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全国英语等级考试教材第三级Unit19

所属教程:全国英语等级考试教材第三级

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[00:00.00] CHAPTER 19 HISTORY

[00:12.90]Unit 19 History

[00:17.55]Conversations

[00:20.90]1 Chang and Hank are in the same university.

[00:27.25]They are talking about the western frntier in America.

[00:32.39]Chang:Recently I have studied American history.

[00:37.43]I am very interested in the western frontier in your country.

[00:42.89]Could you tell me something about it,Hank?

[00:47.26]Yes,of course.

[00:50.60]The life to the frontiersmen in the west

[00:54.96]has always been an attraction to us American people.

[01:00.00]My grandmother often told me stories about her grandfather

[01:05.25]who was a pioneer in the early days.

[01:09.62]Really?Her accounts must be trustworthy.

[01:14.68]In the 1870s,my great-great-grandfather heard that

[01:20.25]gold had been found in the west.

[01:25.11]Like many other easterners,he felt an urge to go west

[01:30.85]And he took the wagon across the plains and deserts.

[01:37.33] Was that a long,risky journey? Yes.It was really a bard journey.

[01:45.27]Did he go to a villalge or a town? Oh,no,the frontier was none of these.

[01:53.14]It was just wild uncultivated land.

[01:58.10]What kind of houses did they live in?

[02:02.78]If they happened to be near a forest,they built log cabins.

[02:08.94]In such a wild place,what did they eat?

[02:14.30]They ate whatever was available.

[02:18.55]Those people were really fearless and self-reliant.

[02:24.80]You are right.

[02:27.85]That's perhaps one reason why we Americans

[02:32.82]still look back upon the past with respect and admiration.

[02:38.15]Thank you very much.

[02:41.78]2 A guide is leading the visitors to visit some historic places.

[02:49.82]Carol and Clive are among them.

[02:54.79]Ladies and gentlemen.

[02:58.44]If you will just pause for a moment on this terrace,

[03:03.90]you will get a good general view of the rains,

[03:08.66]with the Forum in front of you,the Temple of Jupiter to the left,

[03:14.82]and the Baths and the Amphitheatre beyond.

[03:19.37] Hurry up,Clive.I can't hear what the guide is saying.

[03:25.40]Al right.Just let me stay in the shade for a minute while I change the film.

[03:32.04]Is that your last roll?

[03:35.80]No,I've got two more rolls after this.

[03:40.53]Don't worry.We'll have enough slides to bore our friends for months.

[03:47.06]The town of Pompeii was a favourite resort of rich Roman families.

[03:53.43]Emperors often stayed here too.

[03:57.48]As I'm sure,you know,

[04:00.93]it was destroyed in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius

[04:06.20]which occurred in the year 79 AD.

[04:10.96]The streets and houses were buried under a thick layer of lava.

[04:16.42]Excavation of the site began in 1748 and,as you can see,

[04:24.28]it has uncovered a wonderful picture of life in ancient times.

[04:29.92] It certainly is wonderful.

[04:34.29]You can almost imagine the ancient Romans are still here,

[04:40.24]eating and drinking in their houses.

[04:44.81]If you see any,let me know.

[04:48.57]I haven't got any shots of ancient Romans singing.

[04:53.43]As we walk down towards athe Forum,notice how the streets are designed.

[04:59.89]There are high pavements on either side,

[05:04.01]and pedestrian crossings in the form of stepping stones.

[05:08.87]Between the stones,

[05:12.24]you can see quite clearly the deep marks made by the Chariot wheels.

[05:18.09]Goodness me! It is really a historic site.

[05:23.74]3.A small white Ford shot out in front of a blue car.

[05:29.87]The two lawyers are questioning the driver of the blue car.

[05:36.04]Please tell the court exactly what happened.

[05:40.40]Certainly.I was driving home along Harbour Road.

[05:46.64]I was just going to slow down when I saw a small white Ford in a side road.

[05:54.59]I was sure he was going to wait there until I drover past.

[06:00.02]I had no idea he was going to shoot out in front of me.

[06:05.66]In other words,the driver of the white Ford shot out without any warning,is that right?

[06:13.11]Exactly. It was completely unexpected.

[06:18.57]And you had no idea that was going to happen?

[06:23.84]No! None whatsoever! Thank you.

[06:29.20]Hmm....you say you were going to slow down when the accident happened,

[06:36.15]is that right?

[06:39.10]Yes,it is. I was going to slow down.

