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《考研英语阅读理解100篇 高分版》 Unit 12 - TEXT ONE

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2019年02月09日

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The idea that mobile phones bring economic benefits is now widely accepted. In places with bad roads, few trains and parlous land lines, they substitute for travel, allow price data to be distributed more quickly and easily, enable traders to reach wider markets and generally ease the business of doing business. Leonard Waverman of the London Business School has estimated that an extra ten mobile phones per 100 people in a typical developing country leads to an extra half a percentage point of growth in GDP per person. To realise the economic benefits of mobile phones, governments in such countries need to do away with state monopolies, issue new licences to allow rival operators to enter the market and slash taxes on handsets. With few exceptions (hallo, Ethiopia), they have done so, and mobile phones are now spreading fast, even in the poorest parts of the world.
As mobile phones have spread, a new economic benefit is coming into view: using them for banking, and so improving access to financial services, not just telecoms networks. Pioneering m-banking projects in the Philippines, Kenya and South Africa show the way. These “branchless” schemes typically allow customers to deposit and withdraw cash through a mobile operator's airtime-resale agents, and send money to other people via text messages that can be exchanged for cash by visiting an agent. Workers can then be paid by phone; taxi drivers and delivery drivers can accept payments without carrying cash around; money can be easily sent to friends and family. A popular use is to deposit money before making a long journey and then withdraw it at the other end, which is safer than carrying lots of cash.
There is no need to set up a national network of branches or cash machines. M-banking schemes can be combined with microfinance loans, extending access to credit and enabling users to establish a credit history. Some schemes issue customers with debit cards linked to their m-banking accounts. All this has the potential to give the “unbanked” masses access to financial services, and bring them into the formal economy.
What can governments do to foster m-banking? As with the spread of mobile phones themselves, a lot depends on putting the right regulations in place. They need to be tight enough to protect users and discourage money laundering, but open enough to allow new services to emerge. The existing banking model is both over- and under-protective, says Tim Lyman of the World Bank, because “it did not foresee the convergence of telecommunications and financial services”.
In many countries only licensed banks are allowed to collect deposits. Even if a mobile operator forms a partnership with a bank, its agents may have to comply with banking rules covering everything from the height of the counter to the installation of alarms. Financial institutions may have to provide detailed statements to the central bank every week, which is tricky for organisations with agents in remote areas. Some countries have rigid rules on the documents demanded of anybody opening an account, which excludes many.
1. The following are advantages of economic services through mobile phones except that _____.
[A] price data can be distributed quicky and easily
[B] traders can extend their market
[C] doing business is more convenient
[D] the growth of GDP per person can be greatly promoted
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the m-banking schemes?
[A] They can provide safer services than the traditional banking.
[B] They can provide the customers with credit services.
[C] They have been experimented in some developing countries.
[D] They can encourage people to use financial services.
3. The word “convergence” (Line 4, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] conversation
[B] combination
[C] similarity
[D] exchange
4. Towards m-banking, the governments' attitudes can be said to be _____.
[A] supportive
[B] opposing
[C] indifferent
[D] unclear
5. The best title of this passage can be _____.
[A] Economic Benefits Brought by Mobile Phone
[B] M-banking—Marriage of Mobile Phone and Banking
[C] Mobile Phone Used for Banking
[D] The Pioneering M-banking Schemes

