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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 23 - TEXT ONE

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2019年02月23日

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Traditional media may be declining in much of the rich world, but in poor countries it is booming. The growth in private media in developing countries has spurred much of the demand, as has new technology. That is stoking journalism training in far-flung places, in many shapes and sizes. They range from full degree programmes to the short-term specialist training offered widely across Asia, Africa and Latin America. Groups offering such courses include the BBC World Service Trust, the Reuters and Thomson Foundations, the Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR) and Internews Network, a media-development charity based in America.
These days the donors are particularly interested in niches, such as investigative reporting and science writing. But that approach sometimes flops. The need for basic reporting skills is still central. Trainers stress the need for flexibility. Participants in the courses praise the results, while complaining about the lack of focus and coordination among some providers. Shapi Shacinda, the Reuters correspondent in Zambia and chairman of the press club in the capital, Lusaka, says that foreign-backed training in business and economic reporting has helped bring more sceptical coverage. Previously, news stories used to be taken straight from officials' statements, he says.
But governments are harder to teach. Encouraging students to probe sensitive topics may threaten their lives or livelihoods. An Iraqi journalist trained by and working with the IWPR was shot dead earlier this year. Just this week, Zambia's minister of information asserted that state-run media should not criticise the government. In Russia, an organisation founded by Internews has been closed by the authorities, who were apparently suspicious of its American backing. Rich-country governments can be a problem, too. Some try to influence the “messages” that trainers deliver, for example, by insisting that their diplomats talk to classes on a regular basis. The big training groups insist that they control their own content. Blurring the boundaries can be dangerous both for journalists and the programmes that support them, he notes. But others may be less choosy.
More is not always better. Quality varies wildly. Places like Bangladesh and Rwanda have been showered with training in recent years. Gratitude is mixed with the wish for better coordination. David Okwemba of Kenya's The Nation newspaper, who also helps train journalists, bemoans overlap between courses and providers' failure to share information.
Some courses aspire loftily to build democratic societies through a free press. The BBC Trust says it aims to give a say to the common man by holding institutions—public and private—to account. Such a range of goals makes measuring results difficult. Teaching how to point a camera or write a news story may be easy compared to raising awareness of broader issues such as HIV/AIDS.
Many old news hands scoff at the notion of formal journalism education. A well-stocked and inquiring mind plus sharp penmanship are the main assets, they reckon. But even the most grizzled veterans of rich-world journalism still seem glad to earn extra money tutoring tyros in poor countries.
1. Traditional media is booming in poor countries because of the following reasons except _____.
[A] the private media is developing at a fast pace
[B] the new technology provides technical foundation
[C] there are many journalism trainings in various shapes and sizes
[D] the demand for traditional media has been in steady increase
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the present training in those poor countries?
[A] The trainers are paying more attention to skills of investigative reporting and science writing.
[B] The courses are mostly extensive rather than being intensive.
[C] The training puts emphasis on the flexibility of basic reporting skills.
[D] Some trainees are satisfactory with the training courses while some are complaining.
3. Shapi Shacinda thinks foreign-backed training in business and economic reporting has helped bring more skeptical coverage because _____.
[A] there is a conservative tradition of news reporting in these countries
[B] the foreign-backed training is skeptical about the previous news stories in these countries
[C] there exist some problems in the concept of news report in these countries
[D] the governments order that news stories should be taken from officials' statements
4. From the third paragraph, it can be inferred that Shapi Shacinda thinks _____.
[A] the training is in short of teaching the tactics to deal with different government
[B] it is still common for governments of less-developed countries to interfere with journalism
[C] the training had better not involve itself into unnecessary disputes
[D] the training should stress more on journalism independence from the government
5. Towards the journalism training, the attitudes of veterans of journalism can be said to be _____.
[A] critical
[B] despicable
[C] inconsistent
[D] supportive

