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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 17 - TEXT TWO

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2019年02月16日

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“OH DEAR! Oh dear! I shall be too late!” So muttered the White Rabbit just before he plunged into Wonderland, with Alice in pursuit. Similar utterances have been escaping the lips of European physicists, as it was confirmed last week that their own subterranean Wonderland, a new machine called the Large Hadron Collider, will not now begin work until May 2008. This delay may enable their American rivals to scoop them by finding the Higgs boson—predicted 43 years ago by Peter Higgs of Edinburgh University to be the reason why matter has mass, but not yet actually discovered.
The Large Hadron Collider is a 27km-long circular accelerator that is being built at CERN, the European particle-physics laboratory near Geneva, specifically to look for the Higgs boson. When it eventually starts work, it will be the world's most powerful particle collider. It will also be the most expensive, having cost SFr10 billion ($8 billion) to build. The laboratory had hoped it would be ready in 2005, but the schedule has slipped repeatedly.
The most recent delay came at the end of March, with the dramatic failure of a magnet assembly that had been supplied by CERN's American counterpart, the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) near Chicago. This device was one of four designed to focus beams of particles before they collide in the experimental areas. Admittedly, it had been placed under extreme conditions when it failed, but such forces are to be expected from time to time when the machine is running normally. The magnets have yet to be fixed, although physicists think they know how to do it.
Other, smaller hitches have compounded the problem. The collider has been built in eight sections, each of which must be cooled to temperatures only just above absolute zero. This is because the magnets used to accelerate the particles to the high energies needed for particle physics rely on the phenomenon of superconductivity to work—and superconductivity, in turn, needs extremely low temperatures. Unfortunately, the first of the eight sections took far longer to chill than had been expected.
If, as the other seven sections are cooled, further problems emerge, the start date will have to be put back still further. It takes a month to cool each section, and a month to warm each one back up to normal temperatures again. If it took, say, a month to fix any problems identified as a section cooled, each cycle would postpone the start date by three months.
To accelerate progress (as well as particles), CERN's management decided last week to cancel an engineering run scheduled for November. Instead of beginning slowly with some safe-but-dull low-energy collisions, the machine's first run will accelerate its particles to high energies straight away.
Such haste may be wise, for rumours are circulating that physicists working at the Tevatron, which is based at Fermilab and is currently the world's most powerful collider, have been seeing hints of the Higgs boson. Finding it would virtually guarantee the discoverer a Nobel Prize—shared jointly, no doubt, with Dr. Higgs. Hence the rush, as hundreds of physicists head down the rabbit hole, seeking their own adventures in Wonderland.
1. The sentences in Alice in Wonderland are cited in the first paragraph in order to _____.
[A] illustrate that the new machine European physicists have invented is full of wonder
[B] describe the mood of the European physicists facing the delay of the Large Hadron Collider
[C] tell people that the European physicists will put off the presentation of their new machine
[D] reflect the public's eagerness in using the Large Hadron Collider
2. The word “scoop” (Line 4, Paragraph 1) most probably means _____.
[A] forestall
[B] defeat
[C] surpass
[D] vanquish
3. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Peter Higgs' contribution in this field?
[A] It was him who initiated the idea that there existed such a boson to make matter have mass.
[B] He made the famous estimate that human beings would find out such a boson in the future.
[C] He claimed with convincing evidence that America would outrun Europe in discovering the Higgs boson.
[D] It was him who first discovered the boson which makes matter have mass.
