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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 20 - TEXT THREE

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2019年02月20日

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Laden with hefty backpacks, French children filed back to school this week amid fresh agonising about the education system. Given its reputation for rigour and secular egalitarianism, and its well-regarded baccalauréat exam, this is surprising. What do the French think is wrong?
Quite a lot, to judge from a 30-page “letter to teachers” just sent by President Nicolas Sarkozy. Too many school drop-outs; not enough respect or authority in the classroom (pupils, he says, should stand up when the teacher enters); too little value placed on the teaching profession; too little art and sport in the curriculum; too much passive rote-learning; and too much “theory and abstraction”. France, the president concludes, needs “to rebuild the foundations” of its education system.
The criticisms touch all levels. A government-commissioned report reveals that two in five pupils leave primary school with “serious learning gaps” in basic reading, writing and arithmetic. One in five finish secondary school with no qualification at all. Even the baccalauréat is under attack. This year's pass rate of 83% is up from just over 60% in the early 1960s. “The bac is worth absolutely nothing,” asserts Jean-Robert Pitte, president of the Sorbonne-University of Paris IV.
The bac is not under review, but other changes have begun. Xavier Darcos, the education minister, has loosened school-catchment rules, to allow children from poor areas to get places in good schools elsewhere. He has set up an after-hours service for lower secondary schools, to supervise homework and keep kids off the streets. Mr. Sarkozy has established a commission under Michel Rocard, a former prime minister and yet another of his recruits from the left, to look into the teaching profession—and perhaps to soften up the unions before less palatable changes.
Some hard questions remain. France's rigorous system suits able pupils: half of all 15-year-olds match the standards in writing, maths and science of the very best performers in the rich-country OECD. But schools fail the weakest. The bottom 15% of French 15-year-olds rank among the OECD's worst. The main cure for struggling pupils is redoublement, the repeat of a school year. By the age of 15, 38% of French pupils have repeated a year, more than in any other OECD country. Yet an official report suggests that redoublement has no noticeable effect on a child's progress.
Mr. Darcos told Le Parisien this week that he “believed very little in the efficiency of redoublement”. But it is unclear what he would put in its place. He plans to trim teacher numbers. He hints at more streaming of pupils by ability, so that children can stay with their age group, but the unions are hostile. Mr. Sarkozy suggests another answer: less abstract teaching, which might engage less academic pupils. Mr. Sarkozy will find it hard to translate his ambitious ideas into concrete plans. His wish-list for the curriculum is daunting: more art and sport, but also more “civic education”, comparative religion, “general culture”, trips to the theatre, walks in the forest, visits to businesses. Yet French 15-year-olds already spend an average of 1,042 hours a year in the classroom—150 more than German pupils, and 282 more than English ones.
1. The president of the Sorbonne-University of Paris IV thinks the bac is worth nothing because _____.
[A] the pass rate of baccalauréat is too low now given the quality of the present education
[B] there exists serious problem in the education of baccalauréat period
[C] students can easily get the baccalauréat at present
[D] the advance of society requires people to be equipped with higher degree
2. The word “palatable” (Line 5, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] radical
[B] moderate
[C] demanding
[D] acceptable
3. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of France's education system compared to other OECD countries?
[A] It has the highest rate of redoublement than that of the other OECD countries.
[B] It pays more attention to the academic education than that of the other OECD countries.
[C] It gives students more equal opportunity to achieve education than that of the other OECD countries.
[D] It results in students' being more polarized than that of the other OECD countries in terms of academic performance.
4. From the ideas of Mr Sarkozy to reform the education system, it can be inferred that he is _____.
[A] a leftist
[B] a rightist
[C] an idealist
[D] a reformist
5. The best title of the passage could be _____.
[A] The Reform of Education in France
[B] New Policy on Education by New President
[C] Mr. Sarkozy, the Reformist in Education
[D] The Future of France's Education

