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> 公共英语 > 公共英语考试教程 > 全国英语等级考试教材第三级 >  第20课

全国英语等级考试教材第三级Unit20

所属教程:全国英语等级考试教材第三级

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https://online2.tingclass.net/lesson/shi0529/0008/8646/2/11.mp3
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[00:00.00] CHAPTER 20 GEOGRAPHY

[00:11.78]Unit 20 Geography

[00:16.54]Conversations

[00:20.30]1.Bing,an American tourist in Edinburgh for the Edinburgh Festival,

[00:28.66]has arranged to meet someone at the Greyfriar's Bobby,

[00:34.12]a public house,but he can't find it.He's walking east along Princes Street.

[00:42.48]Bing:Oh,excuse me.Er.Madam! T.W:Yes?

[00:48.12]Bing:Um,I wonder if you could help me.

[00:52.48]I'm trying to find a pub called Greyfriar's Bobby.

[00:57.94]It's on the Mond,somewhere down this-off this street.

[01:04.18]T.W.:Well,that's right.Um,have you got a map there?

[01:09.83]We can have a look at it.

[01:13.48]Bing:Yes,Madam.Right here.

[01:17.74]T.W.:I'll just show you on it.It's quite easy.

[01:22.60]Now you're just here in Princes Street.

[01:27.25](Bing:Uhuh.)What you have to do is to walk along a litle bit and then turn right,

[01:35.40]and you go up the mound.You see up the hill there.There's a buil-...

[01:42.95]Bing:Oh,yeah.The Mond.The Mond is the name of a road,is it?I see.Uhuh.

[01:51.49]T.W:That's right.That's right,and you walk past the Assembly Hall.

[01:57.05]Can you see there up on the hill,if you just look up to your right there?

[02:04.00]Bing:That big building up there?OK.

[02:09.57]T.W.:That's right.You just keep on walking past,and you go across the High Street,

[02:17.01]or the Royal Mile,as we call it...

[02:21.45]Bing:Across it?And you cross over it?

[02:26.31]T.W:That's right.You just keep going,and up on your right hand side,

[02:33.29]you'll see a little monument,and that's the monument to Greyfriar's Bobby.

[02:40.34]You know,there was a wee dog..

[02:47.11]T.W.:Well,if you just go in there,the pub is just next door.

[02:53.95]I think you'll find it quite easily.

[02:58.10]Bing:Great.I really appreciate it.Thanks very much.

[03:03.95]T.W:OK.Goodbye.

[03:07.19]Bing:Bye-bye.

[03:10.35]2.Tom and Susan spent a few days in London last month.

[03:17.30]They left their car at home and stayed in a good hotel in the centre of town.

[03:23.65]They spent a lot of money.This is what happened the day they went home.

[03:30.00]Susan:Why do we have to walk to the staiton?And where is it?

[03:36.03]Tom:It's just down that road...I think.

[03:41.07]Susan:Look!There's a policeman!Ask him the way.

[03:46.82]Tom:All right.Excuse me.Can you tell me the way to Waterloo Station?

[03:53.48]Policeman:Yes.Walk down this road,take the first turning on the left.

[04:00.14]Then walk until you come to the river and...

[04:05.00]Tom:The river?

[04:08.37]Policeman:Yes.You can't see it very clearly from here.

[04:13.62]When you come to it,there's bridge.Just walk across it.

[04:19.47]Follow the signs that say"To Waterloo Station".You can't miss it.

[04:25.95]Tom:And is it very far?I mean,how long does it take to walk there?

[04:32.30]Policeman:About fifteen minutes,if you walk quickly.

[04:37.05]Tom:I see.Thank you very much.

[04:41.31]Policeman:Not at all.

[04:44.68]Susan:Fifteen minutes!And with these heavy suitcases,too!

[04:51.34]I think we ought to take a taxi.

[04:55.39]Tom:Not at this hour.Look at the traffic.It's moving very slowly.

[05:02.34]We can get there just as quickly as on foot.

[05:07.38]Susan:Well,I can't possibly carry this case any farther.

[05:13.76]Tom:All right.let me take it,then.

[05:18.41]Susan:Don't be silly.You can't carry your case and mine as well!

[05:25.04]Tom:Yes,I can.The cases aren't that heavy..hmm!

[05:31.89]Susan:You see!They're heavier than you thought!

[05:36.43]Tom:Perhaps it's not such a bad idea after all.

[05:41.39]Susan:What isn't such a bad idea?What do you mean?

[05:46.96]Tom:Taxi!Taxi!

[05:51.40]3.Jane is a foreign visitor who wants information

[05:58.84]about how to visit places in Britain.