[06:43.85]I see. I suppose you were going very fast at the time.

[06:49.73]No,not at all! I was doing 30,that's all.

[06:55.48]Well,why were you going to slow down,then?

[07:00.23]That suggests to me,and I'm sure to the court as well,

[07:05.98]that you were going too fast in the first place.

[07:11.02]NO! The reason I was going to slow down was very simple.

[07:16.77]I was going to turn into the next side road.

[07:21.34]Really? Why? Because I live there,that's why!

[07:27.09]Passage The Battle of Britain 1940

[07:32.65]In the summer of 1940,

[07:36.88]the German Air Force attempted to win air superiority

[07:42.73]over southern Britain and the English Channel

[07:47.30]by destroying the Royal Air Force and the British aircraft industry.

[07:54.07]This attempt came to be known as the Battle of Britain,

[07:59.71]and victory over the RAF was seen by the Germans as absolutely essential

[08:07.97]if they were eventually to mount an invasion of the British Isles.

[08:13.82] The Germans had conquered Belgium,

[08:18.26]the Netherlands and northern France in May 1940,

[08:24.32]uning the Blitz("Lightning War") technique that relied,

[08:30.56]among other things,

[08:34.22]on close corrdination between ground troops and the German Air Force.

[08:40.70]Although the German Air Force proved vey competent in this role,

[08:46.65]it was not trained or equipped for the longer-rane operations

[08:52.82]that became part of the Battle of Britain.

[08:57.26]It is widely believed

[09:00.50]that had the Germans succeeded in their aim of destroying the RAF.

[09:07.63]they would have been able to invade Britain relatively easily.

[09:13.40]This was,after all,

[09:17.35]at a time when the country was the only European power resisting Nazi Germany,

[09:25.21]even though she did enjoy massive support from her Commonwealth partners.

[09:31.85] A plan to use the German Air Force as the prelude to the invasion of the UK

[09:38.98]had been discussed in 1939,and was at first rejected.

[09:45.85]However,in view of the strength of the Royal Navy,

[09:51.41]the Germans did eventually decide they had to crush the RAF first.

[09:58.67]They had won convincingly in the Polish campaign in 1939

[10:05.23]and the Scandinavian and French campaigns in 1940,

[10:11.08]but they were now up against a well-organized air defense system,

[10:17.46]and things were going to be more difficult for them.

[10:22.50]The British,on the other hand,over0estimated German strength and competence.

[10:29.58]This was worrying,but not something that would lose them the battle,

[10:35.74]and they also had a new invention -- radar

[10:41.38]-- to help direct the fighters to intercept attacking German aircraft.

[10:48.65]Furthermore,

[10:51.60]the British were starting to get intelligence from intercepting German communications,

[10:59.17]having cracked the Enigma code system.

[11:04.03]The Battle officially began on 13 August,with an all-out assault on "Eagle day".

[11:12.86]The German Air Force lost a total of 1 733 aircraft from July to October,

[11:22.74]the RAF 915.

[11:27.49]The Germans were actually winning the battle of attrition but,

[11:34.26]frustrated by the unexpected numbers of Allied planes opposing them,

[11:40.92]switched in early September to night bombing of cities.

[11:46.98]This was a fatal mistake.

[11:51.24]The earlier dilution of effort was made worse

[11:56.98]as the German Air Force wandered between attacks on transport,

[12:03.25]civilian morale and the aviation industry.

[12:08.22] The Blitz,as it was known,continued after the Battle of Britain had finished.

[12:15.37]During the Blits,between September 1940 and May 1941,

[12:23.11]the Germans dropped more than 35 000 tons of bombs for the loss of 650 aircraft.

[12:32.95]London was attacked 19 times with 18 800 tons of bombs.

[12:42.38]On 17 September,

[12:46.51]two days after the German Air Force's worst day in the Battle of Britain,

[12:53.59]Hitler cancelled his plan for the invasion of Britain.

[12:59.55]The campaign kof city bombing continued,

[13:05.01]but Hitler by now was focusing on Russia-and on 22 June 1941,

[13:14.57]he launched the greatest land-air campaign in the history of war

[13:21.52]and its aim was the invasion of the Soviet Union.