1. The following are advantages of economic services through mobile phones except that _____.
[A] price data can be distributed quicky and easily
[B] traders can extend their market
[C] doing business is more convenient
[D] the growth of GDP per person can be greatly promoted
1. 以下除了 _____ 外都是移动电话经济服务的优点。
[A] 价格数据可以快速、方便地传递
[B] 商人可以扩展自己的市场
[C] 做生意更为方便
[D] 人均GDP的增长会得到巨大的推动
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。文章第一段讲述了移动电话经济服务的一些情况,选项A,第一段有所提及。选项B,文章第一段也提到了商人们可以拥有更为广阔的市场;选项C,第一段也提到了可以使做生意更为简单;选项D,虽然文章第一段提到了:“伦敦商学院的Leonard Waverman估计,在典型的发展中国家,每百人中每增加10部移动电话,就可以使人均GDP增加0.5个百分点”,但是实际情况是否如此并没有说明,且这一估计的情况也仅限于发展中国家。因此,选项D为正确答案。
2. Which one of the following statements is TRUE of the m-banking shemes?
[A] They can provide safer services than the traditional banking.
[B] They can provide the customers with credit services.
[C] They have been experimented in some developing countries.
[D] They can encourage people to use financial services.
2. 关于移动银行项目,下列哪个陈述是正确的?
[A] 项目提供的服务相对传统的银行来说更加安全。
[B] 该项目可以为顾客提供信用卡服务。
[C] 该项目已经在一些发展中国家中进行了试验。
[D] 该项目可以鼓励人们使用金融服务。
答案:C 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:细节题。选项A,根据第三段,该项目可以让顾客不必携带现金,这样更为安全一些,但是这并不是和传统的银行业务相比较而言的,是否比其安全有待今后观察;选项B,从第四段可以看出,该项目可以和信用卡连接,提供相关服务;选项C,第三段指出,在菲律宾、南非等国家有一些开拓性的项目,这些都是发展中国家,故该陈述正确;选项D,第四段指出,该项目可以使那些不用银行的人开始使用银行服务。因此,选项C为正确答案。
3. The word “convergence” (Line 4, Paragraph 4) most probably means _____.
[A] conversation
[B] combination
[C] similarity
[D] exchange
3. convergence这个词(第四段第四行)最有可能的意思是 _____。
[A] 对话
[B] 结合
[C] 相似
[D] 交流
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆
分析:猜词题。本篇文章讲述的是将移动电话作为媒介运用到银行业务中,根据上下文,现有的银行模式要不就是保护性过强,要不就是保护力度不够,因为没有预见到移动电话可以和银行结合起来。因此,选项B最为符合题意。
4. Towards m-banking, the governments' attitudes can be said to be _____.
[A] supportive
[B] opposing
[C] indifferent
[D] unclear
4. 政府对于移动银行的态度可以说是 _____。
[A] 支持的
[B] 反对的
[C] 中立的
[D] 不明了的
答案:D 难度系数:☆☆☆☆
分析:推理题。文章最后两段提到政府在培育移动银行服务方面可以做的工作,目前政府尚未制定出适当的法律条令以有效地推进该服务,但是至于政府对这种新事物的态度,文章中却没有提及。因此,答案为D。
5. The best title of this passage can be _____.
[A] Economic Benefits Brought by Mobile Phone
[B] M-banking—Marriage of Mobile Phone and Banking
[C] Mobile Phone Used for Banking
[D] The Pioneering M-banking Schemes
5. 文章最佳的题目是 _____。
[A] 移动电话带来的经济利益
[B] 移动银行——移动电话与银行的结合
[C] 用于银行业务的移动电话
[D] 移动银行试验项目
答案:B 难度系数:☆☆☆
分析:主旨题。这篇文章主要介绍了一种新的银行模式——移动电话银行。在给出的选项中,选项A的重点在于移动电话带来的经济效益,移动电话银行只是其中一种。选项C的重点放在了手机上。选项D只是文章讲述的一部分内容。选项B最为恰当。

移动电话可以带来经济效益,这个观点现在已被广泛接受。在那些公路路况糟糕、几乎没有火车,陆上线路危险的地方,移动电话可以代替出行,可以让价格数据更快更方便地发布出去,让商人获得更大的市场,总的来说可以让做生意更为便捷。伦敦商学院的Leonard Waverman估计,在典型的发展中国家,每百人中每增加10部移动电话,就可以使人均GDP增加0.5个百分点。为了实现移动电话的经济效益,这些国家的政府需要消除国家垄断,并颁发新的许可证以允许竞争运营商进入市场,同时削减手机税。除了几个国家之外(如埃塞俄比亚),大多数国家已经这样做了,现在即使在世界上最穷的地方,移动电话也普及得很快。
随着移动电话的普及,新的经济利益也出现了:用移动电话办理银行业务,从而改进金融服务渠道,而不仅限于电信网络。菲律宾、肯尼亚和南非的尝试已经为电子银行项目指明了前景。这些“无行”方案允许顾客通过移动运营商的空中转售代理商来存取现金,也可以通过文本信息把钱支付给对方,对方只需找到代理商就可以兑换成现金。员工们也可以通过电话来领工资;出租车司机和货运司机接受付款时就不用带着现金到处跑了,同时钱也可以便捷地送到朋友和家人手中。现在比较流行的做法是:长途旅行前先存钱,到了目的地再取出来,这要比携带大笔现金安全多了。
建立全国性分行系统和取款机网络也是没有必要的。移动电话银行项目可以与微型金融贷款相结合,从而扩展到信用领域,并为用户建立一个信用历史。一些系统向顾客发行信用卡,可以连接到他们的电子银行账户上。这些系统有潜力使“不去银行的”一大部分人获得金融服务,引领他们进入正式的经济体系。
那么政府可以采取什么措施来扶持电子银行呢?随着移动电话的普及,这在很大程度上取决于能否制定出合理的规则。规则应当严格一些,以保护用户,打击洗钱,但也要适当开放,允许新的业务出现。世界银行的Tim Lyman说,现有的银行模式要不就是保护过头,要不就是保护不力,因为“它没有预见到电信和金融服务会结合在一起”。
在许多国家中,只有拥有许可证的银行才可有权经营存款业务。即使移动运营商和银行建立了合作关系,其职员也必须服从银行的规则,这些规则包罗万象,从柜台的高度到报警器的安装都有说明。金融机构可能每周都得向中央银行提供详细的说明,这对于那些职员在偏远地区的组织来说是一件非常讨厌的事情。一些国家对于任何开户人的档案有严格的限制,这使得许多人都被排除在外。
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