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32 比较状语从句 Track31

所属教程:英语语法新思维

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2020年08月23日

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32 比较状语从句 Track31

(1) as
1) "as +形容词 / 副词+ as”结构
a.The work is not as difficult as you think.
b.Eyes are as eloquent as lips (are).
c.An adult human must take eight steps to go as far as a giraffe does in one stride.
2) "as +形容词+ a(n) +可数名词单数+ as”结构
a.Americans tend to think from small to large. Let us take as simple an example as the addressing of envelopes.
美国人的思维倾向由小到大。我们举一个写信封地址的简单例子吧。
b.Rarely has a technological development had as great an impact on so many aspects of social, economic, and cultural development as the growth of electronics.
c.He caught as large a fish as I did that day.
d.I didn't finish as large a part of the work as he did.
e.I didn't finish as a large part of the work as he did.*
3)在否定句中第一个as可用so代替。
a.He is not so/as clever as you.
b.No other modern nation devotes so small a portion of its wealth to public health as the United States does.(注意否定词No在句首,故此句为否定句)
4)为了保持句子平衡,从句还可以用全部倒装或部分倒装。
a.Small as it is, the ant is as much a creature as are all other animals on the earth.
b.The computer revolution may well change society as fundamentally as did the Industrial Revolution .
(2) than
1)两个同类事物才能比较,如he和I。两个非同类事物是无法比较的。
a.He is taller than I (am).
b.The weather of the South is wetter than the North. *
分析:这是典型的错误句子,因为the weather of the South和the North是两个截然不同的事物,无法进行比较。只能是“南方的天气”和“北方的天气”两个同类事物才能比较。故原句应改为:The weather of the South is wetter than that of the North.(为避免重复,用that代替 the weather)
c.Young readers, more often than not(A), find the novels of(B) Dickens far more(C) exciting than Thackeray(D).
正确答案:D,应改为Thackeray's。这里的比较对象是两位作家的小说。Thackeray's也就相当于Thackeray's novels。
2)在有than的比较句子里,主句中必须有比较级形式出现。
a.He has made great contributions to the company than anyone else.*
本句中应将great改为greater。
b.There are few electronic applications_________to raise fears regarding future employment opportunities than robots.
A. likely
B. more likely
C. most likely
D. much likely
正确答案:B。
c.On the whole(A), ambitious students are much likely(B) to succeed in their studies than are those(C) with little(D) ambition.
正确答案:B,应改为more likely。
3)为了保持句子平衡,从句还可以用全部倒装或部分倒装。
a.The surface conditions on the planet Mars are more like the Earth's than are those of any other planet in the solar system.
b.The air inside a house or office building often has higher concentrations of contaminants_________heavily polluted outside air.
A. than does
B. more
C. as some that are
D. like of
正确答案:A。
(3)表示“倍数比较”的三种句型
在英文中,除了用than,as来对两个事物进行比较外,我们还可以用 times 一词来说明两事物之间的倍数关系。例如,A是B的三倍长,我们可以说:
a.A is three times the length of B.
b.A is three times longer than B.
c.A is three times as long as B.
故在英文中,表示两个事物倍数关系的比较,我们可用以下三种句型:
1) A is...times the size (或其他形容词对应的名词形式) of B.
2) A is...times bigger (或其他形容词比较级) than B.
3) A is...times as big (或其他形容词原级) as B.
其中,句1)中形容词对应名词的形式还有:big/size,long/length,wide/width,heavy/weight,high/height等。
这里同样强调两事物之间的可比性。如:
a.The earth has a mass that is one hundred times the moon . *
这句中两个被比较的事物是地球的质量与月球的质量,而不是地球的质量与月球。故应将原句改为:
b.The earth has a mass that is one hundred times that of the moon.
c.Americans eat_________as they actually need every day.
A. twice as much protein
B. twice protein as much twice
C. twice protein as much
D. protein as twice much
正确答案:A。
(4) "The more...,the more...”句型表示比较
1)注意此句型的主从句关系:“The +比较级(从句),the +比较级(主句)”。
2)翻译成汉语时先译从句,后译主句。
a. The more she practiced, the worse she sang.
b. The less you open your heart to others, the more your heart suffers.
c. The nearer it is drawn to the surface of the earth(从句), the more a body weighs(主句). 一个物体离地球表面越近,重量就越大。
d. The more we help others, the more we receive in return. We advance ourselves as we help others.
帮助别人越多,我们获得的回报也越多。帮助了别人,提升了自己。
e. The more you leave things to chance, the less chance there is for you.
f.Friends are lights in winter: the older the friend, the brighter the light. 朋友犹如冬日里的暖阳,愈久弥珍。
g. The higher you go(从句), the less dense air becomes(主句). =Air becomes less dense(主句)the higher you go(从句).你升得越高,空气就会变得越稀薄。
h. The higher you climb the ladder, the more you get into administrative or executive work, the greater the emphasis on ability to work within the organization rather than on technical abilities or professional knowledge.
你的地位越高,你担任的行政管理工作权限越大,你就越是要注意在单位内部的管理能力,这比技术能力和专业知识更重要。
