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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 17 - TEXT THREE

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2019年02月16日

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Whatever else, Airbus cannot be accused of failing to put on a brave face at this week's Paris Air Show, held every two years. Louis Gallois is the troubled European airframe-maker's third chief executive within 12 months. But still he declared: “I can tell you with full confidence that Airbus is back and fully back.” Supporting his confident public message was an extraordinary flow of orders and commitments for over 600 aircraft accumulated in time for the show by the firm's super-salesman, John Leahy.
Although it is heading for a second successive loss—last year it plunged €572m ($718m) into the red—Airbus is undoubtedly in better shape than it was 12 months ago when wiring problems delayed the A380 and the weak dollar exposed the firm's bloated cost base. It has begun the “Power8” recovery plan, intended to save €2 billion annually by cutting 10,000 jobs and auctioning off six factories to partners. And the giant A380 will begin commercial service with Singapore Airlines in the autumn, although being two years late.
In the contest between the twin-engined wide-body Boeing 787 and the A350 XWB, Mr. Gallois struggles to be as positive. The 787 is already a sales phenomenon, with over 630 firm orders even before the plane's roll-out next month. The airlines are excited by its revolutionary use of a composite material called carbon-reinforced plastic (CRP). Five years behind the 787, which will enter service next year, the A350 contains a similar share of composite material, but is based on a less advanced structural design that involves hanging CRP panels on a titanium frame. Boeing acknowledges that the A350 may be as light as the 787, but argues that it will be a less pleasant plane to fly in and a more difficult one to maintain.
Mr. Gallois admits that following Boeing's approach would have been too expensive and risky for Airbus. At the same time Mr. Gallois bemoaned the advantage his rival has in government-supported research and development. Boeing, he claims, receives about $800m a year—ten times as much as Airbus. Earlier in the week, during meetings with ministers representing the four Airbus partners (France, Germany, Britain and Spain), he asked them to fund half the company's planned 600m-a-year investment in research and technology. He is not hopeful.
But for the moment what matters most for Airbus is that the market stays strong and that it gets to grips with its costs. This may require going further in imitating Boeing's risk-sharing partner (RSP) model than Airbus seems willing to contemplate. According to some estimates, about 80% of the work on the 787 is outsourced to RSPs, saving Boeing both precious development time and working capital.
What this week has shown is that for all the success of the 787 and the mistakes of Airbus, the competitive duopoly of the past decade is still firmly in place. But will things stay that way? That depends partly on whether Airbus really has learnt its lessons and partly on who else wants to get into the game. Boeing reckons that in 20 years, 36% of the market will be in the Asia-Pacific region. For the time being, the Chinese, the Indians and others are happy to be partners and customers. But that could change.
1. How can Louis Gallois be confident that Airbus is “fully back”?
[A] Because under his leadership there is a sign that the company will soon cease its financial problem.
[B] Because Airbus put on a good show in Paris in which it received a large number of orders as well as worldwide fame that outshines Boeing.
[C] Because Airbus launches its recovery plan that would surely bring a great amount of profit in the foreseeable future.
[D] Because the company is in better situation as it succeeded in slowing down the annual loss.
2. How does Boeing feel about the coming A350 by Airbus?
[A] Critical.
[B] Indifferent.
[C] Optimistic.
[D] Supportive.
3. According to Mr. Gallois, how can Airbus catch up with Boeing?
[A] By mastering advanced technology that can compete with or even far excel Boeing.
[B] By receiving more financial and other kinds of support from the partner governments.
[C] By adopting the RSP model so as to cut costs and improve the efficiency of its working process.
[D] By reducing cost through its recovery plan and relevant policies on cutting employees immensely.
4. What is Boeing's strategy of cutting cost?
[A] It outsources a large portion of work to its partners.
[B] It invests heavily in its technology research and development.
[C] It receives much support from the government after much effort of negotiations.
[D] It expands its production by looking for more orders from its competitors' clients.
5. By “But will things stay that way?” (Line 2, Paragraph 6), the author means that _____.
[A] Airbus might make more mistakes if it neglects its other competitors
[B] the markets in Asia-Pacific region might shrink if Airbus merely focuses on its competition with Boeing
[C] the competitive duopoly by Boeing and Airbus might change
[D] Chinese and Indians might become the two companies' strong competitors in the near future

1. How can Louis Gallois be confident that Airbus is “fully back”?
[A] Because under his leadership there is a sign that the company will soon cease its financial problem.