[06:03.31]Now she is asking an assistant at the Tourist Office.

[06:09.16]Assistant:Morning.Can I help you?

[06:12.72]Jane:Yes.What's the best way of getting to Windsor,please?

[06:19.09]Is there a bus from central London?

[06:23.35]Assistant:Well,there are Green Line buses-

[06:28.08]or of course there are guided coach tours,but they're more expensive.

[06:34.61]Jane:What's a Green Line bus?

[06:38.97]Assistant:Oh,they're green buses-single-decker buses-

[06:44.40]that go farther out than the double-decker buses-

[06:49.84]red buses which you see in central London.

[06:54.48]Jane:Thanks.I'm sorry,but I have another question.

[07:00.15]Can we go to Green-wich by boat?

[07:04.59]Assistant:Yes,you can get a boat from Westminster Pier.

[07:09.95]Oh,but not in the winter,I'm afraid.You'll have to go by train.

[07:16.51]Jane:The underground?

[07:20.03]Assistant:No,an ordinary train from Charing Cross Statin.

[07:25.88]There's no tube to Greenwich.

[07:29.65]Jane:Thank you.And one final question.

[07:34.32]What's the best way of getting to Hatfield?

[07:39.28]Do we need a train there,too?

[07:43.54]Assistant:No,you can go by Green Line.Here's leaflet with all the details.

[07:51.12]Passage

[07:54.04]Earthquake Prediction

[07:57.49]Humans are forever forgetting that they can not control nature.

[08:03.55]Exactly 20 years ago,a Time magazine cover story

[08:09.80]announced that"scientists are on the verge of being able to predict the time,

[08:16.56]place and even the size of earthquakes."

[08:21.52]The people who are suffering from quakes

[08:26.07]learned last week how wrong that assertion was

[08:31.43]Two of the main instruments in use

[08:35.58]to predict earthquakes are seismgraphs and tilt meters.

[08:42.06]The former records any shaking of the earth.

[08:47.20]By means of calculations,experts can give their predictions on earthquakes.

[08:54.57]The latter,as the name suggests,

[08:59.04]is used to record any changes in the tilt of the land.

[09:04.78]However,neither has yet to discover

[09:09.83]a uniform warning signal that preceded all quakes,

[09:15.86]let alone any sign that would tell whether the ecoming tremble is mild or a killer.

[09:23.41]Earthquake formation can be triggered by many factors,says Tom Hocking,

[09:30.17]an expert on earthquake at the California Institute of Technology.

[09:36.73]The actual cause of quake itself is the breaking apart of rocks

[09:43.50]at or below the earth's surface.

[09:47.75]It is believed by scientists that two of the many reasons are the expansion

[09:55.12]and contraction of the earth's crust and continental drift,

[10:00.27]which are both complex processes.

[10:04.71]So,finding one all-purpose warning sign is impossible.

[10:11.47]One reason:quakes start deep in the earth,

[10:17.22]so scientists can not study them directly.

[10:22.86]If an early sign of quake is found,

[10:27.93]it would still be impossible to warn humans in advance of all dangerous quakes.

[10:35.87]Places like Japan and California are puzzled with hundreds,

[10:43.03]if not thousands,of minor faults.

[10:47.76]Prediction would be less important

[10:52.30]if scientists could easily build structures to withstand shakes.

[10:59.25]While engineering on earthquakes

[11:03.69]has improved dramatically in the past 10 to 15 years,

[11:09.65]every new quake reveals new weaknesses in"quake-resistant"structures,

[11:17.09]says an expert at Brown University.

[11:21.64]In Kobe,for example,a highway that opened only last year was damaged.

[11:28.77]In the Northridge earthquake,on the other hand,

[11:33.63]well-built structures generally did not colapse.

[11:38.98]A recent report in Science adds yet more anxiety about life on the faulty lines.

[11:47.45]Researchers ran computer simulations to see how quake-resistant buildings

[11:55.21]would fare in a moderate-size earth-quake,

[11:59.96]taking into account that much of a quake's energy travels

[12:06.44]in a large"pulse"of focused shaking.

[12:11.48]The results:both steel-frame buildings

[12:16.94]and buildings that sit on insulating rubber pads suffered severe damage.

[12:24.59]More research will help experts desian stronger structures

[12:30.65]and polssibly find early signs.

[12:35.62]But it is still a certainty that the next earthquake will prove once again

[12:42.78]that every fault can not be monitored

[12:48.10]and every highway can not be compoletely quake-proofed.

