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新概念英语第三册(美音版)Speed and comfort

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https://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8426/44_412.mp3
https://image.tingclass.net/statics/js/2012

Lesson 44
Speed and comfort
又快捷又舒适

Listen to the tape then answer the question below.
听录音,然后回答以下问题。
Which type of transport does the writer prefer, do you think?
People travelling long distances frequently have to decide whether they would prefer to go by land, sea, or air. Hardly anyone can positively enjoy sitting in a train for more than a few hours. Train compartments soon get cramped and stuffy. It is almost impossible to take your mind off the journey. Reading is only a partial solution, for the monotonous rhythm of the wheels clicking on the rails soon lulls you to sleep. During the day, sleep comes in snatches. At night, when you really wish to go to sleep, you rarely manage to do so. If you are lucky enough to get a sleeper, you spend half the night staring at the small blue light in the ceiling, or fumbling to find you ticket for inspection. Inevitably you arrive at your destination almost exhausted. Long car journeys are even less pleasant, for it is quite impossible even to read. On motorways you can, at least, travel fairly safely at high speeds, but more often than not, the greater part of the journey is spent on roads with few service stations and too much traffic. By comparison, ferry trips or cruises offer a great variety of civilized comforts. You can stretch your legs on the spacious decks, play games, meet interesting people and enjoy good food -- always assuming, of course, that the sea is calm. If it is not, and you are likely to get seasick, no form of transport could be worse. Even if you travel in ideal weather, sea journeys take a long time. Relatively few people are prepared to sacrifice holiday time for the pleasure of travlling by sea.
Aeroplanes have the reputation of being dangerous and even hardened travellers are intimidated by them. They also have the disadvantage of being an expensive form of transport. But nothing can match them for speed and comfort. Travelling at a height of 30,000 feet, far above the clouds, and at over 500 miles an hour is an exhilarating experience. You do not have to devise ways of taking your mind off the journey, for an aeroplane gets you to your destination rapidly. For a few hours, you settle back in a deep armchair to enjoy the flight. The real escapist can watch a film and sip champagne on some services. But even when such refinements are not available, there is plenty to keep you occupied. An aeroplane offers you an unusual and breathtaking view of the world. You soar effortlessly over high mountains and deep valleys. You really see the shape of the land. If the landscape is hidden from view, you can enjoy the extraordinary sight of unbroken cloud plains that stretch out for miles before you, while the sun shines brilliantly in a clear sky. The journey is so smooth that there is nothing to prevent you from reading or sleeping. However you decide to spend your time, one thing is certain: you will arrive at your destination fresh and uncrumpled. You will not have to spend the next few days recovering from a long and arduous journey.
New words and expressions 生词和短语
positively
adv. 绝对地,完全地
compartment
n. 列车客车厢内的分隔间(或单间)
cramped
adj. 窄小的
stuffy
adj. 憋气的,闷气的
monotonous
adj. 枯燥的,乏味的
rhythm
n. 有节奏的运动
click
v. 发出咔哒声
lull
v. 催人欲睡

snatch
n. 短时,片段
sleeper
n. 卧铺
fumble
v. 乱摸,摸索
inspection
n. 检查
inevitably
adv. 必然地,不可避免地
destination
n. 目的地
exhaust
v. 使精疲力尽
motorway
n. 快车道
ferry
n. 渡船
cruise
n. 巡游船
civilize
v. 使文明
spacious
adj. 宽敞的
seasick
adj. 晕船的
intimidate
v. 恐吓,恫吓
disadvantage
n. 短处,缺点
exhilarating
adj. 使人高兴的,令人兴奋的
escapist
n. 逍遥者
sip
v. 呷,啜
champagne
n. 香槟洒
refinement
n. 精心的安排
breathtaking
adj.激动人心的;不寻常的
soar
v. 高飞,翱翔
effortlessly
adv. 不费力地
landscape
n. 景色
fresh
adj. 精神饱满的
uncrumpled
adj. 没有垮下来

