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高考英语语法专项练习之名词性从句

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2021年01月20日

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  我们都知道,英语语法是英语体系的钢筋铁骨,所有的口语及书面表达都需要依附英语语法而成,其中高考时英语语法更是贯穿了整张卷面。下面是小编整理的关于高考英语语法专项练习之名词性从句的资料,希望对你有所帮助。

  

 

  [深化认知]

  一、各种名词性从句的定义

  1.主语从句:在复合句中充当主语的从句叫主语从句。

  It is quite clear that the whole project is doomed to failure.

  很显然,整个计划注定要失败。

  2.宾语从句:在复合句中作宾语的名词性从句叫宾语从句,位于及物动词、介词或形容词后。

  Could you please show me how you read the new panel?

  你能否给我展示一下你如何辨认这个新的操作盘吗?

  3.同位语从句:跟在一个抽象名词之后,对该名词的具体内容作进一步解释说明。

  Everyone was inspired to hear the account by an elderly gentleman that he passed the College Entrance Examination in his seventies.

  大家听到那位老先生在他70多岁时通过了大学入学考试的表述都受到了鼓舞。

  4.表语从句:在复合句中作表语的名词性从句叫表语从句,放在系动词之后。

  (2014·江苏高考单选)—What a mess! You are always so lazy!

  —I'm not to blame, mum.I am what you have made me.

  ——真乱啊!你总是这么懒!

  ——我不应该受到责备,妈妈。是你让我成为这样的。

  二、that引导的名词性从句

  1.that引导主语从句

  (1)that引导主语从句位于句首时,本身无意义,但是不可省略。

  That you didn't know the rules won't be an excuse for your failure.

  你不知道规则不能成为你失败的借口。

  (2)that从句作主语时,常用it作形式主语,常见的句型有:

  ①It+be+形容词(obvious, true, natural, surprising, good, wonderful, funny, possible, likely, certain, probable, etc.)+that从句。

  As I searched the name Linda on the Internet, it became evident that there're two with the same name who look completely different.

  当我在网上搜索Linda这个名字的时候,很显然有两个看着完全不同但姓名相同的人。

  ②It+be+名词词组(no wonder, an honor, a good thing, a pity, no surprise, etc.)+that从句。

  It is a pity that you have missed the wonderful lecture.

  你错过了这么精彩的演讲真遗憾。

  ③It+be+过去分词(said, reported, thought, expected, decided, announced, arranged, etc.)+that从句。

  It is announced in today's newspaper that the president will pay a visit to China next week.

  今天报纸上宣称总统下周要对中国进行访问。

  2.that引导宾语从句

  (1)常见的可以接that(that 可以省略)从句作宾语的动词有see, say, know, imagine, discover, believe, tell, show, think, consider等。在可以接复合宾语的动词之后,如think, make, consider等,可以用it作形式宾语。

  (2013·北京高考单选)Experts believe that people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary.

  专家认为可以通过只有必要时才购物这一方法减少食物的浪费。

  I find it necessary that we should spend more time practising spoken English.

  我发现我们有必要花更多时间练习英语口语。

  (2)that从句一般不能充当介词宾语,偶尔可作except, in的宾语。

  Tom is a nice boy, except that he is sometimes late for school.

  汤姆是个很棒的男孩,除了有时上学迟到。

  3.that引导表语从句和同位语从句

  (1)that引导表语从句时,一般不能省略。

  My decision is that all of us are to start at 6 o'clock tomorrow morning.(表语从句)

  我的决定是我们所有人明天早上6点出发。

  (2)that引导同位语从句时,应在某些抽象名词如fact, hope, desire, thought, suggestion, idea, news, problem, possibility等后,对前面的名词起补充说明的作用,that只起引导作用,在从句中不充当任何成分,但一般不能省略。

  He has made a promise to his boss that he'll return in three days as long as he can get to the destination in time.

  他向他老板承诺只要他能及时到达目的地就会三天后回来。

  三、whether/if(是否)引导的名词性从句

  1.whether和if在宾语从句中经常可以互换,但下列情况常用whether,不用if。

  (1)与or或or not连用时只能用whether。

  I didn't know whether he would attend the concert or not.

  我并不知道他是否参加音乐会。

  (2)从句作介词宾语时只能用whether。

  I worry about whether he can pass through the crisis of his illness.

  我担心他是否能熬过这次疾病危机。

  2.在引导主语从句、表语从句和同位语从句时一般用whether不用if。

  The question is whether the meeting will be held.

  问题是是否要举行会议。

  The question is whether it is worth trying.

  问题是值不值得试一试。

  He asked her the question whether they can be friends.

  他问她一个问题:他们能否成为朋友。

  四、who, why, how, where, when等引导的名词性从句

  It never occurred to me how tough it was to begin a new life in a strange city.

  我从来也没有想过在一个陌生的城市开始新生活是多么困难。

  When opportunity knocks, please answer the door.Don't keep asking who it is.

  当机会来敲门时,请开门,不要总是问那是谁。

  I don't know why it was that our headmaster was absent from such an important meeting.

  我不知道到底为什么我们的校长缺席如此重要的会议。

  Some students even have no idea of why they are studying, so they waste much time playing.

  有些学生甚至不知道他们为什么学习,所以他们浪费了很多时间来玩。

  五、what, wh­ever引导的名词性从句

  1.what引导名词性从句时,在从句中作主语、宾语、表语或定语。

  (2014·浙江高考单选)“Every time you eat a sweet, drink green tea.” This is what my mother used to tell me.

  “每次你吃糖的时候要喝点绿茶。”这是我妈妈过去常常告诉我的事情。

  2.“疑问词+­ever”可引导名词性从句,在从句中要充当一定的成分。whoever与whatever表泛指,意为“无论谁”,“无论什么”;whichever表示在特定范围内选择,意为“无论……的哪一个/哪一些”。

  Whoever wants to stay in a hotel has to pay their own way.

