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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 20 - TEXT TWO

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2019年02月20日

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For a Nobel laureate, the molecular biologist Max Perutz made a lot of mistakes. His science was strewn with assertions that were not supported by the sparse evidence he had gathered. No matter. He was eventually right about the important things—and gentleman enough to concede his errors.
With bloody-minded persistence, Perutz mastered the painstaking task of analysing images of haemoglobin, the component of blood that carries oxygen. This was no mean feat: a molecule of haemoglobin consists of thousands of atoms and, at the time, only simple structures of tens of atoms had been mapped. It was for this work that Perutz was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1962. But his triumphal announcement of the correct structure of haemoglobin was by no means his first solution to the problem: he had previously claimed all sorts of unlikely arrangements, backing down each time a colleague spotted a fatal flaw.
Even when he did finally hold the secret to why blood supports life, he did not piece together the evidence to produce the ultimate result. Indeed, Perutz was furious when a junior researcher saw how the final piece fitted and could not resist popping it into its slot, completing what Perutz viewed as his jigsaw puzzle. Nevertheless, it was Perutz who had gathered all the pieces and who ensured, in the end, that they were correctly assembled.
Perutz was long the outsider. Of Jewish descent, he was a lapsed Catholic by religion. He left his native Austria in 1936, two years before Hitler annexed it. The outbreak of war saw him expelled to Canada as an enemy alien. On returning to Cambridge, he was not welcomed by his college. It was only after he won the Nobel Prize that he felt accepted as an Englishman, despite having been naturalised as a British subject 20 years earlier.
As a scientist, too, Perutz was always on the fringe. His field of endeavour, X-ray crystallography, was neither physics nor maths nor chemistry nor biology but a combination of these. As often happens to researchers working in interdisciplinary areas of science, his progress was impeded by an establishment that sought to promote existing subjects. He lived from grant to grant, each lasting a matter of months. Nevertheless, he managed to establish the unit in which James Watson and Francis Crick elucidated the double helix structure of DNA. A decade later, a whole institute was established under him.
Georgina Ferry's biography captures not only the scientific advances made by Perutz but also his curious personal qualities. A skinny, sickly and, for much of his life, skint individual, Perutz is an unlikely hero. He was demanding—his diet required him to eat black bananas, even in February—and he was unselfconscious in ensuring that his elaborate needs were met. He was also naive in insisting that scientific reasoning would trump political thought and religious teaching.
Ms. Ferry portrays his foibles sympathetically. Perutz used to complain that, although he was famous, few people knew what it was he had achieved. By combining scientific with personal anecdotes, her book goes a good way towards redressing that balance.
1. Max Perutz won the Nobel Prize though he made a lot of mistakes because _____.
[A] his important contribution outweighed those marginal mistakes
[B] he guaranteed some decisive factors were correct
[C] he could always reach the correct conclusion in the end
[D] he was brave enough to admit his mistakes and strived for improvement
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Perutz's task of analyzing structure of haemoglobin?
[A] Perutz successfully worked out the different arrangements of the structures of all the atoms of haemoglobin.
[B] It is not Perutz who had first provided an answer to the correct structure of haemoglobin.
[C] It is in fact Perutz's colleague who had sorted out the solution to the problem of haemoglobin's structure.
[D] Perutz had worked diligently on the divergences between himself and his colleague in analyzing structure of haemoglobin.
3. Perutz was very angry with the junior researcher who popped the final piece into its slot because _____.
[A] the researcher asserted that what Perutz viewed was only jigsaw puzzle
[B] the researcher pointed out that Perutz did not piece together the evidence to prove the final result
[C] the researcher passed off the secret to why blood supports life as his own idea
[D] the researcher pieced together the evidence to work out the final result
4. Perutz's progress was interrupted by an establishment because _____.
[A] the subject he studied did not belong to any of the conventional disciplines
[B] his study threatened existing subjects by promoting interdisciplinary areas of science