i .The better a man's self-image, the better friends he is likely to choose, hence the better the relationship, and hence his self-esteem is enhanced. The worse a man's self-image, the more likely he is to choose jerks for friends, hence the relationship is likely to go bad, and his self-image is further lowered because of this failure. So the lesson is obvious. You cannot depend on others for your sense of self-worth. It must come from within you.
一个人的自我形象越好,他所交的朋友也会越好,因此这样的友谊就会越浓厚,从而也就增强了他的自信心。反之,一个人若是自我形象越差,所交的朋友也会越差,因此这样的友谊很可能会变质,这种人际交往的失败进而会导致自我形象贬低。因此,道理很简单,自我价值的提升不在于他人而在于自己。
若主句主语较长,主句还可用倒装句式:
j. The more rural the community, the more uniform are the customs of child upbringing.
k.Hubble's law states that the greater the distance between any two galaxies,_________ is their relative speed of separation.
A. the greatest
B. the greater
C. greater than
D. as great as
正确答案:B。
(5) "(Just) as...,so...”结构表示类比
1)基本意思是“正如……,所以……”。
2)后半句可用倒装结构。
a. As you sow, so will you reap/so you will reap.
种瓜得瓜,种豆得豆。
b. Just as dark clouds cannot long hide the sun, so no lies can cover up the fact. 乌云遮不住太阳,谎言掩盖不了事实。
c. Just as food nourishes the body, so do books enrich the mind.
食物滋养身体,书本丰富心灵。
d. As it is the mark of great minds to say many things in a few words, so it is the mark of little minds to use many words to say nothing.
大智者寥寥数语,即能达意;寡智者口若悬河,仍言之无物。
e. As land is improved by sowing it with various seeds, so is the mind by exercising it with different studies.
土壤因播种不同的种子而改良,智力用各科的学习来提高。
f.Just as the soil is a part of the earth,_________the atmosphere.
A. as it is
B. the same is
C. so is
D. and so is
正确答案:C。
g.Just as they must put aside their prejudices,_________we must be prepared to accept their good faith.
A. thus
B. so
C. as
D. like
正确答案:B。
(6) A is to B what/as C is to D.
这一结构可以改写为:What/As C is to D, so is A to B/that A is to B.
a.Air is to man what/as water is to fish. = What/As water is to fish, so is air to man/ that air is to man.
b.Sixteen is to eight what two is to one.
c.The people is to the people's army what water is to fish.
军民鱼水情。
d.Personality is to man what perfume is to a flower.
人的品格,犹如花的芳香。
e. What/As blood vessel is to a man's body, that railway is to transportation/ so is railway to transportation.
f.Case study is to Harvard what the Leaning Tower is to Pisa.
(7) "no more...than”表示比较
1) no more...than或not...any more than的基本意思是“同……一样不……”。
2) than后的句子为肯定形式,否定意思。
a.The Emperor can see no more than his Ministers.
此句相当于:The Emperor can not see and his ministers can not see, either.
b.You are no more clever than he.
此句相当于:You are not clever and he is not clever, either./You are as stupid as he.
比较:
You are not more clever than he.
此句意思是:You are as clever as he./You both are clever, not stupid.
c.A fool can no more see his own folly than he can see his ears.
傻瓜看不到自己的愚蠢,就像他看不到自己的耳朵一样。
d.Unmerited praise is no more honor than deserved blame is.
不该得到的表扬和应该受批评一样不光彩。
e.As a jazz lover, I find it refreshing that many Chinese pop stars are beginning to be influenced by jazz, and are including jazzy rhythms and harmonies in their songs. However, incorporating jazz elements into pop music does not make it jazz, any more than putting chili pepper into a McDonald's hamburger turns it into Sichuan cuisine.
作为一个爵士乐迷,我发现很多中国流行歌星们开始受到爵士乐的影响,正在把爵士乐的节奏与和声运用到他们的歌曲当中。然而,把爵士乐的元素掺进流行乐,并不能将流行音乐变成爵士乐,这就像把辣椒放进麦当劳的汉堡包也不能把它变成川菜一样。
f.The heart is_________intelligent than the stomach, for they are both controlled by the brain.
A. not so
B. not much
C. no more
D. much more
正确答案:C。
(8) "not A so much as B/not so much A as B”表示比较
1)基本含义为“与其说A倒不如说B”或“是B,而不是A”,但在实际句子中翻译非常灵活。
2) A和B是两个被比较的平行结构,比如同为介词短语、动词不定式或名词短语等。
a.The great use of a school education is not so much to teach you things as to teach you the art of learning.(被比较的是:动词不定式短语)
b.The trumpet player was certainly loud, but I was not bothered by his loudness so much as by his lack of talent.(被比较的是:介词短语)
c.The great thing in this world is notso much where we stand as in what direction we are moving.
人生的意义不在于你目前身在何处,而在于你心向何方。
d.We both agreed that our marriage had taken a marked decline in the romance department. And it was n't a lack of intimacy that concerned us so much as the lack of conversation. Conversation, in fact, has always been our aphrodisiac.
我们俩都承认,我们的婚姻在浪漫这方面已大打折扣了。这倒不是因为缺少亲密感,而是缺少交流。事实上,保持交谈曾一直是我们感情的催化剂。
e.He does not respect learning and prefers "sport”. The problem set for society is not the virtue of the type so much as its adequacy for its function.
他不重视学习,只喜欢“消遣”。社会要回答的问题并不是这类人物有无美德,而是他是否胜任其职务。

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