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当务之急的是,加大运动量

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2020年06月29日

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Researchers at McMaster University who examine the impact of exercise on the brain have found that high-intensity workouts improve memory in older adults.

加拿大麦克马斯特大学的研究人员开展了运动对人类大脑影响的调查后,发现高强度运动确实可以有助于改善老年人记忆。

The study,published in the journal Applied Physiology,Nutrition and Metabolism,has widespread implications for treating dementia,a catastrophic disease that affects approximately half a million Canadians and is expected to rise dramatically over the next decade.

研究出版在《应用生理学》、《营养报》、《新陈代谢学》这些杂志上。对于加拿大几乎五十万的老人患上老年痴呆症或一些其他的恶疾,并且在未来十年内人数还会明显大幅上升的情况,这篇研究给予了一个广泛性的暗示。

Researchers suggest that intensity is critical.Seniors who exercised using short,bursts of activity saw an improvement of up to 30%in memory performance while participants who worked out moderately saw no improvement,on average.

研究人员表示高强度的运动很有必要。那些进行短时间的爆发性运动的老人里,记忆力得到改善的人数比例达到30%,而那些进行适度体育锻炼的人群,从平均上看来并没有什么变化。

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"There is urgent need for interventions that reduce dementia risk in healthy older adults.Only recently have we begun to appreciate the role that lifestyle plays,and the greatest modifying risk factor of all is physical activity,"says Jennifer Heisz,an associate professor in the Department of Kinesiology at McMaster University and lead author of the study.

珍妮弗·海思,麦克马斯大学运动机能学系副教授兼这篇研究的主要作者表示,“帮助那些健康的老年人降低患上老年痴呆症的风险是当务之急。如今我们只能开始更加重视生活方式,而这里面可以最大程度改变风险的因素就是体育锻炼。"

"This work will help to inform the public on exercise prescriptions for brain health so they know exactly what types of exercises boost memory and keep dementia at bay,"she says.

她说,“这篇文章将会帮助公众了解关于保持大脑健康的运动处方,让它们知道什么类型的运动才可以提高记忆,远离老年痴呆。”

For the study,researchers recruited dozens of sedentary but otherwise healthy older adults between the ages of 60 and 88 who were monitored over a 12-week period and participated in three sessions per week.Some performed high-intensity interval training(HIIT)or moderate-intensity continuous training(MICT)while a separate control group engaged in stretching only.

为了调研,研究人员招募了几十个喜欢久坐不动、其他方面很健康的老人,年纪在60岁到88岁之间,对他们进行了为期12周的监察,并要求他们每周参加三次会议。一些人必须要执行高强度间歇训练或者是中等强度的持续训练,而另外设置一组对照组只做伸展运动。

The HIIT protocol included four sets of high-intensity exercise on a treadmill for four minutes,followed by a recovery period.The MICT protocol included one set of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for nearly 50 minutes.

高强度间歇训练方案包括四次在跑步机上进行高强度运动,然后就是恢复期。中等强度的持续性训练方案则是进行一次将近五十分钟中等强度的有氧运动。

To capture exercise-related improvements in memory,researchers used a specific test that taps into the function of the newborn neurons generated by exercise which are more active than mature ones and are ideal for forming new connections and creating new memories.

为了捕抓到运动可以改善记忆力的证据,研究人员运用了一种特殊的测试,利用运动产生的新生神经元的功能,因为它比成熟的神经元更有活力,是形成新连接和创造新记忆的理想型选择。

They found older adults in the HIIT group had a substantial increase in high-interference memory compared to the MICT or control groups.This form of memory allows us to distinguish one car from another of the same make or model,for example.

他们发现,在高强度间歇训练方案组的老人,相比于中等强度持续训练方案组和另一个对照组来看,高干扰的记忆得到可持续增长。例如,这种形式的记忆可以让我们将一辆汽车和另一辆制造相同、型号相同的汽车区分开来。

Researchers also found that improvements in fitness levels directly correlated with improvement in memory performance.

研究人员还发现,记忆力的改善跟记忆工作情况的改善有关。

"It's never too late to get the brain health benefits of being physically active,but if you are starting late and want to see results fast,our research suggests you may need to increase the intensity of your exercise,"says Heisz.

海思说,“体育运动有益于大脑健康的举动永远不会迟,但如果你起步较晚,又想要快速见效,我们的研究建议你可能需要增加运动的强度。”

She cautions that it is important to tailor exercise to current fitness levels,but adding intensity can be as simple as adding hills to a daily walk or increasing pace between street lamps.

她再提醒道,根据自己的健康水平调整锻炼很重要,但增加强度也可以很简单,就像在每天的走路中增加一些坡度,在两道的路灯之间增加一些步伐。

"Exercise is a promising intervention for delaying the onset of dementia.However,guidelines for effective prevention do not exist.Our hope is this research will help form those guidelines."

她再提醒道,根据自己的健康水平调整锻炼很重要,但增加强度也可以很简单,就像在每天的走路中增加一些坡度,在两道的路灯之间增加一些步伐。


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