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第27章 标点符号 27.3 用在句子当中的标点符号





27.3 用在句子当中的标点符号

27.3.1 逗号的主要用法


1) 同位语:

This is Li Ying, monitor of Class 4. 这是四班的班长李瑛。

People, old and young, all came out to greet the guests. 老老少少大家都出来欢迎客人。


We Chinese students find the use of prepositions especially difficult. 我们中国学生感到介词特别难用。

2) 插入语:

That's a better solution, don't you think? 这是个比较好的解决办法,你觉得呢?

This, I think, was mainly due to our lack of experience. 这个,我想,主要是由于我们缺乏经验的缘故。

Tell me, he said, "what did you think of the discussion?" “告诉我?”他说,“你觉得这次讨论怎么样?”


Well, I must be leaving. 嗯,我得走了。

Ouch! That hurt. 唉哟!真疼。

3) 以分词短语或复合结构表示的状语:

Bored with his work, he thought of going home early. 他干烦了,想早点回家。

She walked slowly, stopping frequently to rest. 她慢慢走着,不时停下休息。

The day being fine, we decided to go swimming. 天气很好,我们决定去游泳。


For the whole night she lay tossing in bed. 她在床上翻来覆去一夜没睡着。

4) 放在句首或插在句子中间的状语从句(或其省略形式):

When the bell rings, stop writing. 铃响时就不要再写了。

His response, when I questioned him, was a shake of his head. 我问他时,他的反应是摇摇头。

This medicine, taken in time, can be very effective. 这种药如果及时服用是很有效的。


If you like you may stay. 如果你愿意可以留下。

5) 放在句首或插在句子中间的某些其他形式的状语:

To make a long story short, they smoothed away their misunderstanding and became good friends again. 总之,他们消除了误会,重归于好。

The date, however, hasn't been fixed. 但日期还没有确定。

Your argument, in my opinion, is valid. 在我看来,你的论点是站得住的。

6) 非限制性定语从句:

That summer, she went to Wuhan, where her husband worked. 那年夏天她去了武汉,她丈夫在那里工作。

The weather may not be good enough tomorrow, in which case we'll have to put the trip off . 明天天气可能不够好,如果那样我们就得延期再去。

27.3.2 逗号的其他用法

1) 逗号还可以用来连接一个句子中的平行成分,如:

a. 主语、表语或宾语:

Lao Wu, Xiao Lin and myself were all very enthusiastic about this idea. 老吴、小林和我自己都很支持这个意见。

The main products of the district are wool, cotton, timber and tung-oil.这个地区的主要产品是羊毛、棉花、木材和桐油。

She sent me some postcards, a few books, a pocket English dictionary and an album of pictures. 她寄给我一些明信片、几本书、一本袖珍英文词典和一本画册。

b. 定语:

We had a long, hard, but interesting journey. 我们做了一次劳累但很有意思的长途旅行。

He was a very lovable man, kind-hearted, easy to get along with and always ready to help others. 他是一个很可爱的人,心地善良,容易相处,总是乐于帮助别人。


You naughty little thing! 你这个调皮的小家伙!

c. 谓语或其他以动词表示的成分:

He got up, washed, dressed and hurried to school. 他起床、洗脸、穿衣,然后匆忙赶往学校。□

He was fond of skating, boating and playing football. 他喜欢溜冰、划船和踢足球。

d. 状语:

A group of young men were standing there, talking, laughing and teasing each other. 一群年轻人站在那里,又说又笑,互相取乐。

Please read slowly, loudly and clearly. 请慢慢地大声清楚地朗读。

e. 分句:

Everybody was surprised, and Shuzhen, after looking at her for a moment, went up and clasped her hand. 大家都很惊奇,淑贞看了一会儿之后走上前握住她的手。

Ann can't come, she is taking her exam now. 安不能来,她在考试。


2) 除此之外,逗号还可以用来:

a. 表示某些词省略了(主要是在并列句中):

My room is on the second floor, and hers, on the third one. 我的房间在二层,她的房间在三层。

b. 表示任何需要停顿的地方:

