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高考英语语法专项练习之定语从句

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2021年01月20日

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  我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高考英语语法专项练习之定语从句的资料,希望对你有所帮助。

  

 

  [深化认知]

  一、关系代词引导的定语从句

  1.who, whom, whose引导的定语从句

  (1)who和whom指人,who在定语从句中作主语;whom在定语从句中作宾语,在限制性定语从句中可省略。在口语中可用who代替whom。

  Some people who are successful language learners often fail in other fields.

  有些在语言学习上很有成就的人,在其他领域常常一无所成。

  I have many friends to whom I'm going to send post­cards.

  我打算给很多朋友寄贺卡。

  (2)whose指人或物,在定语从句中作定语,指物时常可用of which代替。

  Children who are not active or whose diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly.

  很少进行体育锻炼或饮食富含脂肪的孩子体重会增加很快。

  2.that, which引导的定语从句

  (1)that多指物,有时也指人,在定语从句中作主语、表语或宾语,作宾语或表语时可省略。指物时其用法和which大致相同,但也有区别。

  (2)which指物,在定语从句中作主语和宾语,作宾语时,在限制性定语从句中可省略。另外,which可用来指代前面句子的部分或全部内容。

  The boy was away from home for a week, which worried his parents very much.

  这个男孩离家一个星期了,这使他父母很担心。

  (3)定语从句中只用that不用which的情况:

  ①先行词是all, something, everything, anything, nothing, little, much, few等不定代词时;

  Is there anything (that) I can do for you?

  有什么我可以为你做的事吗?

  ②先行词被all, any, every, no, little, much, some等词修饰时;

  All the people that come from the country work much harder.

  所有来自农村的人工作都更努力得多。

  ③先行词被序数词、形容词最高级修饰或先行词本身是序数词时;

  The first place that they visited in Guilin was Elephant Trunk Hill.

  在桂林他们参观的第一个地方是象鼻山。

  ④先行词被the only, the very (正是,恰是), the last修饰时;

  This is the very book that you are looking for.

  这正是你在找的那本书。

  ⑤先行词中既有人也有物时;

  He talked about the people and the place that he had visited in that country.

  他谈到了他在那个国家所见到的人和所参观的地方。

  ⑥在which或who的特殊疑问句中含有定语从句时。

  Who is the woman that is standing against the wall?

  靠墙站着的那个女人是谁?

  (4)定语从句中只用which的情况:

  ①在定语从句中作介词的宾语,且介词位于关系代词前时;

  The chair on which he sat is made of wood.

  他坐的那把椅子是用木头做的。

  ②引导非限制性定语从句时;

  Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world.

  足球是一项非常有趣的运动,全世界都在踢足球。

  ③当先行词是that/those时;

  What's that which flashed in the sky just now?

  刚才在天空中一闪而过的是什么?

  ④有两个定语从句时,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用that,另一个宜用which;

  Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us.

  给你看一下我从新开放的图书馆里借的那本小说。

  ⑤which用作定语时。

  He may be late, in which case we ought to wait for him.

  他也许会迟到,那样的话,我们应该等他。

  二、关系副词引导的定语从句

  1.关系副词when, where, why的先行词是表示时间、地点或原因(一般为reason)的名词,在从句中作状语。有时可用“介词+which”结构替换。

  (2014·江苏高考单选)The book has helped me greatly in my daily communication, especially at work where a good impression is a must.

  在日常交流中这本书对我帮助很大,尤其是在需要有良好印象的工作之中。

  (2014·浙江高考单选)I didn't become a serious climber until the fifth grade, when I went up to rescue a kite that was stuck in the branches of a tree.

  直到五年级我才成为一个热衷攀爬的人,在那时我登高去拿下一个卡在树枝上的风筝。

  The reason why I don't trust him is that he often tells lies.

  我不信任他的原因是他常常撒谎。

  2.当定语从句中缺少主语或宾语时,即使先行词是表示时间、地点和原因的词仍用which/that。

  Is this the reason (that) he explained for his rudeness at the meeting?

  这是他在会议上解释的无礼的原因吗?