出 远门的人常常需要决定是走旱路、水路,还是坐飞机。很少有人能够真正喜欢坐几个小时以上的火车。车厢很快就变得拥挤、闷热,想摆脱开旅途的困扰是很难的。 看书只能解决部分问题。车轮与铁轨间单调的嘎喳声很快就会送你进入梦乡。白天是忽睡忽醒,到了夜晚,你真想睡了,却很难入睡。即使你走运弄到一个卧铺,夜 间有一半时间你会盯着车顶那盏小蓝灯而睡不着觉;要不然就为查票摸索你的车票。一旦抵达目的地,你总是疲惫不堪。乘汽车作长途旅行则更加不舒服,因为连看 书都几乎不可能。在公路上还好,你至少能以相当快的速度安全地向前行。但旅行的大部分时间都花在路上,而且只有很少的服务设施,交通也很拥挤。相比之下, 坐船旅行或环游可以得到文明世界的各种享受。你可以在甲板上伸展四肢、做游戏,还能也很见到各种有趣的人,能享用各种美味佳肴——当然,这一切只有在大海 风平浪静的情况下才有可能。如果大海肆虐起来,你就可能晕船,那种难受劲儿是任何一种别的旅行的方式都不会带来的。即使风平浪静,坐船旅行也要占用很长时 间。没有多少人会为享受坐船旅行的乐趣而牺牲假期的时间。飞机以危险而著称,连老资格的旅行者也怕飞机。飞机另一个缺点是昂贵。但就速度与舒适而言,飞机 是无与伦比的。腾云驾雾,在30,000 英尺高空以500英里的时速旅行,这种经历令人心旷神怡。你不必想办法去摆脱旅途的困扰,因为飞机会迅速地把你送到目的地。几小时之内,你躺在扶手椅上, 享受着旅途的欢乐。真正会享受的人还可以在某些航班上看一场电影和喝香槟。即使没有这些消遣条件,也总是有事可做。飞机上,你可以观察世界上非同寻常的奇 妙的美景。你毫不费劲地飞越高山幽谷,你确能饱览大地的风貌。如果这种景色被遮住了,你可以观赏一下展现在你面前的、一望数英里的、连绵不断的云海,同时 阳光灿烂,天空清澈明朗。旅途平稳,丝毫不妨碍你阅读或睡眠。不管你打算如何消磨时间,有件事是可以肯定的,即当你抵达目的地时,你感到精神焕发,毫无倦 意,用不着因为漫长的旅途的辛苦而花几天时间休息来恢复精神。

◆positively adv. 绝对地,完全地
in a positive way
doubt; doubtful; uncertain; dubious 表示不是很肯定
The food is positively uneatable.
Can you really do it positively?
在这儿相当于sure, of cause, certainly, no problem
a piece of cake, no sweat, it’s a snack 都表示不成问题
I bet 我肯定

◆compartment n. 列车客车厢内的分隔间(或单间)
◆cramped adj. 窄小的
◆stuffy adj. 憋气的,闷气的
== airless
That classroom must be stuffy.

◆rhythm n. 有节奏的运动
◆click v. 发出咔哒声
roar 车辆飞快行驶发出的声音
bark 狗叫
Don’t bark your order at me.

◆monotonous adj. 枯燥的,乏味的,单调的
tedious, dull, uninteresting
monotonous == lacking variety
Eg: I don’t like the way of your teaching, it is monotonous.
I hate the monotonous rhythm of travelling by train.
tedious 乏味的(重点突出long and uninteresting 冗长乏味的 )
Eg: Your article is tedious.
dull 语意比较弱,= uninteresting
Eg: I can’t get along well with Mary, she is a dull girl.
Look at that dull person.
Tiresome == tiring 由于疲劳而厌倦
tired
Eg: He is tired of sleeping on the floor, because he has done so for ten years.
Long lasting meetings are tiring .
You are tiresome.
You are a little bit tiresome.
handsome
bore v.
bored adj.
boring adj. 持续时间过长而厌倦
Eg : I am tired of doing so.
I am bored with doing so. 我厌烦这么做。
be tired of
be bored with

◆lull v. 催人欲睡
vt. ==cause sb. to sleep
Eg: The mother lulled her baby to sleep.
lull sb to sleep 催人入睡
lull vi.风和日丽
What a good day, the wind lulled.
lullaby 催眠曲

◆◆◆snatch n. 短时,片段
catch, seize, grab,
in snatches 断断续续地
Eg: On the train, we sleep in snatches.

◆sleeper n. 卧铺
◆fumble vt. 乱摸,摸索
Eg: He fumbled the door open. 他摸索着把门打开了。
He put his hand into his pocket to take the key out.
He fumbled in his pocket for the key.
search for

◆inspection n. 检查
◆◆◆inevitably adv. 必然地,不可避免地
Eg: Human beings are mortal, so inevitable we make mistakes, no matter how wise and eminent you are.