[13:27.58]Words and Expressions

[13:31.13]attempt superiority channel absolutely

[13:34.76]尝试 优越;优势 海峡 完全地

[13:38.39]essential mount invasion conquer

[13:41.81]必需的;基本的 开始,着手 侵略 征服

[13:45.23]coordination competent invade range

[13:48.67]协调 有能力的 侵略 范围

[13:52.10]resist massive commonwealth prelude

[13:55.38]抵抗 巨大的 英联邦 前奏,序幕

[13:58.66]bomb reject in view of crush

[14:02.14]轰炸 拒绝 考虑到 压倒;摧毁

[14:05.61]convincingly campaign over-estimate fighter

[14:09.40]令人信服地 战役 过高估计 战斗机

[14:13.19]intercept furthermore communication crack

[14:16.75]拦截 另外 交流;通信 破解

[14:20.32]enigma code assault frustrated

[14:23.74]密码 密码 袭击 沮丧的

[14:27.16]unexpected allied oppose switch

[14:30.64]出其不意的 同盟的 反对,对抗 转换

[14:34.11]fatal dilution civilian morale

[14:33.61]致命的 削弱 平民 士气

[14:33.11]aviation cancel launch

[14:35.84]航空 取消 发动

[14:38.57]Exercises Section I Listening Comprehension

[14:45.23]Listen to the record.

[14:49.20]Answer each question by choosing A,B,C or D from the four possible choices.

[14:58.94]A 1.W:Where did you and your friend go on your vacation?

[15:06.21]M:We spent two days in Spain,four days in Sweden and five days in Scotland.

[15:14.36]2.W:I wonder what's happened to Jane.

[15:19.79]She has been absent for almost two weeks.

[15:24.62]M:She took a leave to see her father in Canada.

[15:29.59]3.W:Hi,Jack.So glad to see you!

[15:35.05]M:Likewise.I remember the last time we met was eight months ago

[15:41.81]at John's wedding party.How are you doing?

[15:46.57]4.W:Did you see last night's film?

[15:51.61]M:Well,I meant to see it,but one of my classmates came.

[15:57.25]We had a long talk about our schooling.

[16:01.51]5.W:Did you visit the Bell Tower when you had your vacation in Xi'an last year?

[16:09.97]M:I couldn't make it last time.I plan to visit it next month.

[16:15.72]6.W:How did you like the program last night?

[16:21.78]M:Unfortunately,I came back too late to watch it.

[16:27.24]7.W:How did you like the play?

[16:32.88]M:Generally speaking,it was good.

[16:37.35]The part of the lady was played well,

[16:42.00]but I thought the man who played the husband was too dramatic to be realistic.

[16:48.48]8.W:How did you enjoy your trip to China?

[16:53.83]M:It was a wonderful trip.

[16:57.98]We went to Beijing to see the Great Wall,to Xi'an to see the Dayan Pagoda,

[17:05.04]and then flew to Shanghai.

[17:09.11]B M:Well,this is it!What do you think of it?

[17:14.99]W:I can hardly believe it's real.

[17:19.43]I've dreamed of seeing it ever since I saw it in books when I was a child.

[17:26.51]Just think of all this being built by hand more than 2000 years ago!

[17:34.37]No wonder it is one of the wonders of the world.

[17:39.94]M:Actually it was started more than 2500 years ago,

[17:46.28]when China was divided into various states.

[17:51.25]Three of the northern states built defensive walls along their borders

[17:57.78]to keep off the enemies.

[18:01.75]W:But I thought the wall had always been built by Qin Shihuang,

[18:08.52]the first emperor of China.

[18:12.67]M:Well,yes.You see,he united the whole country in the third century BC,

[18:20.43]and one of the things he did was to join the separate walls into one wall

[18:26.98]and to build more walls from the East Coast

[18:31.63]right across the length of North China to the west.

[18:36.70]W:It is certainly something any nation could be proud of.

[18:42.63]I hear this is the only human construction on earth

[18:48.20]that can be seen from the moon.

[18:52.04]By the way,how high is the wall?

[18:56.89]M:The average hewight is 7.8 metres,

[19:02.04]the average width is 6.5 meters at the base and 5.8 meters at the top.

[19:10.58]Would you like to go up to the top?

[19:14.42]W:Yes!I'd like to have a look from the top.

[19:19.28]C Today,I want to tell you about my life in the past.

[19:26.23]Twenty years ago,I was a boy.At that time,things were different.

[19:32.99]Usually I had to get up at six every morning.

[19:38.45]That was not very bad in summer,but in winter it was cold.

[19:44.70]And we didn't have any hot water in the house.We had to wash in cold water.

[19:51.54]We didn't have a bathroom.My mother had many chickens.

[19:57.60]I had to feed them every morning

[20:01.47]and then I had to walk to school with other classmates.