[C] that establishment prevented him from receiving adequate and long-term funds
[D] he was diverted to the cause of setting up a brand new institute
5. The word “redressing” (Line 3, Paragraph 7) most probably means _____.
[A] remedying
[B] rectifying
[C] re-adjusting
[D] reversing

1. Max Perutz won the Nobel Prize though he made a lot of mistakes because _____.
[A] his important contribution outweighed those marginal mistakes
[B] he guaranteed some decisive factors were correct
[C] he could always reach the correct conclusion in the end
[D] he was brave enough to admit his mistakes and strived for improvement
1. Max Perutz尽管出了许多错,但是还是赢得了诺贝尔奖,因为 _____。
[A] 他的重要贡献远远超出了那些边缘性的错误
[B] 他保证一些有决策性的因素是正确的
[C] 他最后总是可以得出正确的结论
[D] 他勇于承认自己的错误,并争取改进
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第一段,尽管Perutz出了不少错,但都是小错,在大事情上没有出错,最终才赢得了诺贝尔奖。因此,答案为C。选项A看似正确,但错在marginal mistakes这个提法,在文章中没有出现(小错也可能是一些关系到核心的问题,而不是边缘性的)。而选项B和D并不是他获得诺贝尔奖的根本原因。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of Perutz's task of analyzing structure of haemoglobin?
[A] Perutz successfully worked out the different arrangements of the structures of all the atoms of haemoglobin.
[B] It is not Perutz who had first provided an answer to the correct structure of haemoglobin.
[C] It is in fact Perutz's colleague who had sorted out the solution to the problem of haemoglobin's structure.
[D] Perutz had worked diligently on the divergences between himself and his colleague in analyzing structure of haemoglobin.
2. 关于Perutz分析血红蛋白结构的工作,下列哪个陈述是正确的?
[A] Perutz成功地发现了所有血红蛋白原子结构的不同排列方式。
[B] 并不是Perutz最先提供了血红蛋白的正确结构。
[C] 实际上是Perutz的同事发现了解决血红蛋白结构问题的方法。
[D] Perutz在分析血红蛋白时和他的同事有许多分歧,他就这些分歧进行了勤奋的研究工作。
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,第二段提到了,Perutz正是因为这个成就才获得了诺贝尔奖。选项 B,血红蛋白完整的结构就是由Perutz提供的。选项C,第三段提到,是他的同事把一些材料总结起来得出了结论,但是之前Perutz已经得出了结论。选项D,Perutz接受了同事的建议,所以并未存在许多分歧。因此,选项A为正确答案。
3. Perutz was very angry with the junior researcher who popped the final piece into its slot because _____.
[A] the researcher asserted that what Perutz viewed was only jigsaw puzzle
[B] the researcher pointed out that Perutz did not piece together the evidence to prove the final result
[C] the researcher passed off the secret to why blood supports life as his own idea
[D] the researcher pieced together the evidence to work out the final result
3. Perutz对于将最后的证据放在了相应地方的那个资历较浅的研究员大发雷霆,因为 _____。
[A] 该研究员宣称Perutz看到的只是拼图
[B] 该研究员指出,Perutz并没有将证据结合起来以证明最后的结论
[C] 该研究员将为什么血液可以维持生命的奥秘归为自己的观点
[D] 该研究员将证据结合在一起,得到了最终的结果
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:根据第三段,是这个同事发现最后的证据正好证明了他的理论,忍不住将证据放在了相应的地方,从而得出了最后的结论,但其实Perutz早已得出了这个结论,因此,他非常生气。所以,选项D符合这个意思。
4. Perutz's progress was interrupted by an establishment because _____.
[A] the subject he studied did not belong to any of the conventional disciplines
[B] his study threatened existing subjects by promoting interdisciplinary areas of science
[C] that establishment prevented him from receiving adequate and long-term funds
[D] he was diverted to the cause of setting up a brand new institute
4. Perutz的进展受到一股力量的阻挠,因为 _____。
[A] 他的研究题目并不属于任何传统学科的范畴
[B] 他的研究旨在推动跨学科领域的发展,因而威胁到了目前存在的学科
[C] 这股力量使他很难得到充足和长期的资金
[D] 他的注意力转移到了建立一个全新的机构上
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第五段,他研究的领域是边缘学科,是新的学科,所以提倡研究现有学科的力量就阻挠他的进展。因此,选项A最为符合题意。选项B是干扰选项,看似有道理,但是文章没有“威胁到了目前存在的学科”的说法。选项C在文章中有所提及,但不是题干的主要原因。选项D的说法不正确,因为他的研究领域一直是跨学科的新兴领域,而并非建立新机构。
