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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 20 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年02月20日

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It's normal for your muscles to lose tone when you sleep—that's why people in meetings nod off so amusingly. But in as many as 10 percent of middle-aged and older adults, the throat muscles relax so much that the airway repeatedly closes up, a condition that can be deadly, as it turns out. According to a study published this week in the New England Journal of Medicine, obstructive sleep apnea sharply increases the risk of stroke or death.
People with sleep apnea often don't realize they have it, since they don't remember waking up again and again, gasping for breath. Often, it's a bed partner who hears the choking and “industrial-strength snoring”, says Klar Yaggi, a sleep specialist at Yale who led the study. He and his colleagues followed two groups of patients who were tested for sleep apnea (defined as stopping breathing five or more times per hour). Some had the condition; some didn't. During the three and a half years or so that they were studied, the people with sleep apnea were about twice as likely to have a stroke or die.
No one really knows why, although the explanation could have to do with the spikes of adrenaline that course through the body when breathing stops, increasing blood pressure, or with repeated plunges in the level of oxygen in the blood. This study didn't look at whether treatment—sleeping with a contraption that continuously blows air into the mouth—lowers risk. But losing weight will improve sleep apnea. And patients who use the machine get much more rest, Yaggi says, which should help them avoid one of the other major dangers of sleep apnea: car accidents.
Another study in the same issue of the New England Journal of Medicine looked at how well the continuous air treatment works for people with central sleep apnea, a different disorder altogether. In both forms of sleep apnea, you stop breathing periodically. But in central sleep apnea, the problem is not an obstructed airway but that the brain fails to send out the command to breathe. The disorder is usually caused by congestive heart failure, in which the heart doesn't pump as well as it should and fluid collects in the chest. Researchers think that providing a continuous air flow during sleep might help drive water out of the lungs and make breathing more regular.
The treatment did help people with central sleep apnea in some ways: Their hearts worked better, they didn't stop breathing as often, they didn't have adrenaline surges, and they were able to exercise more. “That's the good news,” says Douglas Bradley, a pulmonologist at the University of Toronto and author of the article. “The bad news is that we didn't improve survival.”
The treated patients weren't any less likely to die in the follow-up period than those who were not given the treatment. While Bradley suspects a larger study would prove a lower risk of dying, he says the benefits shown in this study aren't significant enough to recommend using the treatment routinely in people with central sleep apnea.
1. The air contraption should help patients avoid car accidents because _____.
[A] it could improve sleep quality of patients
[B] it could increase the level of oxygen in the patients' blood
[C] it could lower the risk of the occurrence of sleep apnea
[D] it could both help the patients to get more sleep and lose weight
2. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of Yaggi's study?
[A] The study proves that the machine could help the patients avoid car accidents.
[B] The study verifies that losing weight could lowers risk of sleep apnea.
[C] The study did not provide a definite answer to the cause of sleep apnea.
[D] The study argues that people with sleep apnea have more risks of death.
3. Which one of the following is NOT the characteristic sleep apnea and central sleep apnea have in common?
[A] Both of them belong to the category of periodical disorder in breathing.
[B] Both of them are still hard for patients to survive from.
[C] Both of them share the same cause that is rooted in the brain system.
[D] Both of them could be effectively dealt with by the new treatment.
4. The study conducted by Douglas Bradley proves the following except that _____.
[A] the air treatment works positively in improving sleep apnea
[B] the central apnea is caused by congestive heart failure
[C] the air treatment could help people's brain to with central sleep apnea work better
[D] the death risk is strongly suppressed by the application of air treatment
5. Bradley thinks the treatment could not be used routinely in people with central sleep apnea because _____.
[A] the study they have carried out is not authoritative enough
[B] the air treatment proves to have no improve-ment on survival
[C] the study they have carried out is not large enough
[D] the treatment needs further verification

