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[00:13.19]Unit 3 Environment


[00:22.28]Mr.Zhang visits his hometown,where he spent his childhood.

[00:30.54]Now he is talking with Mr.Jackson.

[00:35.29]We're nearly there.All has come back to me.

[00:40.54]Look,the old park"People's Park"is still there.

[00:46.79]I used to pass the park to go scholl each day.

[00:51.93]True?I thought you are living in Xi'an city all your life.

[00:58.91]No,I used to live in this old city from 1970s to early 1980s.

[01:07.27]Have you ever been back since you left here?

[01:12.41]No,but I'm always dreaming of visiting it.

[01:18.18]I didn't have enough time,so I've never come back here.

[01:23.83]Now,we are in the city center?

[01:29.39]Er,oh,yes,you're right.The busy road,the skyscrapers..

[01:37.46]It seems that the old department store has disappeared.

[01:42.79]It's there!Right?

[01:46.74]Yeah,it has changed a lot,bigger and taller than ever,

[01:52.69]but there was no flyover here in 1980s.

[01:57.84]Look at these skyscrapers!

[02:03.12]Wonderful!But in the past,there were only small shops.

[02:09.96]I especially liked t buy sweets in one of them,

[02:15.13]its name was"Xiao Hong Shop".

[02:20.70]Twenty years have passed.Great changes have taken place,

[02:26.76]we have been getting older,just as a saying goes"Time is waiting for no man"!

[02:34.20]I agree with you.My old guy,let's find a parking lot and walk around the city,OK?

[02:42.85]OK,I'm glad to.

[02:47.11]Tim and Am are talking about Mr.Mark's new house.

[02:56.07]Ann,have you received your invitation?

[03:00.43]No,I haven't.My invitation?By whom?

[03:06.88]A house warming party next Sunday.

[03:11.32]Whose party?

[03:14.56]Mr.Mark's.They have bought a new house beside the North Gate.

[03:21.33]It's a bout half an hour's wark from here.

[03:26.00]Have you seen the house?

[03:29.84]Of course.I went there yesterday.

[03:34.28]Is it quite nice?

[03:38.12]Yes.Their house is surrounded by a large and beautiful garden,

[03:44.50]full of all kinds of flowers.

[03:48.75]The house is standing in the middle of the garden.

[03:53.40]It has three storeys.

[03:57.06]It sounds good!

[04:00.82]The house has five bedrooms,a big living room,a dining room,

[04:07.28]a kitchen and three bathrooms.

[04:12.03]The carpet in his sitting room is made in China.

[04:16.89]It must be very delicate.

[04:21.33]Yes,it goes very well with the curtain and their sofas.

[04:26.79]Anything else?

[04:30.05]Mr.Mark has decorated his study with many expensive works of art.

[04:36.72]It's well known that he likes to collect works of art wherever he goes.

[04:43.17]They also have a four-car garage.

[04:47.82]Really?It's just his dream.

[04:52.99]How I wish I had a house like his!

[04:57.64]It's a piece of cake.

[05:01.71]I suggest that you sell up all your stocks for a new house.

[05:07.46]Mr.Brown and his son Robert are walking along the river.

[05:15.40]Dad,how foggy it is this morning!

[05:20.65]Yes,it's a new problem.

[05:24.73]A new problem?Why do you say so?

[05:30.00]The problem results from smog.

[05:35.05]Smog?What is it?

[05:39.41]Smog is blended with two words"smoke"and "fog".

[05:46.57]It has seriously affected people more than any other type of air pollution.

[05:53.12]I see.Look,there are some plastic bags floating on the river.

[06:00.07]Some citizens are still ignorant of the environmental protection.

[06:07.02]It's really a pity!

[06:10.86]But,anyway,public concern over the environmental pollution has greatly increased.

[06:19.12]There is hope for the future.

[06:22.88]Passage In Our"Rurban"Age-To know the countryside,you must live in the city

[06:32.62]In his book Badgers,the naturalist Michael Clark describes

[06:39.78]surveying the animal back in the 1960s.

[06:45.13]Calling at a farm cottage,

[06:49.21]he asked an old countryman whether he knew of any badgers living nearby.

[06:56.16]"What's badgers?"came the reply.

[07:01.02]The countryman,Clark writes,"genuinely did not know of the species".