  3.当先行词为一些表示抽象地点的名词,如:point, situation, case, stage等,如果引导词在从句中作状语,常用关系副词where引导定语从句;如果不作状语,则用关系代词that/which。

  They have reached the point where they have to separate with each other.

  他们已经到了必须分手的地步。

  三、“介词+关系词”引导的定语从句

  1.若介词放在关系代词之前,关系代词指人时常用whom,指物时常用which。另外,whose也可以放在介词后,即“介词+whose+名词”结构。

  Trading leather shoes is the business to which the Greens are devoted.

  皮鞋生意是格林一家所致力于的事业。

  I wish to thank Professor Smith, without whose help I would never have got this far.

  我希望感谢史密斯教授,没有他的帮助,我永远不会走这么远。

  2.该结构中介词的选用

  (1)一般来说,确定关系代词前的介词,可以从以下三方面入手:

  ①先行词的意义;

  ②从句中的动词或形容词与先行词的固定搭配;

  ③句子的意思。

  (2)表示“整体和部分关系”,介词常用of。常见结构:

  ①在some, any, few, little, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each等代词或数词的前、后可以用of which/whom。

  ②the+比较级或最高级前、后用of which/whom等。

  (3)有时“介词+where”可以引导定语从句,此时要和“介词+which”引导的定语从句从意思上加以区别。

  His head soon appeared out of the window, from where he saw nothing but trees.

  他的头很快从窗口探了出来,从那里除了树木他什么也看不到。(from where相当于from out of the window,而不是from the window)

  四、as, which引导的定语从句

  1.as作关系代词用来引导非限制性定语从句,意为“正如,正像”,as引导的句子可放在句首、句末或句中。

  As everybody knows, Shakespeare is a famous writer.

  众所周知,莎士比亚是一位著名的作家。

  2.as常用在下列习惯用语中:

  as (it) often happens, as I remember, as is often the case, as is expected, as is known to us, as is shown等。

  As is expected, she married again.

  正如预料的那样,她再婚了。

  3.which引导定语从句代指前面整句话内容则只能位于句末。

  (2013·安徽高考单选)Mo Yan was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature in 2012, which made one of the Chinese people's long­held dreams come true.

  2012年莫言被授予诺贝尔文学奖,这使中国人长久以来拥有的梦想之一变成现实。

  4.“such/so ...that ...”表示“如此……以致……”,用来引导一个结果状语从句;而“such/so ...as ...”表示“像……这样……”,用来引导定语从句,as在从句中充当主语、宾语或表语等。

  Last term our maths teacher set so difficult an examination problem as none of us worked out.(定语从句)

  =Last term our maths teacher set so difficult an examination problem that none of us worked it out.(结果状语从句)

  上学期数学老师考试出了一道很难的数学题,没有一个人能解出来。

  5.“the same ...that ...”表同一个人或物,而“the same ...as ...”表同种类的东西。

  I would like to use the same tool as you used yesterday.

  我想用你昨天使用的那种工具。

  I would like to use the same tool that you used yesterday.

  我想用你昨天使用的那件工具。

  五、特殊定语从句

  1.分隔式定语从句

  分隔式定语从句是指先行词与关系代(副)词分隔。

  Great changes around us take place before our eyes every day to which we pay little attention.(先行词great changes与定语从句to which we pay little attention分隔)

  我们很少关注眼前在我们周边每天发生的巨大变化。

  2.插入式定语从句

  插入式定语从句是指关系代词与从句之间有插入语。

  We must believe in ourselves, which, in my opinion, is the most important in our life.(关系代词which与从句其他成分之间有插入语in my opinion)

  我们必须要相信自己,在我看来,这是我们生活中最重要的。

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·全国卷I语法填空)I'd skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that/which are pictured by artists in so many Chinese paintings.

  2.(2015·广东高考语法填空)When harvest came around, he was already selling herbs, vegetables and cotton in the market where people from the town met regularly.

  3.(2015·福建高考单选)China Today attracts a worldwide readership, which shows that more and more people all over the world want to learn about China.