1. The air contraption should help patients avoid car accidents because _____.
[A] it could improve sleep quality of patients
[B] it could increase the level of oxygen in the patients' blood
[C] it could lower the risk of the occurrence of sleep apnea
[D] it could both help the patients to get more sleep and lost weight
1. 空气装置可以帮助病人避免车祸,因为 _____。
[A] 它可以提高病人的睡眠质量
[B] 它可以增加病人血液中的含氧量
[C] 它可以降低呼吸暂停发生的风险
[D] 它可以帮助病人睡得更好并减少体重
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第三段最后一句:And patients who use the machine get much more rest, Yaggi says, which should help them avoid one of the other major dangers of sleep apnea: car accidents. 由此可知,是因为空气装置提高了病人的睡眠质量,才使得病人可以集中精力开车,从而避免车祸的发生。因此,答案为A。
2. Which one of the following statements is NOT true of Yaggi's study?
[A] The study proves that the machine could help the patients avoid car accidents.
[B] The study verifies that losing weight could lowers risk of sleep apnea.
[C] The study did not provide a definite answer to the cause of sleep apnea.
[D] The study argues that people with sleep apnea have more risks of death.
2. 关于Yaggi的研究,下列哪个陈述是错误的?
[A] 该研究证明了这种机器可以帮助病人避免车祸。
[B] 该研究证明了减肥可以降低睡眠呼吸暂停的风险。
[C] 该研究没有为睡眠呼吸暂停的原因给出肯定的答案。
[D] 该研究证明了有睡眠呼吸暂停的人有更高的死亡的风险。
答案:A 难度系数:☆
分析:细节题。选项A,根据第三段,Yaggi只是提到,因为该机器能使病人得到更多的休息,因此就可以减少疲劳驾驶出车祸的几率,但该研究并没有去专门论证这一点。选项B,第三段提到了这点。选项C,第三段提到了虽然有可能是肾上腺素的原因,但是还是不确定。选项D,第二段就提到了这一点,也是该研究主要证明的结果。因此,选项A为正确答案。
3. Which one of the following is NOT the characteristic sleep apnea and central sleep apnea have in common?
[A] Both of them belong to the category of periodical disorder in breathing.
[B] Both of them are still hard for patients to survive from.
[C] Both of them share the same cause that is rooted in the brain system.
[D] Both of them could be effectively dealt with by the new treatment.
3. 以下各项中哪个不是睡眠呼吸暂停和中央睡眠呼吸暂停的共同特点?
[A] 它们都属于间歇性呼吸不正常。
[B] 两种病人仍很难存活下来。
[C] 它们的根本病因都与脑部系统有关。
[D] 它们都可以通过新疗法得到有效的治疗。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。主要信息在文章的第四段和第五段中有所提及。A对应于第四段中的In both forms of sleep apnea, you stop breathing periodically. 因此该选项正确。B对应的是第五段中的The bad news is that we didn't improve survival. 可见也是正确的。选项D也是正确的,从文中我们可以发现,两种睡眠呼吸暂停在新疗法的治疗下都取得了很好的效果。而选项C对应于第四段中的:But in central sleep apnea, the problem is not an obstructed airway but that the brain fails to send out the command to breathe. 这是中央睡眠呼吸暂停独有的特点,不是二者共有的。因此,答案为C。
4. The study conducted by Douglas Bradley proves the following except that _____.
[A] the air treatment works positively in improving sleep apnea
[B] the central apnea is caused by congestive heart failure
[C] the air treatment could help people's brain with central sleep apnea to work better
[D] the death risk is strongly suppressed by the application of air treatment
4. Douglas Bradley的研究证明了下列除 _____ 之外的其他陈述。
[A] 空气疗法可以改善睡眠呼吸暂停的情况
[B] 中央睡眠呼吸暂停是由先天性心脏病引起的
[C] 空气疗法有助于那些患有中央睡眠呼吸暂停的人的大脑更好地工作
[D] 空气疗法大大地降低了死亡的风险
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,第五段提到,空气疗法在某些方面有助于睡眠呼吸暂停的患者,因此该陈述正确。选项B,第四段提到了这一点,但这是对中央呼吸暂停的一种解释,并不是该研究所要证实的结果,因为第四段一开始就提到,该研究是为了检验空气疗法的疗效。选项C,第四段提到了空气疗法将水排出肺部,这样心脏就能正常工作,大脑就能得到供血,会工作得更好。选项D,第五段提到了这一点。因此,正确答案为B。