  任何一个想要住旅店的人都必须自己付钱。

  We promise whoever attends the party a chance to have a photo taken with the movie star.

  我们承诺无论谁参加晚会,都有一次机会与这位电影明星合影。

  [名师指津] (1)“疑问词+­ever”还可以引导让步状语从句;(2)“no matter+疑问词”只能引导让步状语从句。

  Whatever/No matter what you say, I will not believe you.

  无论你说什么,我都不相信。

  六、同位语从句与定语从句的区别

  1.同位语从句是对前面名词的内容作进一步的解释、说明,引导词that只起引导作用,在句中不作任何成分,一般不可省略。

  The news that they had won the game soon spread over the whole school.

  他们赢得比赛的消息很快就传遍了整个学校。(同位语从句,进一步解释the news的内容)

  2.定语从句是对前面名词进行修饰、限制,引导词在句中作一定的句子成分。

  The news (that) you told me yesterday was really disappointing.

  你昨天告诉我的消息真的很令人失望。(定语从句,它指的是“你昨天告诉我的那个消息”)

  [典题在线]

  Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2015·江苏高考单选)Where Li Bai, a great Chinese poet, was born is known to the public, but some won't accept it.

  2.(2015·北京高考单选)How we understand things has a lot to do with what we feel.

  3.(2015·安徽高考单选)A ship in harbor is safe, but that's not what ships are built for.

  4.(2015·北京高考单选)I truly believe that beauty comes from within.

  5.(2015·湖南高考单选)You have to know where you're going if you are to plan the best way of getting there.

  6.(2015·重庆高考单选)We must find out when Karl is coming, so we can book a room for him.

  7.(2014·四川高考单选)Grandma pointed to the hospital and said, “That's where I was born.”

  8.(2014·重庆高考单选)—Is it true that Mike refused an offer from Yale University yesterday?

  —Yeah, but I have no idea why he did it; that's one of his favorite universities.

  9.(2013·陕西高考单选)It remains to be seen whether the newly formed committee's policy can be put into practice.

  10.(2012·江苏高考单选)The notice came around two in the afternoon that the meeting would be postponed.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.His promise which he would give away half of the year's income to the disabled turned out a lie.which→that_

  2.Intelligence, perseverance and confidence are that it takes to make a good scientist.that→what_

  3.We are thinking about whom can be admitted into our club. The number of members is limited.whom→who

  4.At the evening party the host said who was able to solve the riddle could get a nice present as a reward.who→whoever

  5.(2016·宁夏质检)Whether we will do is to leave a note to tell mum we will be back late.Whether→What

  6.It's true what honesty is more important than money!what→that

  7.There is no doubt whether teachers play an important role in children's growth.whether→that

  8.(2016·贵阳模拟)It is true successful reading requires correct ways of reading.true后加that

  对点集训即时巩固·提升知能Ⅰ.单句语法填空

  1.(2016·河南六校联考)What she would like to discuss with me was that while everybody said she was a lazy person, she did not think so.

  2.(2016·开封模拟)When you are reading, make a note of what you think is of great importance.

  3.The police went to the suspect's house and searched for whatever they could find to prove him guilty.

  4.(2016·宁波调研)—Boys seem to do better in science subjects like math and physics.

  —That's where I don't agree.There are many examples to show girls can do as well as boys.

  5.As the spokeswoman said, whether we should take action against them depends on what they will do.

  6.(2016·哈尔滨模拟)—Something should be done to improve the worsening air quality.

  —Yes.Whoever pollutes the air shall pay a high price.

  7.The question was frequently referred to at the conference whether it is a good idea to build nuclear power plants in developed cities.

  8.Many experts hold the view that teachers' development is where the key to better education lies.

  9.(2016·济南质检)I won't change my belief that success comes to those who act.

  10.After a day's exhausting climb we finally arrived at what we had been told was the “Golden Garden”.

  Ⅱ.单句改错

  1.She was chosen made us very happy.She→That_she

  2.The question is that we can get in touch with her.that→whether

  3.She will give no matter who needs help a warm support. no_matter_who→whoever

  4.He asked how much did I pay for a violin.did_I_pay→I_paid

  5.Where caused the accident is still a complete mystery.Where→What

  6.(2016·北京海淀区联考)There is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language.There→It

  7.(2016·天津诊断)They are said that they found an unusual plant in the forest.They_are→It_is

  8.Choosing the right dictionary depends on that you want to use it for. that→what

  9.There are as many as five student clubs in our school. You can join whatever interests you most.whatever→whichever

  10.(2016·郑州诊断)If we can have clean drinking water lies in what effective measures will be taken by the government about water pollution.If→Whether

  Ⅲ.语法填空

  (2016·郑州高中毕业班质量预测)I am going to tell you an unbelievable thing 1.that happened in my restaurant today.

  This afternoon a poorly­dressed gentleman came into my restaurant.Nobody knew 2.who he was.We wondered 3.why he was so hungry.We were surprised that he finished two orders of food in a very limited time.We doubted 4.whether/if the man was able to pay the bill.The gentleman asked 5.whether/if we would mind waiting for just a few minutes.Then we were shocked to see 6.that he took out of an envelope — a million pound banknote.

  I asked Mr.Clements 7.whether/if it was genuine.Mr.Clements said it was true because two of this amount had been issued by the Bank of England this year.He thought 8.what the gentleman showed us couldn't be a fake.

  9.Why a gentleman with a million pound note was in rags and ate in our small restaurant was a big puzzle to all the people there.I really couldn't describe 10.how excited I was.


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