考研英语 学英语,练听力,上听力课堂! 注册 登录
> 考研英语 > 考研英语阅读 >  内容

《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 22 - TEXT FOUR

所属教程:考研英语阅读

浏览:

qinting

2019年02月23日

手机版
扫描二维码方便学习和分享

Numbers get a bad press. Almost alone of the academic disciplines, mathematics is one where expressions of ignorance are more of a boast than a shameful admission (imagine admitting at a dinner party that you can't read). Yet numbers are more important than ever. They are the language of most of science and much of government, two forces that do much to shape people's lives. They are the nervous system of any modern country, marshalled in support of arguments over everything from defence to which diseases should be treated.
Happily for the number-shy, help is at hand. A book about numbers and how to interpret them doesn't sound like interesting bedtime reading. Yet in the hands of Michael Blastland and Andrew Dilnot, respectively producer and presenter of More or Less, a BBC radio programme on the subject, that is what it becomes.
The chapters proceed from simple concepts to more complicated ones, starting with the simplest of all: working out how big a number is. That is harder than you might think. The British government's promise to spend £300m ($600m) over five years on child-care looks impressive at first glance. Only after working through the calculations does one realise that it amounts to only £1.15 a week for every family.
The authors avoid a hectoring tone. Their prose is light-hearted and never condescending. Amusing (or occasionally frightening) examples make theoretical arguments instantly accessible. The authors point out that most people have a higher-than-average number of feet (it takes only a single man with one foot to bring the average below two). Incomes are the other way around: Thanks to a few billionaires, most people earn less than the average.
Later on, trickier and more emotive subjects are tackled. Much of the second half is taken up with the devilishly tricky business of trying to extract causation from correlation. One such issue is the so-called “cancer clusters”. A mobile-phone mast is erected in a village. Soon after, cancer rates rise to several times the national average. But masts are common, and some villages are bound to develop high cancer rates through nothing more sinister than sheer bad luck. Proving correlation is easy, but proving causation—despite how obvious the links may seem—is not. The authors make the sobering point that mortality rates for doctors vary so much that, even if he had been constantly monitored, Harold Shipman (a British doctor who murdered at least 200 patients) would have racked up a body-count of several dozen before coming to official attention.
The central problem, as the authors admit, is that numbers can often be deeply counter-intuitive. Individuals find it difficult to cope with the vast quantities of cash consumed by a modern nation state, and everyday rules of thumb can sometimes lead to utterly wrong conclusions. That is what makes this book so valuable: It provides a reliable guide to a treacherous subject, giving its readers the mental ammunition to make sense of official claims. That it manages to make them laugh at the same time is a rare and welcome feat.
1. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of status quo of mathematics?
[A] One is cracking oneself up when expressing ignorance of mathematics.
[B] Mathematics is only discipline to tolerate the shame of knowing nothing about numbers.
[C] The shame of admitting that you cannot read at a dinner party is paramount of admitting that you do not know about mathematics.
[D] Expression of ignorance in mathematics is a boast not only in the academic disciplines but also in other fields.
2. The style of More or Less by Michael Blastland and Andrew Dilnot can be described as _____.
[A] detailed and accessible
[B] technical and illuminating
[C] professional and inviting
[D] theoretical and humorous
3. The author of the article uses the example of average number of feet and average income to demonstrate that _____.
[A] to correctly understand the meaning of numbers is sometimes very tricky
[B] people can understand better about statistical data by comparing them with most common phenomenon
[C] the book helps people learn about the secret of numbers through interesting and daily examples
[D] the way of calculating average income is the opposite to that of calculating the average number of feet
4. Some villages develop high cancer rates through sheer bad luck other than masts because _____.
[A] they could not sense any link between these two phenomena
[B] they can only find some vague correlation between them without solid evidence
[C] there are not enough proofs to demonstrate that mast could raise cancer rate
[D] they could not deduce a reasonable relation of the cause and effect on the concerning issues
5. According to the authors of More or Less, the main point they want to demonstrate is that _____.
[A] numbers are very difficult to understand
[B] numbers could be cheating in most occasions
[C] numbers can be subtly sensed by intuition
[D] numbers could shape people's minds into more reasonable

1. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of status quo of mathematics?
[A] One is cracking oneself up when expressing ignorance of mathematics.
[B] Mathematics is the only discipline to tolerate the shame of knowing nothing about numbers.
[C] The shame of admitting that you cannot read at a dinner party is paramount of admitting that you do not know about mathematics.
[D] Expression of ignorance in mathematics is a boast not only in the academic disciplines but also in other fields.
1. 关于数学的现状,下列哪项陈述是正确的?
[A] 一个人表示自己不懂数学时,他其实是在炫耀自己。
[B] 数学是唯一一个容忍人们对数字无知的学科。
[C] 在晚宴上承认自己不认字和承认自己不懂数学是一样丢脸的。
[D] 说明自己不懂数学,不仅在学术界,同时在其他领域都是一种炫耀。
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第一段:Numbers get a bad press. Almost alone of the academic disciplines, mathematics is one where expressions of ignorance are more of a boast than a shameful admission (imagine admitting at a dinner party that you can't read). 即除了在专业学术领域外,说自己不懂数学更多的是自夸,而不是丢脸的事情。因此,选项A符合题意。
2. The style of More or Less by Michael Blastland and Andrew Dilnot can be described as _____.
[A] detailed and accessible
[B] technical and illuminating
[C] professional and inviting
[D] theoretical and humorous
2. Michaels Blastland和Andrew Dilnot的书《或多或少》的风格可以被描述为 _____。
[A] 具体和可理解的
[B] 技术性的和有启发性的
[C] 专业而且有趣的
[D] 理论性的和幽默的
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第四段:The authors avoid a hectoring tone. Their prose is light-hearted and never condes-cending. Amusing (or occasionally frightening) examples make theoretical arguments instantly accessible. 以及文章最后一句:That it manages to make them laugh at the same time is a rare and welcome feat. 即两位作者没有使用虚张声势的口吻,文字平实,但不粗陋,还具有一定的理论性,而且比较有趣。因此,选项C最为符合。
3. The author of the article uses the example of average number of feet and average income to demonstrate that _____.
[A] to correctly understand the meaning of numbers is sometimes very tricky
[B] people can understand better about statistical data by comparing them with most common phenomenon
[C] the book helps people learn about the secret of numbers through interesting and daily examples
[D] the way of calculating average income is the opposite to that of calculating the average number of feet
3. 文章作者用平均英尺数和平均收入作为例子,来说明 _____。
[A] 有时候正确理解数字的含义是很需要技巧的
[B] 人们通过与最常见的现象进行比较,就能够更好地理解统计数据
[C] 这本书帮助人们通过有趣且常见的例子学到了关于数字的秘密
[D] 计算平均收入的方法与计算平均英尺数的方法是相反的
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。这个例子出现在文章的第四段,作者一开始先说明了这本书的特点是Amusing (or occasionally frightening) examples make theoretical arguments instantly accessible. 后面的例子正是用来说明这句话的,因此只有选项C是正确的。D显然是错误的,而选项A和B则具有较强的干扰性。但是要注意,这两个选项可以说是该书作者举例的目的,而不是本文作者用这个例子的目的,这两个不同的目的要区分开。
4. Some villages develop high cancer rates through sheer bad luck other than masts because _____.
[A] they could not sense any link between these two phenomena
[B] they can only find some vague correlation between them without solid evidence
[C] there are not enough proofs to demonstrate that mast could raise cancer rate
[D] they could not deduce a reasonable relation of the cause and effect on the concerning issues
4. 一些村民用坏运气而非天线来解释高癌症发病率,因为 _____。
[A] 他们感觉不到这两种现象之间的联系
[B] 他们只能找到二者之间一种模糊的关系,但缺乏足够的证据
[C] 没有足够的证据可以说明天线增加了癌症发病率
[D] 他们推导不出相关问题合理的因果关系
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第五段,这些村民认为高癌症发病率只是因为运气坏,因为他们看不到天线可能是导致这个问题的原因,而本段也主要是说这个问题,这是个例子。因此,答案为D。
5. According to the authors of More or Less, the main point they want to demonstrate is that _____.
[A] numbers are very difficult to understand
[B] numbers could be cheating in most occasions
[C] numbers can be subtly sensed by intuition
[D] numbers could shape people's minds into reasonable
5. 根据《或多或少》的作者的观点,他们想要展示的主要论点就是 _____。
[A] 数字很难理解
[B] 数字在许多时候都具有欺骗性
[C] 数字可以依靠直觉微妙地感觉到
[D] 数字可以使人们变得更加理智
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆
分析:推理题。根据最后一段第一句:The central problem, as the authors admit, is that numbers can often be deeply counter-intuitive. 即该书的重点在于,说明数字常和人们的直觉相反,有一定的表象性和欺骗性。因此,答案为B。