[07:09.27]You can be a countryman,it seems,and know little of the country.

[07:16.11]But traditionally,country folks are regarded as being in tune with the land.

[07:23.98]They live there,don't they?What can townies know of the "way of nature"?

[07:31.24]This assumption infects much of our culture.

[07:36.20]It predicates the existence of a clear division between town and country.

[07:43.57]It enables the rural to characterize itself as an indigenous culture,

[07:51.12]its"native"traditions and pastimes"hunting and fishing"

[07:57.28]threatened by an oppressive urban majority.

[08:02.14]The underlying message lies

[08:06.50]in that the countryside is best managed by country people.

[08:12.15]After all,the know about such things...

[08:18.10]Unfortunately,too often,they don't.

[08:24.35]As the historian Keith Thomas showed in his study Man and the Natural World,

[08:32.29]the growth of our knowledge about nature has come by correcting

[08:38.06]the "vulgar errors"of country people.

[08:42.61]And although Thomas was writing about the period between 1500 and 1800,

[08:50.68]that process continues today

[08:55.41]-what country dwellers take for granted is still being confounded

[09:01.65]by the careful observation of reality.

[09:06.61]A study,from York University,

[09:11.65]has cast strange new light on the farmers' enemy-foxes.

[09:18.89]The more foxes a farmer kills,the more lambs he appears to lose to foxes.

[09:27.43]Theat is because:

[09:31.56]new foxes will almost certainly occupy the slain animals' territory,

[09:38.93]and new animals,unused to the terrain,

[09:44.78]may then choose more obvious prey-such as lambs.

[09:50.94]The message of studies such as this is that matural systems are complex,


[10:01.42]understanding them requires patient observation and careful analysis.

[10:08.57]The lack of these conditions explains why,in the early modern era,

[10:16.02]grass snakes were killed as venomous,

[10:21.37]and gardeners destroyed worms because they were thought to gnaw plant roots.

[10:28.92]The assumption that people"ought"to know

[10:34.17]such things is based on an urban-rural divide that opened up in the 18th century.

[10:43.42]For a couple fo centuries,city and country people did inhabit separate realms.

[10:52.36]But the car,the phone,the media and the Internet

[10:59.12]have contributed to the unifying tendency of what we call modern lifestyle;

[11:06.78]and the vast population outflow from cities into rural areas

[11:13.62]blurred the difference between urban and rural.

[11:19.08]Thus,a new word-"rurban"-has been coined to describe this condition.

[11:27.83]Most of us now work indoors or in an office,

[11:33.71]and even if we are involved in our primary industries,

[11:39.66]we are far more likely to be staring

[11:44.31]at a computer than communicating with the landscape.

[11:49.77]Human life has turned generally into a monoculture by work,

[11:55.94]sleep,shopping and TV

[12:00.67]-all actually identical whether performed in town or country.