[B] Because Airbus put on a good show in Paris in which it received a large number of orders as well as worldwide fame that outshines Boeing.
[C] Because Airbus launches its recovery plan that would surely bring a great amount of profit in the foreseeable future.
[D] Because the company is in better situation as it succeeded in slowing down the annual loss.
1. Louis Gallois为什么对空中客车“完全地回来了”如此有信心?
[A] 因为在他的领导下,有迹象表明,该公司很快就不会再有财政上的问题了。
[B] 因为空中客车在巴黎的展出非常成功,赢得了很多的订单,同时也在世界范围内赢得了比波音公司更好的声誉。
[C] 因为空中客车实施了一项复兴计划,这一定会在可见的未来给公司带来巨大的利润。
[D] 因为该公司成功地减缓了年度亏损,现在处于一个较好的状况下。
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第二段第一句话说:Although it is heading for a second successive loss—last year it plunged €572m ($718m) into the red—Airbus is undoubtedly in better shape than it was 12 months ago when wiring problems delayed the A380 and the weak dollar exposed the firm's bloated cost base. 即空中客车公司该年的年度亏损小于去年,公司的状况开始变好,因此,选项D正确。选项A错误的原因是,并没有迹象显示公司将会停止亏损。选项B错误的原因在于,尽管文章第一段指出,空客在巴黎航空展上表现不错,但是订单的增加并不是从航空展上得到的,同时关于声誉的表述也是没有根据的。选项C错误的原因是,文章第二段提到的公司的恢复计划能够节约成本,但并没有提到会带来很大的利润。
2. How does Boeing feel about the coming A350 by Airbus?
[A] Critical.
[B] Indifferent.
[C] Optimistic.
[D] Supportive.
2. 波音公司对于空中客车即将投入市场的A350型飞机是什么看法?
[A] 批评的。
[B] 无所谓的。
[C] 乐观的。
[D] 支持的。
答案:A 难度系数:☆
分析:态度题。文章第三段最后一句指出:Boeing acknowledges that the A350 may be as light as the 787, but argues that it will be a less pleasant plane to fly in and a more difficult one to maintain.即波音公司认为A350可能跟波音787一样轻,但是不如波音787舒适,而且前者比后者更难维护,这说明波音公司并不看好空客即将推出的A350,或者说,波音公司是带着吹毛求疵的态度看待A350机型的性能的,认为其不仅不够完美,而且没有波音787的各项优点。
3. According to Mr. Gallois, how can Airbus catch up with Boeing?
[A] By mastering advanced technology that can compete with or even far excel Boeing.
[B] By receiving more financial and other kinds of support from the partner governments.
[C] By adopting the RSP model so as to cut costs and improve the efficiency of its working process.
[D] By reducing cost through its recovery plan and relevant policies on cutting employees immensely.
3. Gallois先生认为空中客车如何才能赶上波音?
[A] 通过掌握能够与波音匹敌甚至远远超越对方的先进技术。
[B] 通过从与该公司合作的政府中拿到更多的财政支持和其他支持。
[C] 通过采用风险分担伙伴模式以便降低成本,提高工作流程的效率。
[D] 通过其恢复计划和相关的大幅裁员的政策来降低成本。
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第四段中,Gallois感叹:Boeing, he claims, receives about $800m a year—ten times as much as Airbus. 即波音公司每年从政府得到的研发支持和资金是空客的10倍,充足的政府支持是波音能够一直保持行业领先地位的重要因素。因此Gallois希望与空客合作的四个国家的政府也能够增加对空客的投资,从而增强其竞争力。
4. What is Boeing's strategy of cutting cost?
[A] It outsources a large portion of work to its partners.
[B] It invests heavily in its technology research and development.
[C] It receives much support from the government after much effort of negotiations.
[D] It expands its production by looking for more orders from its competitors' clients.
4. 波音公司降低成本的战略是什么?