数学类书籍的销量往往不好。除了在专业学科领域外,承认自己不懂数学更多的是一种自夸,而不是丢脸的事(设想一下在一次晚宴上承认自己不识字)。但是现在数字比过去重要多了,它们是大多数科学学科和许多政府使用的语言,科学和政府是塑造人们生活的两股重要力量。数字还是任何一个现代国家的神经系统,可以支持各种各样的论点,包括从防务到哪种疾病需要治疗等各种议题。
对于那些不懂数字的人来说,幸运的是,帮助就在眼前。一本关于数字及如何解读数字的书听起来不像是什么有趣的枕边读物,但是在Michael Blastland和Andrew Dilnot的手里,一切却都恰恰相反。他们两个人分别是BBC广播节目《或多或少》的制作人和播音员。
该书的各个章节从简单的概念开始,直至复杂的概念,最开始是最简单的:算出数字有多大。这可能要比你想象的难得多。英国政府承诺,5年内将在儿童护理方面投入3亿英镑(合6亿美元),这个数字乍一看很大,但是只有计算一下大家才能意识到,这相当于每个家庭每周只能得到1.15英镑。
两位作者没有使用那种虚张声势的口吻,他们的文字非常平实,但又决非粗陋。有趣的(有时是吓人的)例子使得理论性的内容很容易理解。作者指出,大多数人都比平均身高高一点(一个人只要矮一英尺,就能使平均身高降低两英尺)。而收入则恰恰相反,正是因为少数几个亿万富翁的存在,才使得大多数人的实际工资比平均工资要低。
往后就是一些更难、更微妙的问题了。后半本书中的大部分内容都是从联系中找因果关系的问题,这很难。其中一个例子就是所谓的“癌症群”。某个村庄安装了移动电话天线,很快,这里的癌症发病率就高出了全国平均水平的几倍。天线是很普通的,而且一些村民就认为高癌症发病率只是由于运气坏。证明存在某种联系非常容易,但是要证明因果关系就非常难了,不管这种联系看起来有多么显而易见。作者明确地指出,由于医生手上病人的死亡率差异很大,即使Harold Shipman(一名英国医生,曾杀死至少200名病人)一直受到监视,他还是在杀死了几十个病人后才引起官方注意的。
作者承认,该书的重点在于,说明数字经常和人们的直觉是相反的。人们发现,很难清楚地认识到现代国家消费的资金数额,而日常的经验法则有时会导出完全错误的结论。正因为这样,才使得该书具有很高的价值:它提供了一种看待微妙问题的可靠方法,让读者明白如何读懂官方的公告。同时,这本书又能让人开怀一笑,这也是一种少有的、受人欢迎的技巧。
用手机学英语,请加听力课堂微信公众号:tingclass123
用户搜索

疯狂英语 英语语法 新概念英语 走遍美国 四级听力 英语音标 英语入门 发音 美语 四级 新东方 七年级 赖世雄 zero是什么意思

  • 频道推荐
  • |
  • 全站推荐
  • 广播听力
  • |
  • 推荐下载
  • 网站推荐