1. Traditional media is booming in poor countries because of the following reasons except _____.
[A] the private media is developing at a fast pace
[B] the new technology provides technical foundation
[C] there are many journalism trainings in various shapes and sizes
[D] the demand for traditional media has been in steady increase
1. 传统的媒体在许多贫穷国家中盛行,是因为下列除 _____ 外的其他原因。
[A] 私人媒体在以很快的速度发展
[B] 新科技提供了技术基础
[C] 有许多各种形式和规模的新闻培训
[D] 对传统媒体的需求稳定增加
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。根据第一段:Traditional media may be declining in much of the rich world, but in poor countries it is booming. The growth in private media in developing countries has spurred much of the demand, as has new technology. 因此,选项A、B和D都符合该行业在贫穷国家兴盛的原因。而选项C是媒体发展的结果,而不是原因。因此,选项C是正确答案。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the present training in those poor countries?
[A] The trainers are paying more attention to skills of investigative reporting and science writing.
[B] The courses are mostly extensive rather than being intensive.
[C] The training puts emphasis on the flexibility of basic reporting skills.
[D] Some trainees are satisfactory with the training courses while some are complaining.
2. 关于贫穷国家中目前的培训,下列哪个陈述是正确的?
[A] 培训者更关注调查性报告和科学写作的技巧。
[B] 这些课程涉及内容非常广泛,但不够集中深入。
[C] 培训的重点是基础报道技巧的灵活性。
[D] 一些学员对培训课程满意,另一些不满意。
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。选项B为正确答案,因为第二段提到:The need for basic reporting skills is still central. Trainers stress the need for flexibility. 以及the lack of focus and coordination,可见培训内容涉及了基本的技巧,但是不够深入和集中。选项A错误是因为,这只是培训者们的态度,而不是培训的实际情况。C的错误在于flexibility of basic reporting skills,文中的flexibility和basic reporting skills是并列关系。D是干扰选项,对应于第二段的Trainers stress the need for flexibility. Participants in the courses praise the results, while complaining about the lack of focus and coordination among some providers. 可见,满意和抱怨的是同一批人,不是两种人。
3. Shapi Shacinda thinks foreign-backed training in business and economic reporting has helped bring more skeptical coverage because _____.
[A] there is a conservative tradition of news reporting in these countries
[B] the foreign-backed training is skeptical about the previous news stories in these countries
[C] there exist some problems in the concept of news report in these countries
[D] the governments order that news stories should be taken from officials' statements
3. Shapi Shacinda认为,外国公司提供的商业和经济报道培训使新闻报道带有更多质疑的态度,因为 _____。
[A] 在这些国家,新闻报道有着保守的传统
[B] 这些外国机构提供的培训对这些国家以前的新闻报道感到怀疑
[C] 这些国家在新闻报道的概念上存在一些问题
[D] 政府命令,新闻报道应当从官方文件中摘录
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第二段,因为这些报道和以前的这类报道的来源和风格都不同,以前是直接从官方文件中摘录,因此比较保守。结合第四段可以得出结论,就是因为这种保守的传统,才使得这种报道很可疑。因此,答案为A。
4. From the third paragraph, it can be inferred that Shapi Shacinda thinks _____.
[A] the training is in short of teaching the tactics to deal with different government
[B] it is still common for governments of less-developed countries to interfere with journalism
[C] the training had better not involve itself into unnecessary disputes
[D] the training should stress more on journalism independence from the government
4. 从第三段可以推导出,Shapi Shacinda认为 _____。
[A] 培训缺乏教授与各种政府打交道的技巧的内容
[B] 欠发达国家政府干涉新闻报道仍然是非常常见的现象
[C] 培训最好不要将自己卷入不必要的纠纷中
[D] 培训应该更加强调,新闻报道应该独立于政府之外
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第二段中Shapi Shacinda认为,外国机构提供的商业和经济新闻报道培训会使学员学会以质疑的态度报道新闻,而且第三段中也举了很多例子说明各国政府(包括发达国家和发展中国家的)如何控制媒体和新闻报道,由此可以看出,在这些国家,新闻行业仍然受到政府的控制。因此,答案为B。
5. Towards the journalism training, the attitudes of veterans of journalism can be said to be _____.
[A] critical
[B] despicable
[C] inconsistent
[D] supportive
5. 对于新闻培训,新闻报道老手的态度可以说是 _____。
[A] 批评的
[B] 蔑视的
[C] 不一致的
[D] 支持的
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据最后一段:Many old news hands scoff at the notion of formal journalism education. 可见,他们嘲笑正式的新闻教育这个概念,因此其态度是否定和蔑视的。选项A有一定的干扰性,因为说他们的态度是critical在某种程度上也是说得通的,但是不如选项B更加精确和恰当。

在许多富有国家,传统媒体可能已经在走下坡路了,但是在一些贫穷国家,这个行业却依然兴盛。发展中国家私有媒体的增加刺激了多种需求,如对新科技的需求。在许多地方都出现了各种形式和规模的新闻培训。在亚洲、非洲和拉丁美洲,既有完整的学位课程,也有短期的专门培训。提供这些课程的机构包括BBC世界服务信托公司、路透社和汤姆森基金会、战争与和平报道协会以及总部设在美国的媒体发展慈善机构网络新闻网。
最近,参加新闻培训的学员对一些特殊领域特别感兴趣,比如研究式的报道和科学写作。但是这种方法有时会遭到彻底失败。核心需要还是最基本的报道技巧,培训师也强调灵活的必要性。参加这些课程的学员们对培训效果还是满意的,但抱怨一些培训师没有集中的主题,缺乏配合。Shapi Shacinda是路透社驻赞比亚的记者,也是赞比亚首都卢萨卡新闻俱乐部的主席,他认为,外国机构提供的商业和经济新闻报道培训帮助学员们学会以质疑的态度去报道新闻。他说,以前的报道经常是直接从官方文件中摘抄过来的。
但是要教育政府是更为困难的,而鼓励学生去探究敏感话题可能威胁到他们的生命或是使他们丢掉工作。曾接受过战争与和平报道协会的培训并为其工作的一位伊拉克记者,今年年初被枪杀了。就在本周,赞比亚信息大臣称,国营媒体不应当批评政府。在俄罗斯,由网络新闻网创立的一个机构已经被当局关闭,显然是当局怀疑其美国背景。富裕国家的政府也可能是一个问题。一些国家试图对培训师教授的“信息”施加影响,比如说,这些国家会坚持让其外交官定期对学员们讲话。大型培训机构坚持自己控制自己的培训内容。Shacinda说,混淆界限对于记者或者支持他们的项目来说,都是很危险的,但是其他人可能就不那么挑剔了。
更多并不总意味着更好,其中质量有很大差异。近年来,孟加拉国和卢旺达等地涌现出了大量的新闻培训。人们在感激之余,又企盼这些项目能有更好的协作。肯尼亚报纸《国家》的David Okwemba也参与对记者的培训,他哀叹道,这些培训机构一方面提供了课程,而另一方面却没能与学员共享信息。
一些课程希望可以通过自由的媒体建立民主社会。BBC世界服务信托公司认为,其目标就是通过创办公共或私人机构来赋予普通民众说话的权利。这样的目标使得评价效果非常困难。与提高公众对于更为普遍的问题(如艾滋病)的意识相比,教授如何抢拍照片或者撰写一篇新闻故事更简单一些。
许多新闻老手都嘲笑正式新闻教育这个理念。他们认为,博学、好问的头脑加上良好的写作技巧,这才是最主要的资本。但是对于在贫穷国家教授新手来获得外快这样的好事,即使是富裕国家新闻界资格最老的记者也会乐于做此类兼职。
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