[A] 公司把很大一部分工作外包给了合作方。
[B] 公司在技术研发上投入了很多资金。
[C] 在进行了艰苦的谈判之后,公司从政府那里得到了很多的支持。
[D] 公司通过从其竞争者的客户那里寻找更多的订单来扩大生产。
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。本问题关键是空客如何降低成本,而文章第五段介绍了波音公司通过风险分担伙伴模式将许多工作外包给合作伙伴,从而节约了工作资金,降低了成本,因此,答案为选项A。选项B和C都是波音保持强劲发展势头的原因,但不是降低成本的原因。选项D则属于无中生有,在文章中没有根据。
5. By “But will things stay that way?” (Line 2, Paragraph 6), the author means that _____.
[A] Airbus might make more mistakes if it neglects its other competitors
[B] the markets in Asia-Pacific region might shrink if Airbus merely focuses on its competition with Boeing
[C] the competitive duopoly by Boeing and Airbus might change
[D] Chinese and Indians might become the two companies' strong competitors in the near future
5. But will things stay that way?(第六段第二行)的意思是 _____。
[A] 如果空中客车公司忽视其他的竞争者,就可能会犯更多的错误
[B] 如果空中客车公司仅仅注重与波音公司的竞争,那么其在亚太地区的市场就可能会缩小
[C] 波音和空中客车之间的垄断竞争局面可能会改变
[D] 中国和印度的公司在不久的将来可能会变成这两家公司有力的竞争者
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。在But will things stay that way?这句话之前,文章说这两家公司仍然处于竞争垄断市场的局面,后文又继续说明了有可能导致这种局面发生变化的一些因素。这句话处在中间的衔接位置,说明了作者认为,这种状况不一定能够长期持续下去。因此,正确答案为C。

无论如何,我们不能说空中客车在这周的巴黎航空展上表现不佳,该航展两年举办一次。Louis Gallois是这个麻烦缠身的欧洲飞机制造商12个月内的第三任首席执行官。但是他仍旧声称:“我可以充满信心地告诉你们,空中客车回来了,完全地回来了。”他之所以发表如此充满信心的公开讲话,是因为该公司的超级销售员John Leahy在航展前,及时地拉到了600多架飞机的大规模订单和合同承诺。
尽管空中客车今年会连续第二年亏损——去年该公司的赤字为5.72亿欧元(合7.18亿美元)——空中客车毫无疑问比12个月前的情况好得多,那个时候由于配线问题导致了A380被推迟推出,同时,疲软的美元暴露了公司的高成本问题。现在公司实施了“Power8”恢复计划,通过裁员1万人,把6个工厂拍卖给合作伙伴等措施,达到每年节约20亿欧元的目的。新加坡航空公司将在今年秋天首先把巨型的A380用于商业运营,这比原计划推迟了两年。
在空客A350 XWB和双引擎宽体波音787的竞争中,Gallois先生力图保持积极的姿态。波音787的销售已经十分成功,该机型在下个月正式推出之前就已经收到了超过630架的订单。这款机型革命性地使用了一种叫做碳增强塑料(CRP)的合成材料,这使得航空公司都非常振奋。将于明年开始投入使用的A350比波音787的推出晚了五年,它使用了一种类似的合成材料,但是这种材料所基于的结构设计不如波音787的先进,即把碳增强塑料板挂在钛框架上。波音承认,A350有可能和787 一样轻,但同时指出,坐在A350上可能不是非常舒适,且这款机型比较难维护。
Gallois承认,紧跟波音的步子对空客来说成本高昂且风险很大。同时,Gallois也感叹,其对手拥有政府对研发的支持这个优势。他声称波音每年得到的资金为8亿美元,这是空客的10倍。本周早些时候,在与空客四家合作者(法国、德国、英国和西班牙)的部长的会谈中,他要求后者每年为公司提供6亿欧元的资金用于研发和改进技术。但是希望并不大。
但目前对于空中客车来说,最重要的是市场保持强劲,而且公司要解决其成本的问题。这可能要求空客进一步去模仿波音的风险分担伙伴(RSP)模式,尽管这也许超出了空客的预期。根据一些预测数据,波音787约80%的工作外包给了风险分担伙伴,这给波音节约了宝贵的研发时间和工作资金。
本周的一系列事件告诉我们,尽管波音787取得了巨大的成功而空客犯下了一些错误,但这两家竞争公司在过去十年中的垄断地位依旧岿然不动。可是这种情况会一直持续下去吗?这一部分取决于空客是否真的吸取了教训,一部分取决于还有哪家公司愿意加入这场游戏。波音估计,20年后,其36%的市场将在亚太地区。目前,中国和印度等都非常愿意成为波音的合作伙伴和客户。但是这种局面是会改变的。
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