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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 11 - TEXT FOUR

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2019年02月08日

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The inventor of Sherlock Holmes was the most commercially successful author of his time. Arthur Conan Doyle was a phenomenon: practising doctor, war correspondent, businessman, politician and a campaigner for legal and colonial reforms as well as a popular novelist.
But he considered his fiction undervalued. Though he was known worldwide as the author of the Holmes stories and even sometimes addressed as Mr. Sherlock Holmes, Doyle regarded himself as primarily a writer of uplifting historical fiction, usually with a medieval background. At first he considered Sherlock Holmes a pleasant diversion that filled a gap in his income. Eventually he came to think of the detective as an irksome burden: “He keeps me from higher things,” he wrote.
The Sherlock Holmes stories continue to exercise extraordinary power. The writing is never more than efficient but the setting remains perennial: the comfortable, carpeted, fire-lit Baker Street sitting room shared by Holmes and Watson, the paradoxically womblike world of a Victorian bachelor set above an anarchic underworld full of violence and immorality. Doyle's literary masterstroke was dividing the story between Holmes and Watson. It was a device the writer used frequently but never as effectively as here.
Doyle's true theme was division: between order and anarchy, reason and emotion, the material and the spiritual. He himself was a man divided, as two new biographical books make clear. The very picture of an upright Victorian gentleman, Doyle was not averse to fighting in the street when the mood took him. And in his late 30s, at the height of his fame, he ran a double life, conducting a largely secret affair with the woman who eventually became his second wife, while his first was gradually succumbing to tuberculosis.
Much of this is revealed in detail in Andrew Lycett's biography and in a selection of Doyle's letters edited by the present executor of the Doyle estate. The story behind the publication of these two books might make a Doylesque thriller in itself. Mr. Lycett and the Doyle estate executor vied to gain control of newly discovered material, each trying to get to market first. Mr. Lycett's book is a serious piece of work from an experienced professional biographer. If he never quite gets fully to grips with Doyle's elusive personality, the author is particularly good on the intellectual background to Doyle's work, both known and forgotten. The biography is hobbled by the Doyle estate's refusal to permit quotation from numerous documents. But Mr. Lycett makes the best of what he has and fills the gaps with insight.
The selected letters by contrast are strictly an enthusiast's book. The editors' comments are a bit haphazard and it is poorly presented. On the other hand, it does convey an almost physical presence of the author, with his strange mixture of kindness and carelessness, overbearing self-confidence and depressive self-doubt. Above all there is the impression of a man driven by internal forces. Since boyhood Doyle had been struggling with the consequences of his rationalist rejection of Catholicism and his growing conviction that there must be some kind of reality beyond the scientific. This was a division that in the end he could not manage. By the close of his life he was spending his diminishing energies defending not only the world of spiritualism but also the outermost fraudulent fringes of supernatural belief. It was a sorry ending.
1. Conan Doyle regarded Holmes as a burden because _____.
[A] he considered his fiction was of high level but was generally undervalued
[B] he wrote the Holmes stories at the beginning for fun but later merely for the large income
[C] the Holmes stories hindered him from writing historical fictions
[D] the Holmes stories earned him the international fame as well as pressure
2. The word “averse” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] adverse
[B] against
[C] opposite
[D] converse
3. In Andrew Lycett's biography, Doyle is most probably described as _____.
[A] a reasonable gentleman
[B] a man with doubtful life style
[C] one with divided psychological identities
[D] a man of integrity and enthusiasm
4. Doyle's divided personality was a result of _____.
[A] his own creation of the two opposite characters, Holmes and Watson
[B] his paradoxical views on religion and science in boyhood
[C] his confusion on reality and fiction all through his life driven by internal forces
[D] his devotion to the world of spiritualism and his involvement in the secular world
5. Doyle estate executor refused to permit Mr. Lycett to quote from documents because _____.
[A] he was concerned with the protection of Doyle's privacy
[B] Mr. Lycett was not the ideal biographer of Doyle
[C] there was a kind of competition between the two parties in the publication of Doyle's biography
[D] he was unsatisfied with Mr. Lycett's work which turns Doyle's life into a thriller story