  4.(2015·四川高考单选)The books on the desk, whose covers are shiny, are prizes for us.

  5.(2015·陕西高考单选)As the smallest child of his family, Alex is always longing for the time when he should be able to be independent.

  6.(2014·陕西高考单选)Please send us all the information that you have about the candidate for the position.

  7.(2015·安徽高考单选)Some experts think reading is the fundamental skill upon which school education depends.

  8.(2015·江苏高考单选)The number of smokers, as is reported, has dropped by 17 percent in just one year.

  9.(2014·全国卷Ⅰ语法填空)Maybe you have a habit that/which is driving your family crazy.

  10.(2014·四川高考单选)Until now, we have raised 50,000 pounds for the poor children, which is quite unexpected.

  11.(2014·重庆高考单选)We'll reach the sales targets in a month which we set at the beginning of the year.

  12.(2013·湖南高考单选)Happiness and success often come to those who are good at recognizing their own strengths.

  13.(2012·湖南高考单选)Care of the soul is a gradual process in_which even the small details of life should be considered.

  14.(2012·浙江高考单选)Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, who,_for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.(2016·广西高三联考)We all like our English teacher, from him we have learned a lot.him→whom

  2.Between the lectures is 20 minutes' break, where the students can get relaxed.where→when

  3.Her performances on the stage were perfect, that made a lot of people admire her.that→which

  4.(2016·河北名校质量检测)Playing basketball is a sport that working as a team matters more.that→where

  5.There are three people in my family and I'm the only one child, who is very common in Chinese families.who→which

  6.Travelling abroad, you should follow the customs of the country where you are visiting.去掉where或where→which/that

  7.I will never forget the day on that we went to buy guitars in the guitar store.that→which

  8.The couple will fly to France for their honeymoon on their first stop, which they plan to stay for three days.which→where或which前加in

  对点集训即时巩固·提升知能Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.There were a lot of students in the reading room, most of whom bent their heads down over their books.

  2.Nowadays, it is common to see people staring at their mobile phones instead of reading a real book, about which many experts are worried.

  3.(2016·昆明高三联合考试)There are few things that we can do on the Web without using any product of Microsoft.

  4.As is widely accepted, in the Middle East Arabs greet each other by touching noses, but this is not a polite way of greeting in other cultures.

  5.(2016·大同质量检测)The city was attacked by such terrible weather as few citizens had ever experienced before.

  6.A story I read two years ago, whose name I can't remember clearly, changed my idea about education.

  7.The scenic spot can attract 10,000 tourists every year, of_whom up to half are foreigners.

  8.(2016·郑州模拟)The School Art Festival has set up a stage where students can show their talents.

  9.In a sports team each player has a clear role, and there are few occasions when members are confused or uncertain of their roles.

  10.I don't know the reason why you lied to your parents, but you'd better explain.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.He is the man which I saw yesterday.which→whom

  2.(2016·东北三校联考)The students and things which you spoke of are known to us.which→that

  3.I will never forget the day when I spent in the countryside.when→that/which

  4.This is the village where he was born in.where→which/that或去掉in

  5.The reason that he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning.第一个that→why

  6.(2016·兰州模拟)This novel, which I have read it three times, is very touching.去掉it

  7.The school with which he once studied is very famous.with→in

  8.This is the most interesting book which I have ever read.which→that

  9.Is that factory your father once worked in?factory后加the_one或factory前加the

  10.(2016·贵阳模拟)Einstein is such a great scientist that we must learn from.that→as

  Ⅲ.语法填空

  (2016·昆明诊断性检测)Do you know the man 1.who/that wrote this book?He was Jason, one of the engineers 2.who/that came from Russia in the 1950s.He worked in the same factory 3.where my father once worked.When he came to China, the first thing 4.that he did was to visit the factory 5.which/that did research on trolleybuses and found out the reason 6.why China was so backward in it.Then he spent every minute 7.that he could spare in helping China develop transportation.8.As is mentioned above, Jason was a foreigner 9.who/that made great contributions to our country and was a kind man to 10.whom we should say thanks.


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