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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 23 - TEXT TWO

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2019年02月24日

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Like a medieval holy man, or modern hippie, Robert Macfarlane sets out for the remote parts of the northern and western British isles, sea-sprayed islands, craggy mountains and great bog plains. He wants to experience wildness. There is not an icy pool he will not plunge into or tree he would not climb. He picks up shards of roughened granite and smooth flints and turns them in his hand. He says: “We have in many ways forgotten what the world feels like.”
A Cambridge academic, who has previously written about men's fascination with mountains, Mr. Macfarlane does not forsake civilisation. On the two occasions that the elements threaten him—on the summit of Scotland's northernmost mountain and at the foot of a remote Hebridean climb—he briskly retreats. In scholarly fashion, his urge is to map, to classify and to name. He presents his travels as a “story map” (medieval forebear of the Ordnance Survey grid map) connected by incident and historical anecdote. As a narrative ruse, it is a little too cute. As, indeed, is Mr. Macfarlane's beautifully worked but sometimes monotonous prose. Nonetheless, this is indeed a good book, replete with wonderful tales.
Like that of Schiehallion: a Scottish mountain so resembling an isosceles triangle that an 18th-century mapmaker used its measurements to estimate the density of the Earth. Or of W. H. Murray, a chronicler of Scotland's hills, who kept his sanity in a Nazi prison-camp by describing them on toilet paper. Or, perhaps the strangest, a metaphoric connection that Mr. Macfarlane makes between the holloways of Dorset—lanes deep-trodden into its yellow sandstone—and the 16th-century recusant Catholics who skulked in the county.
Predictably, Mr. Macfarlane comes to realise that every place in Britain's crowded archipelago is swamped in human history. Its empty margins have been cleansed of large populations: western Ireland by 19th-century famine and emigration; northern Scotland by 19th-century emigration and evictions. He adjusts his idea of wildness. It is not nature unsullied, but nature itself: “the sheer force of ongoing organic existence, vigorous and chaotic.”
Like many English poets, he comes to find “visions in ditches”. A lichen-encrusted hawthorn trunk appears as a “shaggy centaur's leg”. But British nature is everywhere depleted. Of 6,000 acres (2,400 hectares) of surface limestone pavement, 200 remain undefaced. Since the Second World War, a quarter of a million miles (about 400,000km) of hedgerows have been erased; another 2,000 miles disappear each year.
As the climate warms, more terrible change is threatened. Scottish sea-bird colonies are already starving, as their prey heads north for colder waters. Every year, almost an acre of Essex salt-marsh, a precious flood-defence, is lost to the rising seas. England's last great beech woods, Mr. Macfarlane worries, may wither in his lifetime: 50-year-old trees are showing signs of a decline typically found in trees three times as old.
There may be no hope of arresting this change. Yet Mr. Macfarlane consoles himself with the thought that nature, endlessly changing, will not all die. The beech woods, too, will move north. And when people are gone, nature will remain. “The wild prefaced us, and it will outlive us.” It is a depressing hope.
1. According to the passage, Robert Macfarlane went traveling in the remote areas of Britain in order to _____.
[A] make a story map similar to the Ordnance Survey grid map
[B] combine trips to nature with academic concerns
[C] explore the areas with no trace of human beings
[D] release the fascination of nature that is forgotten by humans
2. The word “forsake” (Line 2, Paragraph 2) most probably means _____.
[A] dislike
[B] abandon
[C] detach
[D] disconnect
3. According to the passage, the story of Schiehallion is _____.
[A] similar to those which are represented in Mr. Macfarlane's book
[B] a fictitious one in the Ordnance Survey grid map
[C] a historical tale adopted into Mr. Macfarlane's book
[D] a story in the history book on 18th-century
4. From the fact that Mr. Macfarlane described a hawthorn trunk as a “shaggy centaur's leg”, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] he is a good story teller