1. Conan Doyle regarded Holmes as a burden because _____.
[A] he considered his fiction was of high level but was generally undervalued
[B] he wrote the Holmes stories at the beginning for fun but later merely for the large income
[C] the Holmes stories hindered him from writing historical fictions
[D] the Holmes stories earned him the international fame as well as pressure
1. Conan Doyle认为福尔摩斯是一个累赘,这是因为 _____。
[A] 他认为他的小说价值很高但是却普遍被低估了
[B] 他写福尔摩斯故事一开始是因为好玩,后来只是为了可以赚很多钱
[C] 福尔摩斯故事妨碍他撰写一些历史小说
[D] 福尔摩斯故事给他带来国际声誉,也带来了压力
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:推理题。第二段提到,Doyle认为福尔摩斯是个累赘,他说“他让我没法做更高雅的事情”。那么他所说的高雅的事情是什么呢?根据上文,他认为自己首先是一个高雅的历史小说家,结果却因为福尔摩斯的故事使得他必须一直写这方面的作品,而没有精力从事其他写作。因此,选项C最为符合。A不是题干的原因,是错误选项。选项B,文章提到了写福尔摩斯故事可以给他增加收入,但是没有提到他为了赚钱而写福尔摩斯故事。选项D也是错误的,因为他并没有感到压力。
2. The word “averse” (Line 3, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] adverse
[B] against
[C] opposite
[D] converse
2. averse这个词(第四段第三行) 最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 不利的
[B] 反对的
[C] (方向)相反的
[D] (位置)颠倒的
答案:B 难度系数:☆
分析:猜词题。根据上下文,本段主要说的是Doyle是个比较矛盾的人,具有双重性格,那么本词所在句的前半句说的是他看起来是个绅士,后半句就应该是和这个相反的情况——按理说这么个绅士不会在街上打架,但是情况相反,如果情绪上来也可能会这样做。因此,选项B符合题意。
3. In Andrew Lycett's biography, Doyle is most probably described as _____.
[A] a reasonable gentleman
[B] a man with doubtful life style
[C] one with divided psychological identities
[D] a man of integrity and enthusiasm
3. 在Andrew Lycett的传记中,Doyle最有可能被描述为 _____。
[A] 一个理智的绅士
[B] 一个生活方式令人怀疑的人
[C] 一个心理分裂的人
[D] 一个正直而且充满热情的人
答案:A 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章第五段提到,从两本新的传记也可以看出来Doyle是个自相矛盾的人,这两本传记一本是Andrew Lycett写的,一本为其遗产执行人编写的书信集;最后一段第一句说:“相反,选出的书信看起来却是出自一位热情洋溢的人之手。”那么可以推断,Lycett展现的人物形象与之相反,应该是个比较理智的人。因此,选项A是正确答案。
4. Doyle's divided personality was a result of _____.
[A] his own creation of the two opposite characters, Holmes and Watson
[B] his paradoxical views on religion and science in boyhood
[C] his confusion on reality and fiction all through his life driven by internal forces
[D] his devotion to the world of spiritualism and his involvement in the secular world
4. Doyle分裂的性格源于 _____。
[A] 他创造了两个性格相反的人,即福尔摩斯和华生
[B] 他在少年时代对宗教和科学的矛盾看法
[C] 他一生中由于内心力量的趋使而混淆了现实与虚拟世界
[D] 他沉溺于精神世界,又完全生活在世俗世界中
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章描述了Doyle的双重性格,最后一段提到:Since boyhood Doyle had been struggling with the consequences of his rationalist rejection of Catholicism and his growing conviction that there must be some kind of reality beyond the scientific. This was a division that in the end he could not manage. 也就是说,他在少年时代,一方面理智让他拒绝了信仰天主教,但是另一方面他又觉得科学之外有别的东西存在,他就在这种矛盾中挣扎,一直没有找到答案。可以推断,可能就是因为这一点他才会有这种分裂的性格。因此,选项B符合题意。选项A只是这种性格的体现而已,并不是原因。