[20:07.03]It was two miles to school and two miles back in the evening.

[20:12.78]But it always seemed longer in the morning when we were going to school.

[20:19.15]There was a bus,but I had no money.

[20:24.12]And we had to go to bed at eith o'clock every night.

[20:29.08]We couldn't watch TV because there wasn't any.

[20:34.04]On Sundays we had to go to cut grasses for pigs two times-morning and afternoon.

[20:42.51]In our free time we could go out and our parents didn't have to worry about us.

[20:48.85]At that time there weren't so many motors on the roads,

[20:54.73]so the streets were safe to play in.

[20:58.99]And there were not many robbers and thieves in those days.

[21:03.85]We had to work hard

[21:07.38]and we were no able to have enough money to buy things which we needed.

[21:12.94]Life was hard,but it was simple and people were happier.

[21:19.00]I often look back to the past.

[21:23.13]Supplementary Reading

[21:27.36]The civil War

[21:30.60]American slavery,or Negro slavery,existed before the War of Independence.

[21:39.06]During the drafting of the Declaration of Independence

[21:44.81]and again in the drawing up of the Constitution,

[21:50.37]opposition to slavery was put aside for a greater objective.

[21:56.54]In the early 1800's,the Northern Stated,especially those in New England,

[22:03.80]turned from farming to manufacturing.

[22:08.66]Black slavery soon disappeared in the North.

[22:14.51]One reason was that the Africans could not stand cold winters in the North.

[22:21.88]Another was the high price of slaves.

[22:26.84]Finally,as the North turned toward industry,

[22:32.17]mechanics but not farmhands were needed.

[22:37.50]But,conditions were different in the South.

[22:42.77]Farming remained the most important way of making a living.

[22:48.94]To meet a rising worldwide demand fo rcotton and tobacco,

[22:55.42]the planters farmed large areas of land.

[23:00.98]Slave labor seemed best suited for producing these crops.

[23:07.23]By 1850,when the total population of the country was over 23 million,

[23:15.06]the total number of slaves was 3.2 million.

[23:20.81]In South Carolina and Mississippi,

[23:25.56]their number was preater than that of whites and in Louisiana,

[23:31.91]they nearly equaled the whites.

[23:36.27]The slave population was greatest where the climate was hot,

[23:42.62]the soil flat and rich,and cotton,sugar and rice were grown.

[23:50.28]With the territorial expansion towards the west,

[23:55.73]the problem of whether slavery should be allowed to spread into these areas arose again.

[24:03.60]It became a serious political issue

[24:08.25]because it might tip the balance of power in the Senate.

[24:13.60]After much debate and fierce struggle,

[24:18.28]the Compromise of 1850 was passed

[24:23.84]which allowed California to be accepted as a free state,

[24:29.30]New Mexico and Utah to be organized as territories without legislation

[24:36.85]either for or against slavery

[24:41.21]and a more efficient machinery to be set up for returning runaway slaves to their masters.

[24:49.55]When Abraham Lincoln was elected president,

[24:54.20]the southern states broke away and formed a new nation,

[25:00.07]the Confederate States of America.

[25:04.93]However,Lincoln was determined to maintain the Union,

[25:11.18]so war broke out on April 12,1861.

[25:17.24]At the beginning of the war,the Union army suffered a lot of setbacks.

[25:24.50]Lincoln realized that he could win support for the Union at home

[25:30.56]and abroad by making the war a just war against slavery.

[25:37.33]So he issued the famous Emancipation Proclamation.

[25:43.07]Thus England and France stood by the Union's side.

[25:48.19]Later the Union army under the command of Ulysses S.Grant

[25:55.56]defeated the Confederate army at Gettysburg,Pennsylvania.

[26:01.72]This victory was the turning point of the Civil War.

[26:07.29]On November 19,1863,Abraham Lincoln made a short speech

[26:15.44]on the occasion of dedicating the national cemetery at Getysburg.

[26:21.89]He ended his speech with these memorable words:

[26:26.85]"That government of the people,by the people,

[26:33.12]for the people,shall not perish from the earth."

[26:38.77]After a series of battles,Robert E.Lee could no longer hold Richmond.

[26:46.13]He surrendered on April 9,1865.The war that cost America 618000 lives was over.

[26:57.78]Five days later,on April 14,Lincoln was shot dead by John Wikes Booth.

[27:06.93]The Thirteenth Amendment,which banned slavery,

[27:12.49]was added to the Constiution in December,1865.

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