5. The word “redressing” (Line 3, Paragraph 7) most probably means _____.
[A] remedying
[B] rectifying
[C] re-adjusting
[D] reversing
5. redressing这个词(第七段第三行) 最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 补偿
[B] 纠正
[C] 重调
[D] 颠倒
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆
分析:猜词题。根据上下文:Ms. Ferry portrays his foibles sympathetically. Perutz used to complain that, although he was famous, few people knew what it was he had achieved. By combining scientific with personal anecdotes, her book goes a good way towards redressing that balance. 指出,Perutz过去常抱怨说虽然自己名气很大,但是很少有人知道他所做出的成就是什么,所以现在这本书将科学和个人轶事结合在一起,就调整了这种平衡。因此,答案为C。

作为一个诺贝尔奖获得者,分子生物学家Max Perutz可出了不少错。他的一些科学论断都不能被他搜集的那些零星证据支持。但这都没关系,他在一些重要的事情上都是正确的,而且他也很绅士地承认自己的错误。
尽管困难重重,但Max Perutz还是一直主持分析血红蛋白的形状,血红蛋白是血液中携带氧的成分。这可不是个一般的壮举:血红蛋白的一个分子中含有成千上万个原子,而在当时,只有几十个原子的简单结构被绘制出来。正是因为这项工作,Perutz于1962年被授予诺贝尔化学奖。但是发现血红蛋白的正确结构并不是他原来解决该问题的首选方案,他之前曾经做出过各种各样不可能的安排,每次都因为某个同事指出了其中致命的错误而将其放弃。
甚至当他最后已经掌握了血液为什么能够维持生命的奥秘时,他也没有将这些证据综合起来,以得出最后的结论。实际上,一个资历较浅的研究者发现最后的证据正好证明了他的理论,并情不自禁地将该证据放在了相应的地方,从而完成了Perutz自认为是他自己的拼图游戏,此时Perutz勃然大怒。但是,正是Perutz搜集了所有的证据,最后也是他确保它们都正确地组合在了一起。
Perutz一直被视为一个局外人。他有着犹太血统,是个离经叛道的天主教徒。他在1936年,即希特勒占领奥地利的前两年离开了自己的祖国。战争爆发后,他被当成异族敌人而被驱逐到加拿大。回到剑桥后,他没有受到学校的欢迎。直到他后来获得了诺贝尔奖以后,他才感觉自己被当作英国人,尽管20年前他就已经移民成为一名英国人了。
Perutz作为一名科学家也一直处在边缘地位。他自己的研究领域,即X射线结晶学,既不是物理,也不是数学、化学或生物,而是这些学科的混合。正如通常发生在那些交叉学科领域的研究者身上的情况一样,他的成就受到一股致力于促进现有学科发展的力量的阻挠。他的资助基金不断从一个转到另一个,每个都持续不了几个月。但是他设法建立起了自己的研究单位,James Watson和Francis Crick就是在这里阐释了DNA的双螺旋结构的。10年后,他成立了一家完整的研究所。
Georgina Ferry撰写的传记不仅记录了Perutz在科学上的成就,还记载了他的古怪个性。Perutz一生的大部分时间都是个消瘦、苍白的穷光蛋,根本不像个英雄。他过分地苛求自己,他的食谱中只有黑香蕉,甚至在2月也得如此,他在确保自己复杂的要求都能够得到满足时,甚至不会意识到这些要求有多么高。他也非常天真,坚持认为科学的推理要优于政治思想和宗教教化。
Ferry夫人无限同情地描述了他的怪癖。Perutz过去常抱怨说,虽然自己名气很大,但是很少有人知道他所做出的成就是什么。Ferry夫人的书将科学与个人轶事结合在了一起,从而调整了这种平衡。
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