[12:54.45]Words and Expressions

[12:58.11]prediction on the verge of predict assertion

[13:01.23]预测 接近于 预测 说法;断言

[13:04.35]instrument seismograph tilt meter latter

[13:08.32]工具 地震仪 测量地面倾斜度的仪器 后者

[13:12.29]uniform precede let alone tremble

[13:16.12]统一的 在...之前 更不要说 战栗

[13:19.95]mild formation trigger factor

[13:23.74]轻微的 形成 引发 因素

[13:27.52]contraction crust continental drift

[13:31.30]收缩 外壳 大陆的 漂流

[13:35.07]process minor withstand dramatically

[13:38.70]过程 轻微的 抵挡 鲜明地

[13:42.33]reveal resistant collapse anxiety

[13:45.97]显现 抵抗的 倒塌 忧虑

[13:49.60]simulation fare moderate pulse

[13:53.23]模拟 顺利 中等的 脉搏

[13:56.86]frame insulating pad

[13:59.74]框架 绝缘的 垫,衬垫

[14:02.63]severe quake-proofed

[14:04.90]严重的 防震的

[14:07.18]Exercises Section I Listening Comprehension

[14:13.94]Listen to the record.

[14:17.81]Answer each quesstion by choosing A,B,C or D from the four possible choices.

[14:28.26]A 1.W:How many countries have you been to?

[14:35.62]M:Australia,America and Austria.I'll be back home in Japan next week.

[14:44.17]2.W:I hear you've been to Russia in 1990s,Mr.White.Was that your first visit?

[14:53.10]M:No,it was not my first visit to Russia.

[14:57.78]I had visited Russia twice before 1980.

[15:03.13]3.W:Do you always have weather like this in January?

[15:09.30]M:Generally it is much colder than this.

[15:13.84]But I can't remember when we had such a snowy day.

[15:18.99]4.W:Excuse me,could you tell me the way to the airport?

[15:25.47]M:Sorry,I'm a stranger here,too.

[15:29.83]5.W:Where shall I plant these seeds,Jack?

[15:36.18]M:Let me see.In tront of the house?No,I think right here would be better.

[15:44.12]6.W:Excuse me,where is the closest place to eat?

[15:50.88]M:Down the street about four blocks.I can take you there if you like.

[15:57.54]B M:Jane!Imagine seeing you here.

[16:03.47]W:Jack!Glad to see you too.I haven't seen you for ages.

[16:11.02]M:You know,I've been hoping to get hold of you.

[16:16.17]Would you be able to come over this Friday?

[16:20.90]My sister just returned from a trip to Canada.

[16:26.07]She'll be staying with Su for a few days.

[16:31.22]I thought you two might like to get to know each other

[16:36.21]since you two are both botanists.

[16:40.65]W:Oh!I'd love to.But I can't.

[16:46.00]I have to go up to my younger brother's graduation on Friday right after work.

[16:53.05]It takes about four hours to get to Seattle,you know.

[16:58.70]M:Seattle?I thought you were from Portland.

[17:03.95]W:No,I just lived there for a few years.

[17:08.91]M:Well,it's really too bad you can't make it.

[17:13.95]When my sister was in Canada,she spent the whole time taking pictures of plants.

[17:21.32]I can't believe how good some of them are.

[17:25.89]W:Is there any chance that you could ask her to stay around for a little bit longer?

[17:32.73]I'll be getting back early Sunday.

[17:37.41]M:I doubt whether we can get her to stay much longer.She is busy.

[17:43.86]W:Well,if I can't get hold of her this time,

[17:49.03]maybe I'll have to wait till the next time she comes around.

[17:54.49]C M:How do you do?

[17:58.94]W:How do you do?What can I do for you?

[18:03.98]M:Well,I've just got off an international flight,

[18:09.54]and I'm not sure which mode of transport I should make use fo on my trip.

[18:15.89]So I need some advice.

[18:19.86]W:Go on,please.

[18:23.20]M:I'm planning to travel to some famous places-Beijing,

[18:29.76]Xi'an and Guilin in China.

[18:34.62]Which mode of transport is the best for me?

[18:39.48]W:Well,that depends on how much time and money you're going to spend on your trip.

[18:47.03]M:I see.

[18:50.19]I'm traveling at my expense,

[18:54.73]so I want to save to both time and money spent on my way.

[19:00.51]W:Oh,I know what you mean.

[19:04.27]Now that you are in Beijing,you should visit the Great Wall,the Summer Palace,

[19:11.22]the Imperial Palace and Tian'anmen Square as well.

[19:16.68]During your trip in Beijing,

[19:20.62]make use of the underground which is faster and cheaper.

[19:26.68]M:How can I get to Xi'an?

