点;第六段讲述一些精神治疗医师采取了综合疗法,因此答案显而易见。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the comparison of cognitive therapy approach and Freudian psychoanalysis?
[A] Both of them aim to probe into the deeper issues for an insight of the patient's mind.
[B] Cognitive therapy approach is more effective than Freudian psychoanalysis in analyzing patients' symptoms.
[C] Cognitive therapy approach focuses on more present psychological condition of patients than Freudian psychoanalysis.
[D] Cognitive therapy approach pays more attentions to immediate efficiency.
2. 关于对认知疗法和弗洛伊德心理分析的比较,下列哪项陈述是正确的?
[A] 它们都探索深层次的东西来洞悉病人的心理。
[B] 认知疗法在分析病人的症状方面要比弗洛伊德心理分析更加有效。
[C] 认知疗法比弗洛伊德心理分析疗法更注重病人当前的心理条件。
[D] 认知疗法更注重短期的效果。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第三段,认知疗法更加注重的是目前,强调马上可以取得的效果,而弗洛伊德心理分析法更注重理论分析。因此,选项D最为符合题意。
3. The word “disputing” (Line 1, Paragraph 5) most probably means _____.
[A] denying
[B] debating
[C] opposing
[D] resisting
3. disputing这个词(第五段第一行) 最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 否定
[B] 争论
[C] 反对
[D] 阻止
答案:D 难度系数:☆
分析:猜词题。根据上下文,REBT关注“阻止非理性信念”,或者说是对患者对于某个环境发起直接的反抗或挑战,选项中只有D是“阻止”的意思,是正确答案。
4. The difference of cognitive therapy and REBT lies in that _____.
[A] the basic theoretical principles that they adopt differ from each other
[B] REBT pays more attention to the collaboration between the therapist and patient
[C] cognitive therapy is more constructive and effective than REBT in terms of curing different levels of depression
[D] REBT is more widely applicable than cognitive therapy given its wide reputation and innovative methods
4. 认知疗法和REBT的不同之处在于 _____。
[A] 采取了不同的理论原理
[B] REBT更注重临床医生和病人之间的协作
[C] 认知疗法在治疗不同等级的抑郁症方面比REBT更具有建设性,也更有效
[D] 由于其广泛的声誉和创新的方法,REBT比认知疗法更加广泛地被公众接受
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第五段的开头:REBT, on the other hand, focuses on “disputing irrational beliefs”, as Ellis's disciplines put it, or directly confronting and challenging a patient's thoughts about a situation. 说明REBT采用的原理是对抗患者关于某个情况的想法,这个跟认知疗法是不同的,因此正确答案为A。B是较强的干扰选项,虽然该段结尾提到了collaboration between the therapist and patient,但不是针对与认知疗法的对比提出来的,因而不如选项A准确。选项C在文章中没有提及,而选项D文中也没有对应谈到REBT比认知疗法更加广泛地被公众接受的内容。
5. A combination approach of treating psychopath is chosen by many therapists rather than cognitive-behavioral therapies because _____.
[A] cognitive-behavioral therapies are not so effective as the combination approach
[B] the combination approach could treat patients more comprehensively
[C] the combination approach is more down to earth than cognitive-behavioral therapies
[D] the combination approach is easier to grasp than cognitive-behavioral therapies
5. 许多心理医师都采取了一种组合方法而不是认知行为疗法来治疗精神病患者,因为 _____。
[A] 认知行为疗法没有组合方法那么有效
[B] 组合方法可以更为彻底地治疗患者
[C] 组合方法比认知行为疗法更为实际
[D] 组合方法比认知行为疗法更容易掌握
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆
分析:细节题。根据最后一段,许多心理医师采取了组合方法,是觉得认知行为疗法忽视了患者病情的复杂性,因此结合了其他方法,目的是为了更加彻底地对患者进行治疗。选项B最为符合题意。

Albert Ellis于上个月去世,享年93岁。他认为精神疗法应当是短期的、有明确目标而且富有成效的。他发明的疗法于1955年问世,即现在所说的理性感情行为疗法,该疗法是当今认知行为疗法的基础之一。
该疗法的理论为:非理性的思维方式是大多数心理问题的原因所在,患者可以通过应对和纠正思维模式偏差、形成新的思维模式来使病情好转。精神疗法网络与哥伦比亚大学临床心理学助理教授Joan Cook合作,于2006年对社会工作者和心理学家进行了一次调查,结果发现,有60%的人认为他们在自己的工作中用到了认知行为技巧。
“认知疗法主要是针对目前。”位于费城郊区的Beck认知治疗和研究所主任Judith Beck这样说。Beck是Aaron Beck的女儿,Aaron Beck于20世纪60年代初发明了自己的认知行为疗法模式,简称认知疗法,当时他还是宾夕法尼亚大学的一名心理治疗医师。这种短期的认知疗法不去深入探究患者的童年、梦境、过去的关系以及生活经历(这些是弗洛伊德心理分析的基本方法),而是关注研究患者可以采取的某些技巧,从而“使患者一周能过得较好”。认知临床医师只在必需的时候才去研究深层次的东西,但是“目的不只是了解,还要找到解决问题的实际方法和减轻症状的方法。”Beck说道。
针对这个目的采取的方法包括:根据一些迹象判断患者的自我形象是否歪曲、形成更现实的世界观、将问题按轻重缓急分级、确定解决问题的日程表等。Aaron Beck和其他人的研究表明,认知疗法在最初治疗轻微、中度和严重的抑郁症方面,和抗抑郁药的效果差不多,接受过认知疗法并停止治疗的患者比那些停用药物的患者复发的几率要小一些。认知疗法被证明可以减少严重抑郁症患者反复自杀的企图。
而REBT致力于“阻止非理性信念”,即对患者对于某个情况的想法发起直接的反抗或挑战,Ellis的理论这样认为。该方法用于治疗一系列的心理问题,从抑郁、焦虑到创伤后紊乱。医师可能从认知行为方法更为广泛的传统中汲取了许多经验,但是他们在阻止患者的非理性信念时,主要还是使用了Albert Ellis的方法。虽然该疗法因为对抗性和严格而闻名,但是纽约市Albert Ellis研究所执行主任及REBT临床心理学者Kristene Doyle说,医生和患者之间的协作、患者完全的自我接受以及医生无条地的接受患者,对于REBT也是非常重要的。
一些精神治疗医师认为,认知行为疗法过于简单,忽视了典型病人问题的复杂性。当前,许多医生都采用了一种混合方法,将心理分析和认知行为技术结合起来,根据患者的需求进行治疗。“在职医师往往愿意利用多种方法来分析患者。”美国心理协会心理分析部主任Nancy McWilliams说。麻省心理分析研究所首任主任、目前在哈佛大学医学院任教的Jonathan Slavin说:“有足够的证据表明,所有的心理疗法都是有效的,所有为患者提供了移情或是理解的疗法,都改变了大脑的实际工作方法。”
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