[B] he is a poet full of imagination
[C] he is always indulged in fantasy
[D] he is very romantic
5. Towards the future of the nature, Mr. Macfarlane's attitude can be described as _____.
[A] pessimistic
[B] optimistic
[C] ambiguous
[D] unclear

1. According to the passage, Robert Macfarlane went traveling in the remote areas of Britain in order to _____.
[A] make a story map similar to the Ordnance Survey grid map
[B] combine trips to nature with academic concerns
[C] explore the areas with no trace of human beings
[D] release the fascination of nature that is forgotten by humans
1. 根据这篇文章,Robert Macfarlane到英国的偏远地方旅行是为了 _____。
[A] 绘制一幅和陆地测量部网格地图相似的故事图
[B] 把自然之旅和学术思考结合起来
[C] 勘探那些没有人类足迹的地方
[D] 释放那种已经被人类遗忘的对自然的迷恋
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第一段和第二段:There is not an icy pool he will not plunge into or tree he would not climb. He picks up shards of roughened granite and smooth flints and turns them in his hand. He says: We have in many ways forgotten what the world feels like.和On the two occasions that the elements threaten him—on the summit of Scotland's northernmost mountain and at the foot of a remote Hebridean climb—he briskly retreats. 可见,Robert Macfarlane想要体验蛮荒的感觉才是他的主要目的,因此,答案为C。
2. The word “forsake” (Line 2, Paragraph 2) most probably means _____.
[A] dislike
[B] abandon
[C] detach
[D] disconnect
2. forsake这个词(第二段第二行)最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 讨厌
[B] 遗弃
[C] 分离
[D] 断开
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:猜词题。根据文章第二段:A Cambridge academic, who has previously written about men's fascination with mountains, Mr. Macfarlane does not forsake civilisation. 文章接下来谈到,虽然他迷恋自然,但是却用非常精细的语言(in scholarly fashion)描述它,可见,他也没有因为对自然的热爱而放弃文明,因此,正确答案为B。
3. According to the passage, the story of Schiehallion is _____.
[A] similar to those which are represented in Mr. Mac-farlane's book
[B] a fictitious one in the Ordnance Survey grid map
[C] a historical tale adopted into Mr. Macfarlane's book
[D] a story in the history book on 18th-century
3. 根据这篇文章,Schiehallion的故事是 _____。
[A] 和Macfarlane先生书中的故事相似
[B] 陆地测量部网格地图的一个虚拟部分
[C] Macfarlane先生写在他书中的一篇历史故事
[D] 历史书中关于18世纪的故事
答案:C 难度系数:☆
分析:推理题。根据第二段和第三段之间过渡的部分:Nonetheless, this is indeed a good book, replete with wonderful tales. 和Like that of Schiehallion: a Scottish mountain so resembling an isosceles triangle that an 18th-century mapmaker used its measurements to estimate the density of the Earth. 首先,第二段末尾说他的书中有许多奇妙的故事,接着第三段就举了这样的例子,因此,答案为C。
4. From the fact that Mr. Macfarlane described a hawthorn trunk as a “shaggy centaur's leg”, it can be inferred that _____.
[A] he is a good story teller
[B] he is a poet full of imagination
[C] he is always indulged in fantasy
[D] he is very romantic
4. 从Macfarlane先生将一棵布满青苔的山楂树的树干描写为“怪兽毛茸茸的腿”,可以推断出 _____。
[A] 他是一个讲故事的好手
[B] 他是充满想象的诗人
[C] 他总是沉浸在幻想中
[D] 他非常浪漫
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆
分析:推理题。根据第五段:Like many English poets, he comes to find “visions in ditches”. 也就是说,Macfarlane先生像诗人一样,而诗人总是充满幻想的,因此,选项C最为符合。选项B具有较大的干扰性,但是要注意,Macfarlane先生并不是一个诗人。