◆destination n. 目的地
◆exhaust vt. 使精疲力尽
exhausted adj.
exhausting adj.
tire out
Eg: I’m exhausted. 我精疲力尽了。
What exhausts you? 什么使你精疲力尽呀?
I’m tired out.
wear out 使疲劳,使磨损
worn
worn out
Eg: Look, your dress is worn out. 瞧,你的衣服穿坏了。
After a day’s work hard, I am worn out.
knock out
Knock sb out 1,把某人打晕,2,某人筋疲力尽

Eg: The arduous work knocked me out. 这项艰难的工作使我精疲力尽。
Fatigue 使筋疲力尽,使疲劳(书面)
Eg: The piece of work fatigues me.
Does your work fatigue you?

◆motorway n. 快车道
express way, highway

◆ferry n. 渡船
◆cruise n. 巡游船
◆civilize v. 使文明
◆◆◆spacious adj. 宽敞的
Eg: Is your classroom spacious?
Our classroom is not so spacious as that one.
I would like to lie in the spacious classroom instead of sitting here.
==roomy
a roomy house
capacious 容量大的
capacity 容量
commodious 宽敞的,便利的(== roomy and convenient )
Eg: The cinema is both roomy and convenient.
The cinema is commodious.
expansive 易膨胀的,广阔的
Eg: I’d like to appreciate expansive sea / ocean. 我喜欢欣赏浩瀚的海洋。
vast 幅员辽阔的
Eg: The desert in our country is vast, that is a major problem.
extensive 广泛的,广阔的
extensive reading 泛读
intensive reading 精读
Eg: You can enlarge you vocabulary by intensive reading.
widespread 流传广的,分布广的
Eg: The kind of news is widespread.
far-reaching 触及很远的,流传久远的
Eg: I have a good idea and it is far-reaching.

◆seasick adj. 晕船的
airsick 晕飞机的
carsick 晕车的
bicyclesick 晕自行车的
bussick晕公交车的
Homesick 想家的
分别在词尾加上后缀-ness变成名词
Homesickness 思乡之情

◆intimidate v. 恐吓,恫吓
frighten, horrify, terrify
Eg: Nothing can intimidate me.

◆disadvantage n. 短处,缺点
◆◆◆exhilarating adj. 使人高兴的,令人兴奋的
exhilarate vt. == very much excite 比excite 语义强烈得多,正式得多
Eg: I’m exhilatated by your visit. 对于你的来访我是高兴极了。
stimulate 刺激,激励
stimulate sb to do sth 激励某人做某事
Eg: Your courage stimulated me to do so.
inspire激励(通过言辞)
Inspire sb to do 激励某人做某事(通过言辞)
Stir 鼓动,鼓舞
Eg: Who stired you to do it like this? You should look before you leap. 谁鼓动你这么做?你应该三思而后行。
spur 刺激
Eg: His rude remarks spured me.
encourage
Eg: He always encourages me to study hard when I’m unwilling to do so.

◆escapist n. 逍遥者
◆sip v. 呷,啜
vt & n.
== drink a little at a time.
take a sip of sth 喝一点
Eg: I’m really thirsty, would you mind my taking a sip of your Coffee?
have a taste of sth 尝一点
Eg: I’m so hungry that I want to have a taste of your cake.
You can take a sip of my Coffee, but my cake only belongs to me.

◆champagne n. 香槟酒
◆◆◆refinement n. 精心的安排
refine 使人精力充沛
Eg: Coffee always refined us.
Coffee always made us fresh.

◆breathtaking adj. 激动人心的;不寻常的
Eg: The picture takes my breath. 这幅画太美了。
The girl takes my breath.
The beautiful dress takes my breath.
decide to go for a trip 决定旅行
Eg: We decided to go for a breathtaking trip.

◆soar v. 高飞,翱翔
Eg: We can’t soar in the blue sky without wings.
soar effortlessly 自由翱翔

◆effortlessly adv. 不费力地
◆landscape n. 景色
landscape 指从高处或远处远望高看的这种大地的漂亮的风光
spectacle == extroordinary sight
scenery 自然风光
scene 场面
view 透过窗户看到的景色
Eg: Our classroom doesn’t have a good view.
The rising sun in the Tai Mountain is a spectacle / landscape.

◆fresh adj. 精神饱满的
a fresh man
Eg: Look at that guy, he is really fresh.他很帅

◆uncrumpled adj. 没有跨下来
Eg: He went Home fresh and uncrumpled.