1. The president of the Sorbonne-University of Paris IV thinks the bac is worth nothing because _____.
[A] the pass rate of baccalauréat is too low now given the quality of the present education
[B] there exists serious problem in the education of baccalauréat period
[C] students can easily get the baccalauréat at present
[D] the advance of society requires people to be equipped with higher degree
1. 巴黎第四大学——索邦大学的校长认为毕业考试一文不值,是因为 _____。
[A] 根据目前教育的质量来看毕业考试的通过率太低了
[B] 在为通过毕业考试而进行的教育阶段存在严重的问题
[C] 学生们目前可以轻松地通过毕业考试
[D] 社会的进步需要人们有更高的学位
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第三段最后提到:This year's pass rate of 83% is up from just over 60% in the early 1960s. “The bac is worth absolutely nothing,” asserts Jean-Robert Pitte, president of the Sorbonne-University of Paris IV. 也就是说,今年的毕业率比20世纪60年代提高了许多,因此校长认为,毕业考试太容易通过了,含金量不高了。所以,选项C符合题意。
2. The word “palatable” (Line 5, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] radical
[B] moderate
[C] demanding
[D] acceptable
2. palatable这个词(第四段第五行) 最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 激进的
[B] 温和的
[C] 苛求的
[D] 可接受的
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆
分析:猜词题。上文提到,已经开始了一些改变,而本句提到,要在实施一些其他变革之前软化工会。由此可知后实施的变革与之前的相比,应该是不易被接受的,因此D为正确答案。
3. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of France's education system compared to other OECD countries?
[A] It has the highest rate of redoublement than that of the other OECD countries.
[B] It pays more attention to the academic education than that of the other OECD countries.
[C] It gives students more equal opportunity to achieve education than that of the other OECD countries.
[D] It results in students' being more polarized than that of the other OECD countries in terms of academic performance.
3. 关于法国的教育体系与其他OECD国家的比较,下列哪个陈述是错误的?
[A] 与其他OECD国家相比,法国的复读率最高。
[B] 比其他OECD国家的教育体系更关注学术教育。
[C] 与其他OECD国家的教育体系相比,给予学生更多的受教育机会。
[D] 使得学生与其他OECD国家的教育体系相比,在学术表现的层面上更两极分化。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。选项A,这点从第一段和第五段都可以看出来。选项B,根据最后一段,各国学生们在教室中花费的时间对比可以推出这点。选项C,这点文章没有谈到过。选项D,从第五段可以看出这一点。因此,选项C为正确答案。
4. From the ideas of Mr. Sarkozy to reform the education system, it can be inferred that he is _____.
[A] a leftist
[B] a rightist
[C] an idealist
[D] a reformist
4. 从Sarkozy对改革教育体系提出的意见可以看出,他是一个 _____。
[A] 左派
[B] 右派
[C] 理想主义者
[D] 改革者
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。从Sarkozy的意见来看,他对教育体系改革的动作比较大,令人惊叹,因此是比较激进的,选项A最为符合这一点。选项D是一个较大的迷惑选项,因为文章谈到了很多Sarkozy的改革措施,所以容易认为他就是一个改革家。但一个人是否是改革家不是从一个方面体现出来的,因为文章中只谈论了教育体系的改革,不能反映出来他是否是一个“改革家”,因此该选项错误。
5. The best title of the passage could be _____.
[A] The Reform of Education in France
[B] New Policy on Education by New President
[C] Mr. Sarkozy, the Reformist in Education
[D] The Future of France's Education
5. 这篇文章的最佳题目为 _____。
[A] 法国的教育改革
[B] 新总统的新教育举措
[C] Sarkozy先生,教育的改革家
[D] 法国教育的未来
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:主旨题。本文主要讲述了在Sarkozy总统上台后,法国的教育体系所发生的一些变化。因此,选项B最为符合这个意思。

本周,法国的孩子们背着沉重的书包,带着对教育体系的新苦恼又回到了学校。法国的教育以其严格、平等以及非常重视毕业考试而闻名,因此孩子们有这样的反应就很奇怪了。那么法国人觉得哪出了问题呢?
很多地方都有问题,这是在Nicholas Sarkozy总统刚刚递交的长达30页的“致老师书”里表达的意见。有太多辍学的学生;课堂中没有尊重和威信(他称学生应该在老师进教室时起立);教师职业评价不够;课程安排中的艺术和体育课程太少;有太多死记硬背的教学;还有太多的“理论和抽象”。总统最后的结论是,法国需要“重新建立”其教育体系的基础。
这些批评涉及了各个层次。政府进行的一项研究表明,五分之二的小学生因为在基础读写和算术方面的“学习差距过大”而辍学。五分之一的中学生毕业后没有取得毕业证书。甚至连毕业考试也受到了抨击。今年的毕业率从20世纪60年代早期的60%多上升到了83%。“毕业考试一文不值,”巴黎第四大学——索邦大学的校长Jean-Robert Pitte这样说。
毕业考试目前不在考虑之列,但是其他的一些变化已经开始了。教育部长Xavier Darcos放宽了学校的招生规则,允许贫穷地区的孩子到其他地方的好学校上学。他为初中学校设立了课后服务,监督学生做家庭作业,不让他们在街上乱逛。Sarkozy先生成立了一个委员会,由前总理、现在仍担任其幕僚的左派人士Michel Rocard负责,主要审查教师行业,可能也是为了在推进其他比较不易被接受的变革之前软化工会。
但是还有一些棘手的问题。法国严格的教育体系只适合那些能力强的学生:所有15岁的青少年中,只有一半达到了写作、数学和科学课程标准,这是富裕国家OECD最优秀学生的标准。但是学校忽略了最差的学生。在法国15岁青少年中,15%最差的学生是OECD国家中最差的。对于这些学生,主要的解决方法就是复读,即重新读一年。法国38%的学生在15岁前都曾复读过一年,这个比率要比其他OECD国家都高。但是一个官方的报告却指出,复读对学生的提高没有显著的作用。
Darcos先生本周接受《巴黎人》的采访时说,他“认为复读几乎没有什么成效”。但是,至于他要用什么样的方法来取代复读还不清楚。他计划减少教师的数量。他提到可能会根据学生的能力来编班,这样学生就可以和同处一个年龄层的同学待在一起,但是工会却表示反对。Sarkozy建议采取另外一种办法:减少理论教学,这样可能会吸引那些非学院派的学生。Sarkozy先生会发现,想要将自己的宏图大志转化为具体的计划难度很大。他对于课程安排的希望让人害怕:要有更多的艺术和体育课,但也要有更多的“公民教育”、比较宗教学、“普通文化”、到剧院参观、在森林中散步、去公司参观。但是法国15岁的青少年平均每年花在教室中的时间已经有1,042小时了,这比德国学生多了150小时,比英国学生多了282个小时。
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