4. The schedule of the Large Hadron Collider has slipped repeatedly because of the following reasons except that _____.
[A] the device of focusing beams of particles was having some problem
[B] it took longer to cool down the superconductivity so that the collider could work normally
[C] it took a very long period to make eight sections cool down or regain temperature
[D] there happened a dramatic failure of a magnet assembly which was not beyond expectation
5. CERN's management decided to have the machine's first run accelerate its particles straight away because _____.
[A] they are afraid that American researchers will get to see the Higgs boson ahead of them
[B] the safe-but-dull low-energy collision was too old-fashioned
[C] they wanted to dispel the rumours that physicists at the Tevatron have been seeing hints of the Higgs boson
[D] they wanted to have a try of the new way of accelerating particles

1. The sentences in Alice in Wonderland are cited in the first paragraph in order to _____.
[A] illustrate that the new machine European physicists have invented is full of wonder
[B] describe the mood of the European physicists facing the delay of the Large Hadron Collider
[C] tell people that the European physicists will put off the presentation of their new machine
[D] reflect the public's eagerness in using the Large Hadron Collider
1. 第一段引用了《爱丽丝漫游奇境记》中的句子,是为了 _____。
[A] 说明欧洲物理学家发明的新机器充满了奇迹
[B] 描写欧洲物理学家对于“大型强子对撞机”推迟使用的心情
[C] 告诉人们,欧洲物理学家将要推迟展示其新机器
[D] 反映了公众想要使用“大型强子对撞机”的急切心情
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第一段,所引用的句子是表明“太晚了”,联系到物理学家要推迟推出新机器,可以看出,这只是反映他们推迟了这个项目。因此,答案为C。
2. The word “scoop” (Line 4, Paragraph 1) most probably means _____.
[A] forestall
[B] defeat
[C] surpass
[D] vanquish
2. scoop这个词(第一段第四行)最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 先于…行动
[B] 击败
[C] 超越
[D] 征服
答案:A 难度系数:☆
分析:猜词题。根据上下文,如果美国对手先发现西格斯玻色子,那么也就意味着抢在了欧洲人的前面,因此,答案为A。
3. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Peter Higgs' contribution in this field?
[A] It was him who initiated the idea that there existed such a boson to make matter have mass.
[B] He made the famous estimate that human beings would find out such a boson in the future.
[C] He claimed with convincing evidence that Amer-ica would outrun Europe in discovering the Higgs boson.
[D] It was him who first discovered the boson which makes matter have mass.
3. 关于彼得·西格斯在该领域内的贡献,下列哪项陈述是正确的?
[A] 正是他首先提出存在着一种玻色子,令物质有质量。
[B] 他做出了人类在未来可以找到这种玻色子的著名预言。
[C] 他凭借令人信服的证据,声称美国将先于欧洲发现西格斯玻色子。
[D] 正是他首先发现了令物质拥有质量的玻色子。
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第一段最后一句:This delay may enable their American rivals to scoop them by finding the Higgs boson—predicted 43 years ago by Peter Higgs of Edinburgh University to be the reason why matter has mass, but not yet actually discovered. 彼得·西格斯只是预言了玻色子是事物为什么有质量的原因,因此,选项A为正确答案。
4. The schedule of the Large Hadron Collider has slipped repeatedly because of the following reasons except that _____.
[A] the device of focusing beams of particles was having some problem
[B] it took longer to cool down the superconductivity so that the collider could work normally
[C] it took a very long period to make eight sections cool down or regain temperature
[D] there happened a dramatic failure of a magnet assem-bly which was not beyond expectation
4. “大型强子对撞机”的计划日程被不断推迟,是因为除下列 _____ 外的其他原因。
[A] 聚焦粒子束的装置出现了问题
[B] 需要比想象中更长的时间才能把超导电性冷却下来,这样对撞机才可以正常工作
[C] 需要很长的时间来让八个部分冷却下来或恢复温度
[D] 磁铁组出现了严重的问题,这并不是意料之外的事
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据文章第三、第四和第五段有关计划日程被不断推迟的原因,第三段提到了磁铁组出了问题,这是用来聚焦粒子束的四个装置之一,选项A和D表述的是这个原因。第四段和第五段提到了将八个部分冷却下来需要很长时间,选项C符合这点。选项B本身的说法有问题——并不是超导电性需要冷却下来,而是超导电性需要低温,而其他的部分需要冷却。因此,选项B是正确答案。