5. Bradley thinks the treatment could not be used routinely in people with central sleep apnea because _____.
[A] the study they have carried out is not authoritative enough
[B] the air treatment proves to have no improvement on survival
[C] the study they have carried out is not large enough
[D] the treatment needs further verification
5. Bradley认为,该疗法不能被用于常规治疗有中央睡眠呼吸暂停的患者,是因为 _____。
[A] 他们进行的研究还不够权威
[B] 空气疗法对存活几率没有什么提高
[C] 他们所做的研究还不够大
[D] 空气疗法需要进一步的确认
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章最后一段提到,是因为该研究所展现的空气疗法的优点还不够,如果试验大一些也许会证明有更多的优点,因此可以看出,主要是该疗法还需要进一步的确认。所以,选项D是正确答案。

睡觉的时候肌肉失去伸缩性是很正常的,这就是人为什么在开会时打瞌睡的样子很好笑的道理。但是在中年或稍微年长的人中,有10%的人的咽喉肌会过于松弛,以至于呼吸道会反复关闭,事实证明,这种情况是会致命的。本周的《新英格兰医学期刊》上刊登的一项研究表明,睡觉时呼吸突然受阻暂停会增加中风或死亡的危险。
睡觉时呼吸会暂停的人们根本意识不到自己有这种情况,因为他们不记得自己一次又一次地醒来喘气了。经常是同床睡觉的人听到了呼吸不畅的声音,或是“鼾声如雷”,该研究的领导者,耶鲁大学睡眠专家Klar Yaggi这样说。他和同事一起跟踪研究了两组睡眠呼吸暂停的病人(呼吸暂停的标准就是,每个小时呼吸停止五次及以上)。有些人有这样的情况,而有些人却没有。在历时大约三年半的研究中,睡觉时呼吸暂停的人中风或死亡的几率大约是正常人的两倍。
没有人知道这是为什么,虽然这可能与肾上腺素的动作电位差有关系,当呼吸停止时,该电位差通过身体,血压升高;或者是与血液中氧的水平反复降低有关。该研究并没有涉及是否能通过治疗(睡觉时使用一种装置不停地将空气吹到嘴里)降低这种危险。但是减肥确实能改善睡眠时呼吸暂停的情况。Yaggi说,使用该装置的病人可以得到更多的休息,这有助于他们避免睡眠呼吸暂停带来的另一个主要危险——交通事故。
刊登在同一期《新英格兰医学期刊》上的另外一个研究则关注,持续的空气疗法对有中央睡眠呼吸暂停的人有什么样的效果——中央睡眠呼吸暂停是另外一种完全不同的疾病。这两种睡眠呼吸暂停的患者都会间歇地停止呼吸。但是中央睡眠呼吸暂停的问题不是呼吸道受阻,而是大脑不再发出呼吸的命令。该疾病一般是由于先天性心脏病引起的,由于心脏不能正常跳动,于是体液都聚集在胸腔中。研究者认为,睡眠过程中提供连续的气流有助于将水排出肺部,使得呼吸更为均匀。
该疗法确实有助于中央睡眠呼吸暂停的患者。他们的心脏可以工作得更好,呼吸停止不再那么频繁,肾上腺素也没有增加,他们因此可以做更多的运动。“这是个好消息,”多伦多大学的呼吸专家Douglas Bradley,即该文章的作者说,“但坏消息就是,我们却不能提高存活几率。”
在以后的时间中,接受治疗的患者的死亡率与那些没有接受治疗患者的死亡率是差不多的。Bradley猜测,可能更大规模的研究能证明治疗会降低死亡的风险,但是该研究所显示的好处还不足以建议那些患有中央睡眠呼吸暂停的病人按部就班地接受治疗。
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