This mistake can be, and should be, corrected. 这一错误可以也应该改正。

Whether or not she will come, I've no idea. 她究竟来不来我不知道。

c. 标写日期和地址:

The conference is scheduled for the 3rd of July, 2000. 会议定于2000年7月3日召开。

My address is 707 Park Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94037. 我的地址是加州旧金山派克大道707号(邮区94037)。

27.3.3 分号的用法


1) 把两个意思上有一定联系的句子连在一起:

It was getting late;she must start back for the village. 时间不早了,她得动身回村了。

2) 连接两个等立的分句,如果其中一个(或更多)里面含有逗号:

When I started, the sky was clear;but before I had gone two li, it began to rain. 我动身时天上明净无云,但走了不到两里路就开始下雨了。

27.3.4 冒号的用法


1) 列举的东西前面:

There are in English two articles: the definite article and the indefinite article. 英语中有两个冠词,即定冠词和不定冠词。

A noun can be used as: 1) subject, 2) object, 3) predicative, 4) an attribute. 名词可以用作:1)主语,2)宾语,3)表语,4)定语。

2) 引用的句子前面,特别是当这个句子比较长时:

Shakespeare said: "Neither a borrower nor a lender be." 莎士比亚说“:既不要找人借钱,也不要借钱给人?”

3) 一个附加的解释性的分句前面:

You can't count on him to help:he is such a busy man. 你不能指望他帮忙,他是这样一位大忙人。


27.3.5 破折号的用法


1) 用在一个解释性的分句或句子前面:

It's an environmental issue. —That's not a small matter. 这是个环境保护的问题,这不是一件小事。

How lucky the girls nowadays are! —They can go anywhere, say anything.今天的女孩子多幸福!她们哪儿都能去,什么话都能说。

2) 用在一个解释性的插入语的前面和后面(相当于一个括号):

During my vacation—I must have been insane—I decided I would ski.假期中,我准是发疯了,我决定去滑雪。

Then the proposals—both Xiao Yang's and mine—were adopted.后来两个建议——小杨的和我的——都被采纳了。

3) 用在一个引用的句子前面(代替一个冒号,或与分号一起用):

Uncle Wang laughingly answered—— "No, no;stay where you are." 王大叔笑着回答道:“不用了,不用了,你就待在你那儿?”

4) 表示意思的突然转折:

And may I ask—said Xiao Wu;"but I guess it's better for you to ask him about it." “我可以问——?”小吴说;“不过我想还是你问他的好?”

5) 表示迟疑犹豫:

I—I—I rather think—maybe—Amy has taken it. “我——我——我想——或许——是艾米拿了?”

6) 总括前面列举的若干东西:

New houses, larger schools, more sheep, more pigs and chickens, more horses and donkeys—everywhere we saw signs of prosperity. 新房子,扩建的学校,更多的羊、猪、鸡,更多的马和驴,到处我们都看到一片繁荣景象。

27.3.6 引号的用法

1) 引号主要用来表示中间包括的成分是引语:

Longfellow wrote, "Life is real! Life is earnest!" 朗费罗写道,“生活是真实的!生活是严肃的?”

2) 也可用来加在书名、剧名这类东西的两端:

Tolstoy's "War and Peace" is a great novel. 托尔斯泰的《战争与和平》是一部伟大的小说。

Have you read Lao She's "Tea House"? 你读过老舍的《茶馆》吗?


What's the difference between "differ" and "differentiate"? differ和differentiate有什么区别?


The teacher asked, "Who said,'Give me liberty or give me death'?"老师问道,“谁说‘不自由毋宁死’?”

27.3.7 括号的用法

1) 括号主要用来表示里面的东西是一个插入的或附加的解释:

No article should be used in such cases. (cf. Chap. 1, Sec. 2) 在这种情况下不用冠词。(参阅第1章第2节)

Quotation marks may be single (‘’) or double (?”). 引号可以是单引号(‘’),也可以是双引号(?”)。

2) 方括号可用来注音,如mine [maɪn],但现在用斜线的人越来越多了,如mine/maɪn/。


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