People travelling long distances frequently have to decide whether they would prefer to go by land, sea, or air.
现在分词短语修饰people
people who travel long distance frequently
frequently 定期地,经常地quite often
have to decide== have to make up their mind
would rather; would sooner 要和动词原形搭配
had better do 最好地
would prefer to do
would rather do

hardly + anyone 等不定代词时不倒装,在这相当于nobody; 或nearly nobody, virtually nobody

You concentrate your mind on the journey itself, nothing can help you to keep away from it.

take your mind off sth 把某人注意力从…转移开
Eg: A holiday can take your mind off your anxiety.
Do keep your mind off your unHappiness.
I can’t take my mind off my examination, because examination day is coming.

partial solution == one part of solution

L44-03 end 18’33”

L44-04 begin 18’35”

Inevitably you arrive at your destination almost exhausted.
exhausted 在这里是形容词做状语
wear out; tire out; fatigue; knock out 筋疲力尽

Long car journeys are even less pleasant, for it is quite impossible even to read.
The writer emphasize disadvantage of travelling by train.
Travelling by car is moeunpleasant than travelling in the train.

fairly 的语气是最弱的
more often than not 主要用在书面语言当中,means very often, usually, frequetly

By comparison 通过对比
offer == provide
comforts 在这儿指代service

Be likely to do 有可能……
== it is probable that
could not be + 形容词比较级,can not be +形容词比较级,no… could be 表示“没有什么比…”
Eg: Nobody can be more beautiful than you.
No place can / could be better. 没有什么地方比这儿更好。

relatively 相对来讲
Eg: A large number of people are prepared to sacrifice their higher pay for the privilege of becoming white collar.
Relatively, few people are prepared to sacrifice their holiday time for the dubious pleasure of travelling by sea.
dubious == uncertain == doubtful

paragraph 2

Aeroplanes are famous / well-known for its being dangerous.

L44_42-04 end 18’35”

L44-05 begin 18’52”

have the disadvantage of
have the reputation of

match sb. for
but nothing can be equal to them.
第二部分当中是采用对比法
It is almost impossible to take your mindoff the journey.
You don’t have to / needn’t devise ways of taking your mind off the journey.

hardly… when
You had hardly had time to feel tired when you arrived at your destination.
on some services 在这里指代on airplane

Keep one’s mind off 转移注意力
Keep sb. occupied 集中注意力

however == no matter how

If you can do without the few pleasures of travelling by land, you will find aeroplanes provide up with the best.

Please illustrate the disadvantage and advantage of studying abroad.
at first, you must illustrate your topic
the disadvantage of studying at Home.
the disadvantage of studying abroad.
最后通过实例详细论述出国留学的好处。
关于写作:
三段法
第一段:开门见山
中间段:支持段一般是由一段或两段组成,目的是支持论点
每段的开头一句话和最后一句话一定要和主题密切联系。
参见Lesson 41

L44-05 end 18’52”
Lesson44A end 1:32:39

Lesson44B begin 1:12:29
L44-06 begin 18’43”

最主要的方法有三种:对比法,比较法,例证法
结尾段起到的作用是再次肯定和强调主题,加深读者印象。
段落是由主题句,扩展句组成,扩展句之后是具体的例子。
想表达不同的理论概念,要用转折句。
主题句应该要简练,要明确地表达中心思想。
Eg: 1. The discrimination agaist women is very obvious in the world.
2. The discrimination agaist women is especially obvious in the job of marketing.
3. The discrimination agaist women began in 1910.
topic 应为2。
主题句应该具有概括性,但是概括又不能太宽泛。
主题句确立之后,还要进一步利用扩展句为说明解释主题句的内容。
重复使用关键词。
内容要连贯。
衔接词的使用
1. 起 (开篇,引出论点):at first, first, firstly, in the beginning(起初),first of all, at present(目前), nowadays, currently, to start with, to begin with ,for one thing(首先), for another(其次), in one hand 一方面,in the other hand 另一方面
2. 承:to start with, at the same time, at any rate无论如何,
besides此外,除了…之外还有,apart from, in addition, in addition to, furthermore,
in fact 事实上,actually, as a matter of fact, in reality , moreover, no doubt, without any doubt,
similarly 同样地,in the same way , meanwhile, in the meantime, obviously明显地,particularly,
such as, for example, for instance, consequently, as a consequence, as a result,
what is more, what is worse, what is better
above all


3.折:after all 毕竟,终究, all the same 虽然,但是,anyway 无论如何, somehow, but, however, nevertheless, nonetheless, by the time 到这个时候,此时,conversely, on the contrary, despite, in spite of , in contempt of, in disregard of, by contrast, by comparison, fortunately, in other words 换句话说,on the other hand, unlike 和……不同,不像, whereas然而,
Eg: He made a mistake, after all he is a child aged 5.
Even though you are not of most help, I’m grateful to you just the same.
I had expected myself to pass the examination, somehow I failed.
I don’t have the ability to do the work, fortunately my friends romise me to help me.