5. Doyle estate executor refused to permit Mr. Lycett to quote from documents because _____.
[A] he was concerned with the protection of Doyle's privacy
[B] Mr. Lycett was not the ideal biographer of Doyle
[C] there was a kind of competition between the two parties in the publication of Doyle's biography
[D] he was unsatisfied with Mr. Lycett's work which turns Doyle's life into a thriller story
5. Doyle的财产执行人不让Lycett先生引用文件,是因为 _____。
[A] 他想要保护Doyle的隐私
[B] Lycett先生不是撰写Doyle传记的理想人选
[C] 双方都在为出版Doyle的传记而竞争
[D] 他对于Lycett先生把Doyle的生活写成一部恐怖小说感到不满
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第五段提到,Doyle的遗产执行人和Lycett先生都想占有新发现的资料,好最先出版自己的书。后来就提到他不允许Lycett先生引用资料。由此可以看出,该执行人最终拥有了这些资料,他想作为独家资料来发表。显然只有选项C最为符合题意,而其他几个选项都是干扰选项。

夏洛克·福尔摩斯的创造者可能是他那个时代在商业意义上最成功的作家。Arthur Conan Doyle是一个非凡的人物:实习医生、战地记者、商人、政治家、法律和殖民地改革的推行者,还是受人喜爱的小说家。
但是Doyle认为他的小说的价值被低估了。尽管全世界都知道他是福尔摩斯故事的作者,甚至有时候人们就把他叫做福尔摩斯先生,Doyle还是首先把他自己看作高雅的历史小说作家,小说一般还是以中世纪为背景的。一开始他认为写福尔摩斯是一种消遣,可以给他增加点收入,到后来他认为这个侦探成了讨厌的负担。“他让我没法做更高雅的事情。”他这样写道。
福尔摩斯的故事一直有着非凡的魔力。文笔本身并不是很出色,但是故事的场景却是永久的:福尔摩斯和华生共享贝克街铺着地毯、烧着壁炉的舒适的起居室;一个维多利亚时代的单身汉那荒谬的封闭的世界凌驾于充满暴力和不道德现象的混乱的世界。Doyle的妙笔就是把故事分为福尔摩斯和华生两条叙述线索。虽然这个手法经常为Doyle所使用,但他在这里运用得最为成功。
Doyle所写的真正的主题是分裂:秩序和混乱,理智与情感,物质与精神。他自己本人也是分裂的,从关于他的两本新传记中就可以看出这一点。虽然他被描述为一位正直的维多利亚时代的绅士,但如果情绪激动起来,Doyle也会在街头打架。他将近40岁时负有盛名,却过着双重生活,他与一位女士有着秘密的交往,这位女士以后成为了他的第二任妻子,但他的发妻却最终因肺结核而去世。
这些在Andrew Lycett写的传记和Doyle的信件集中有详细描述,这些信件由Doyle遗嘱中指定的财产执行者整理。这两本书背后的故事本身都可以成为Doyle式的恐怖小说。Lycett先生和Doyle财产的执行者争着要占有新发现的资料,他们都想让自己的书最先上市。Lycett先生是经验丰富的职业传记作家,他的书是一部严肃的作品,他总是爱刨根问底地弄明白Doyle难以捉摸的个性,而且他也熟知Doyle作品的学术背景,不论是大家知道的还是遗忘的方面。但是Doyle财产的执行者拒绝让他引用大量文件,传记的写作因此受到阻挠,但是Lycett先生充分挖掘自己手头有的资料,用自己独到的见解填补了空白。
相反,选出的书信看起来却是出自一位热情洋溢的人之手。编辑的评论有些随意,摆在读者面前的书也不够精美。但另一方面,这本书确实展现了这位作者真实的一面,展现了他善良和粗心相混合的奇特一面,又有着压抑的自信和郁闷的自我怀疑。最重要的是,我们在这本书中看到了一位受内心力量驱使的男子。少年时代的Doyle一方面在理性上否认天主教的存在,但另一方面又越来越相信在科学之外有其他现实存在,因此他备受这两种矛盾思想的煎熬。直到走到了人生尽头,他也没能处理这种分歧。在弥留之际,他不仅维护着唯灵论,还为超自然信仰最具欺骗性的外缘而辩护,这种结局令人感到遗憾。
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