[19:30.34]You know I have to go to Beijing after I've finished all my travelling.

[19:36.69]W:It's much cheaper to take a train to Xi'an than to fly.

[19:43.22]In my opinion,you should take the train to Xi'an and then to Guilin.

[19:50.09]You will not only save money but also have a close beautiful scenic trip.

[19:58.13]After that,fly directly from Guilin to Beijing.

[20:04.19]M:Good!That's a really good idea.I'll do as you have suggested.

[20:12.13]Thanks.Thanks a lot.

[20:16.39]W:Not at all! Goodbye!

[20:20.05]M:Goodbye!

[20:23.10]Supplementary Reading

[20:26.47]Rivers and Lakes in the United States

[20:31.80]Lying between the Appalachian Mountains

[20:36.35]and the Rocky Mountains is one of the world's greatest continental rivers-

[20:42.91]the Mississippi.

[20:45.96]The Mississippi rises in the lake region in Noth Minnesota

[20:52.13]and flows south to the Gulf of Mexico.

[20:56.67]It is 3 782 kilometers long.

[21:02.42]But if it is measured from the source of its chief headstream,the Missouri,

[21:08.98]it is over 6 000 kilometers before it joins the Mississippi at St.Louis.

[21:16.34]Another major river which flows from the rainy east at Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania

[21:22.82]and joins the Mississippi at Cairo,Illinois,is sthe river Ohio.

[21:29.66]It is about 1 500 kilometers long.

[21:35.44] These rivers are very important in American life.

[21:40.69]The Mississippi has been called "Father of Waters" or "Old Man River".

[21:47.66]The Mississippi and its tributaries drain one of the richest farm areas in the world.

[21:55.11]They form a 19 000 kilometers system of waterways

[22:01.59]that are connected to the Great Lakes in the north by canals

[22:07.05]and serve as a means of transportation and as a source of fertility to the soil.

[22:13.50]But just like the Yellow River in China,

[22:17.94]the Mississippi has frequently flooded its banks and caused much destruction.

[22:24.89]The Ohio River has been called the American Ruhr (after the Ruhr River in Germany).

[22:32.75]As in Germany,the area along the river

[22:37.82]is rich in valuable deposits of high-grade coking coal

[22:43.46]and is well-known for its steel industry.

[22:47.82]The river provides cheap water transportation for raw materials.

[22:53.88]On the pacific side ther are two great rivers:

[22:58.64]the Colorado in the south,and the Columbia,which rises in Canada.

[23:05.19]The Colorado River rises in the snow-capped Rocky Mountains.

[23:10.84]It flows 2 330 kilometers through mountains,

[23:17.32]plateaus and deep canyons and empties into the Gulf of California.

[23:24.68]In the dry western country,both rivers are vital sources of life.

[23:31.24]The Colorado drains and enormous area.

[23:35.60]All the farms and cities of the southwestern corner

[23:40.56]of the country depend on its water.

[23:45.42]Today a system of dams has been buillt on the river

[23:50.49]to supply water and electricity for farms,factories and homes.

[23:57.26] The Rio Grande River rises in the southern Rocky Mountains

[24:02.90]and flows to the Gulf of mexico.

[24:06.87]It is about 3 200 kilometers long

[24:12.20]and forms a natural boundary between Mexico and the United States.

[24:18.23]Other well-known rivers include the Hudson

[24:23.20]which meets the Atlantic Ocean at New York City

[24:28.34]and the Potomac bordering the national capital of Washington.

[24:33.91] The most important lakes in teh United States are the Great Lakes.

[24:39.68]They are Lake Superior,which is the largest fresh water lake in the world,

[24:46.73]Lake Michigan (the only one entirely in the US),

[24:52.48]Lake Huron,Lake Erie and Lake Ontario.

[24:58.44]They are all located between Canada and the United States except Lake Michigan.

[25:05.28]These lakes are joined together by canals

[25:09.85]and are linked to the Mississippi River and its tributaries in the Interior Plants

[25:08.85]and the Atlantic Ocean forming a complete system of waterways.

[25:14.91]Even though the cities on the Great Lakes

[25:19.59]are over 1 600 kilometers away from the sea,

[25:25.23]they can be reached by ships from the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico.

[25:32.07]The Great Lakes are the economic lifeline of the Midwest.

[25:37.85]They provide cheap transportation for materials

[25:42.81]such as iron ore,coal,and grain.

[25:47.85]The upper lakes region is a land of great natural wealth,

[25:53.52]whereas the lower lakes region is a land of industries.

[25:58.67]The cheap and easy transportation between these two regions is of great importance.

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