4.合: 主要是用来小结上文的或是用作结尾段: accordingly于是,因此,as has been noted (above) 如前所述的,as has been mentioned, as has been talked of,
at last, finally, lastly, at length,
briefly简而言之,in brief, in short, in a word, in conclusion, in sum, in summary, to sum up, to summarize, to conclude, on the whole 总起说来

no doubt 毫无疑问,undoubtedly, truly, certainly, positively, surely, obviously,
Topic 主题
1. 可以使用谚语作为topic
as the saying goes; as proverb goes
2. 定义法
What is advertisement, it is the words or pictures on a media to promote product / the sale of product.
作业:illustrate your opinion about advertisements on media.
3. 可以使用提问法:Lesson 7
illustrate your opinion about friendship
Do you have a good / large circle of friends?
4. 概括法:出现在开头段的首句或末句。
I quite agree with this idea.
5. 间接开头法:先叙述别人的观点,然后引出自己的真实看法。
Eg: People often say that money can buy all the things, but I think it is not true.

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Comprehension
1. The great disadvantage shared by train and car travel alike is _____ .
a. the fact that one cannot get to sleep on either form of transport
b. the fact that one cannot concentrate on what one is reading
c. the monotony of travelling at fast speeds along railway lines or roads
d. the tedium and discomfort of the journey
The great disadvantage that shared by train and car travel alike as
alike; as well
was adored by the rich and poor alike.

2 An aeroplane journey invariably provides such distractions as _____ .
a. the thought that one has not long to wait before arriving
b. the exhilarating quality of the air one breathes at 30,000 feet
c. being able to watch a film or drink champagne
d. the marvellous views of land or clouds you can see from the plane
distraction 转移注意力
such … as比如……
He can speak such languages as English, Japanese.
背熟题干

3 Having arrived at your destination by air, you will _____ .
a. not feel exhausted as you will have had plenty of sleep
b. feel the expense was worth the comfort and speed of the 500-mile flight
c. have the satisfaction of knowing you could not have got there any faster
d. at least feel fresh though your clothes might be a mass

L44-09 end (44-01) 11’23”

L44-10 begin 10’06”
No forms of transport can be more comfortable and faster than aeroplanes.

Structure
4 People travelling long distances frequently have to decide _____ they would prefer to go by land see or air. (ll.1-2)
a. which b. how c. what d. if

5 If you are _____ a sleeper …(ll.8-9)
a. luckily getting b. lucky and get c. to get luckily d. so lucky to get

★★6 ----and enjoy good food _____ , of course, that the sea is calm. (ll.13-14)
a. provided b. in the event c. in case d. if only
如果内心的期望和事实没有关系,表达“如果”采用的结构形式不是if,不是suppose, 而是providing or provided
Eg: I’ll take all the shirts if / provided you reduce the price to $1 each.

7 In addition, it _____ their being the most expensive form of transport. (l.19)
a. has been a grave disadvantage b. is the great disadvantage that
c. is a great disadvantage d. has been the great disadvantage of
in addition 表示承上启下,除此之外还有
如果用apart from, besides, in addition to, 必须和宾语进行搭配。
it是形式主语
It is no use crying. 哭没有用。
It is no use pretending that I didn’t see him. 假装没看见他是没有用的了。

Vocabulary
★★★8 If it is not and you are _____ , no form of transport could be worse. (ll.14-15)
a. provably seasick b. bad at sailing c. sick of the sea d. prone to seasickness
If it is not == If it is not calm
be prone to sth. to 在这里是介词。
相当于be likely to do表示极有可能。
During cold winter, we are likely to catch cold.
During cold winter, we are prone to cold.

9 Nothing can _____ aeroplanes for speed and comfort. (ll.19-20)
a. match with b. equal c. equal with d. equal to
match 指大小,色调,形状,性质等相配或相称

10 For a few hours, you _____ a deep armchair to enjoy the flight. (ll.22-23)
a. relax in b. sit up in c. sit on d. install
sit up 不睡觉= stay up
install 安装,固定
Eg: Let us install a television set on the wall.

11 You can enjoy the extraordinary _____ of unbroken cloud plains … (ll.26-7)
a. scene b. vision c. spectacle d. scenery
spectacle = landscape
scenery 自然风光
scene 场景

12 You won’t send the next few days getting _____ a long and arduous journey. (l.30)
a. above b. over c. up from d. away from
get over 从......中恢复过来
Eg: He hasn’t got over his wife’s death.
He doesn’t get over his illness.
get away from 从......逃脱掉。
【Key to Multiple choice questions】
1. D 2. C 3. C 4. D 5. B 6. A 7. C 8. D 9. B 10. A 11. C 12.B

 

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