5. Towards the future of the nature, Mr. Macfarlane's attitude can be described as _____.
[A] pessimistic
[B] optimistic
[C] ambiguous
[D] unclear
5. 对于大自然的未来,Macfarlane先生的态度可以说是 _____。
[A] 悲观的
[B] 乐观的
[C] 模棱两可的
[D] 不清楚的
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:态度题。根据最后一段:There may be no hope of arresting this change. Yet Mr. Macfarlane consoles himself with the thought that nature, endlessly changing, will not all die. 从这句话中可以看出,他的态度似乎还是有一点点乐观的。但是文章紧接着又指出:The beech woods, too, will move north. And when people are gone, nature will remain... The wild prefaced us, and it will outlive us. 以及It is a depressing hope. 可见,人类消失了自然仍旧存留,可见,他的态度还是相当悲观的,这从末尾的depressing这个词也可以看出。因此,答案为A。

Robert Macfarlane像个生活在中世纪的神人,又像是现代嬉皮士,他投身于英国北部和西部岛屿最遥远的地方,海水冲刷着岛屿,陆地上是起伏的山脉和巨大的沼泽地。他想要体验蛮荒的感觉。遇到任何一个冰湖他都会跳进去,看到任何一棵树他也都会爬一爬。他会捡起粗糙的花岗岩碎片和平滑的碎石放在手里把玩。他说:“我们在很多方面都忘记了世界是什么样子的了。”
作为剑桥大学的一位学者,Macfarlane之前描写过人们对于山的迷恋,他并不抛弃文明。他曾经受到过两次生命威胁,一次是在苏格兰最北面的山峰上,还有一次是在遥远的赫布里底群岛的山脚下,但是他都迅速地脱离了险境。他以学术派的风格来勘查、分类和命名。他将自己的旅行描述为“故事图”(陆地测量部网格地图的中世纪鼻祖),由历史和偶发性事件串联起来。作为一种叙述技法,这好像有点过于装腔作势。实际上,Macfarlane那精美但有时有些单调的文字也存在这样的问题。不过,这实际上是一本充满了奇思妙想的好书。
比如Schiehallion的故事,这座苏格兰山脉太像等腰三角形了,一位18世纪的地图绘制者曾用它的尺寸来估测地球的密度。W. H. Murray的故事也很有意思,他是一位苏格兰山丘的年代记编者,被关在纳粹集中营时,他在草纸上描绘这些山丘,以此来保持自己的心智清醒。最奇怪的或许是,Macfarlane将Dorset路——即一种深陷在黄色砂岩中的小路——与16世纪不服权威躲藏在乡村里的天主教徒做了一种隐喻性的联系。
Macfarlane先生后来意识到,英国人居住的每个群岛都有人类的历史。因为西爱尔兰在19世纪末的饥荒和迁徙,以及北苏格兰在19世纪末的迁徙和驱逐,空旷的边远地区人口繁盛的迹象已经被抹去了。他由此改变了对于蛮荒的看法,认为蛮荒不是没有被玷污过的自然,而是自然本身:“使有机存在持续下去的那种有力而混乱的绝对力量。”
像许多英国诗人一样,他发现了“沟壑中的幻想”。一棵布满青苔的山楂树的树干看起来就好像是“怪兽毛茸茸的腿”。但是英国的自然界到处都呈现出衰败的状态。6,000英亩(2,400公顷)石灰石地面中,只有200英亩的外观没有被损坏。二战后,100万英里的灌木树篱中,有1/4(约40万公里)被清除掉了,之后每年消失2,000英里。
随着气候变暖,我们受到更多可怕变化的威胁。苏格兰海鸟群已经在面临饥荒,因为它们的猎物都到北方去追寻更冰冷的水了。每年都有将近1英亩艾塞克斯的咸水沼泽地因为海平面升高而消失,而那是珍贵的洪水防堤。Macfarlane先生担心,英国最后的大毛榉树森林可能会在他的有生之年消失殆尽:仅有50年树龄的树木竟出现了本来三倍于该年龄的树上才会有的衰退迹象。
也许没有希望阻止这种变化了。但是Macfarlane先生安慰自己说,大自然在永无休止地变化着,不会全都死亡的。而毛榉树林也会向北移动。当人都消失的时候,大自然还会存留。“荒野揭开了我们的序幕,也会比我们存在的时间更长。”这是多么让人压抑的希望啊。
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