5. CERN's management decided to have the machine's first run accelerate its particles straight away because _____.
[A] they are afraid that American researchers will get to see the Higgs boson ahead of them
[B] the safe-but-dull low-energy collision was too old-fashioned
[C] they wanted to dispel the rumours that physicists at the Tevatron have been seeing hints of the Higgs boson
[D] they wanted to have a try of the new way of accelerating particles
5. CERN管理层决定第一次运行对撞机时就将粒子直接加速,这是因为 _____。
[A] 他们担心美国研究者会在他们之前看到西格斯玻色子
[B] 安全但很迟钝的低能量碰撞太老套了
[C] 他们想要打消Tevatron的物理学家已经看到西格斯玻色子的谣言
[D] 他们想要尝试加速粒子的新方法
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第六段,欧洲的研究人员为了加速进程才做出了这样的决定,结合第七段,有传闻说,在Tevatron工作的物理学家已经看到了西格斯玻色子的迹象,欧洲还是怕美国超过他们,因此,选择了这样的策略。因此正确答案为A。

“噢,天呐!噢,天呐!我可能太晚了!”白兔在陷入奇境之前这样咕哝着,爱丽丝在后面追赶着它。类似的句子也出现在欧洲物理学家的口中,因为上个星期他们也证实了自己的地下奇境——一种叫做“大型强子对撞机”的新机器——将推迟到2008年5月份投入使用。这个推迟可能会让他们的美国对手抢先发现西格斯玻色子。爱丁堡大学的彼得·西格斯在43年前就预言,玻色子是事物有质量的原因,但是目前还没有真正发现这种玻色子。
大型强子对撞机是一个27公里长的环形粒子加速器,在日内瓦附近的欧洲粒子物理实验室CERN建成,目的就是为了寻找西格斯玻色子。在加速器开始工作时,它将成为世界上最强大的粒子对撞机,也会成为世界上最昂贵的对撞机,价值100亿瑞士法郎(合80亿美元)。实验室本来希望在2005年就可以准备就绪,但其日程却被一再推迟。
最近的一次推迟发生在3月底,是因为CERN的美国部门位于芝加哥附近的菲尔米国家加速器实验室提供的磁铁组出现了严重的问题。该设备是在粒子在实验区域内进行碰撞之前聚焦粒子束的四个装置之一。不可否认,设备被放在极端的条件下才出现了问题,但是机器正常运行时这种情况也时有发生。磁铁组还没有修好,但物理学家已经知道应该如何处理了。
其他更小的故障使问题变得更为复杂。对撞机由八个部分组成,每个部分都必须被冷却到一定温度,只比绝对零度高一点。这是因为,用来加速粒子使其具有高能量的磁铁组依靠超导电性来工作,而超导电性要求极低的温度。不幸的是,冷却八个部分的第一个就用了比预想的多得多的时间。
如果其余的七个部分都被冷却了,那么会出现更多的问题,开始使用机器的日子就会继续被推迟。冷却每个部分要一个月,而将其加温至正常温度又需要一个月。如果每个部分都需要用一个月的时间来检查冷却过程中出现的问题的话,那么每一轮都会将开工日期推迟三个月。
为了加速进程(也为了加速粒子),CERN的管理层上周决定,取消11月份的工程运行计划。这使得机器不再从一些安全但是迟缓的低能量碰撞来慢慢开始,而是直接将其粒子加速到具有高能量。
这样的速度可能是明智的,因为现在有谣言说,在Tevatron工作的物理学家已经看到了西格斯玻色子的迹象。Tevatron是目前世界上最强有力的对撞机, 位于菲尔米国家加速器实验室。发现该玻色子的人一定会获得诺贝尔奖,当然,肯定是与西格斯博士一起分享。因此,成百上千的物理学家争相来兔子洞,寻找他们自己在奇境中的奇遇。
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