[12:07.54]Words and Expressions

[12:11.66]badger naturalist survey call at

[12:15.53]n.獾 n.自然主义者 vt.仔细全面地观察 访问;停靠

[12:19.40]countryman genuinely species traditionally

[12:23.52]n.乡下人 adv.真正的;真实地 n.种 adv.传统上

[12:27.65]townie assumption infect culture

[12:31.44]n.城里人 n.假定,假设 vt.感染,影响 n.文化;文明

[12:35.23]predicate existence division enable

[12:39.20]vt.断言 n.存在 n.分开,分割 vt.使能够;授予权力或方法

[12:43.17]rural lobby characterize indigenous

[12:47.24]adj.乡下的 n.游说议员者 vt.表..的特点 adj.本土的

[12:51.32]pastime hunting fishing threaten

[12:55.25]n.消遣,娱乐 n.狩猎,猎狐 n.捕鱼 vt.威胁;预示

[12:59.18]oppressive urban underlying

[13:02.42]adj.压制性的,压迫的 adj.城市的,市内的 adj.潜在的,出现但不明显示的

[13:05.66]historian vulgar error process

[13:09.63]n.历史学家的 adj.粗俗的 n.错误,过失 n.过程,程序

[13:13.60]dweller confound observation cast

[13:17.73]n.居住者;居民 vt.使窘迫;使羞愧 n.观察,观测 v.投,抛,投射

[13:21.85]lamb occupy slay territory

[13:26.39]n.小羊 vt.占,占领 vt.杀,杀死 n.领土

[13:30.92]unused terrain obvious prey

[13:34.80]adj.不习惯..的 n.地势,地形 adj.明显的,显而易见 n.被捕食的动物

[13:38.68]complex unpredictable analysis era

[13:43.09]adj.复杂的;综合的 adj.不可预知的 n.分析,分解 n.时代,纪元,时期

[13:47.51]venomous gardener gnaw inhabit

[13:51.33]adj.有毒的,分泌毒液的n.园丁 v.咬,啃,啮 vt.居住于;存在于

[13:55.16]realm Internet contribute unify

[13:59.09]n.领域,范围 n.因特网,国际互联网 vi.帮助实现,有助于 vt.统一,使成一体

[14:03.02]tendency lifestyle outflow blur

[14:07.11]n.趋向,倾向 n.生活方式 n.流出,流出物 vt.使模糊

[14:11.20]indoors likely communicate landscape

[14:15.47]adv.在户内 adj.很可能的,有希望的v.沟通 n.风景;山水画

[14:19.74]generally monoculture identical

[14:22.92]adv.广泛地,普通地 n.单一文化 adj.同一的,同样的


[14:29.75]Section I listening Comprehension

[14:35.10]Listen to the record.

[14:39.36]Answer each question by chossing A,B,C or D from the four possible choices.

[14:48.42]1.Any news in the newspaper?

[14:54.48]Yes.A black was beaten and thrown into prison only because of his complaints.

[15:02.56]2.Would you like to go to the beach for sunbath?

[15:08.72]I'm glas to.It's said that the smell of beach

[15:14.29]can soothe people who suffer from anxiety.

[15:19.25]3.The kitchen is filled with smoke.I can hardly breathe.

[15:26.41]True?But I have got used to it.

[15:32.15]4.Good afternoon,I'm living in the suburb now.

[15:38.32]The heavy traffic is quite terrible in the city.

[15:43.88]I have thought that you want to buy a big apartment.

[15:49.24]5.Darling,I can't tolerate my mother any more.

[15:56.08]She always complains.Can we find another house,however big it is!

[16:03.24]OK,let's read the newspaper with ads.


[16:11.65]Wang Hua is talking with a foreign student,Peter,about the environment.

[16:18.81]Hello,how long have you been here?

[16:23.77]Actually I planned to come here in November,

[16:28.03]but my parents suggested that I observe the Christmas,so I started in January.

[16:35.89]That's less than two months.What do you think of here?

[16:41.74]It's old with a long history.At the first sight,it's so beautiful.

[16:49.79]Then,what do you mean?

[16:53.94]Yesterday,when I was walking with a Chinese friend along a river,

[17:00.29]I was surprised. Why?

[17:05.04]Living in such a beautiful city,

[17:09.30]some people seem to be deliberate to throw the wastes

[17:15.26]or rubbish anywhere they like.

[17:19.62]So this is why some dustbins are standing along the road.

[17:25.86]This is less important.pollution,yes,

[17:31.90]air and water pollution can endanger human health

[17:36.00]and produce harmful effects on living things and other materials.

[17:42.16]It's a global problem.It has already caught the public attention.

[17:49.04]So,in Europe,environmentalists formed the party

[17:55.28]and campaigned for the protection of environment.

[18:00.32]Little by little,people have become aware of the problems facing us.

[18:07.90]Our Chinese government has passed laws to protect our environment.

[18:14.14]The same case in our country.

[18:18.61]People in the world have begun to know how to value the protection of themselves

[18:25.27]on the basis of protection of their world.

[18:30.23]Supplementary Reading

[18:34.28]Cleaner Ways of Travel

[18:38.72]A Dutch lawyer drove his car from his suburban home

[18:44.18]to the edge of Amsterdam and parked.

[18:48.62]He took out a collapsible bicycle,unfolded it,

[18:54.39]and fastened his brief case and tightly relled his umbrella to the side.

[19:00.85]Then he climbed on and cycled to his office.

[19:05.70]Not an eyebrow was raised,

[19:09.78]because the lawyer was only one of many Europeans

[19:14.74]who are switching form four wheels to two for in-city travel.

[19:21.22]Stories like these are told with such enthusiasm

[19:26.08]by experts on air pollution that one would expect to see hardly a car

[19:32.14]on the streets of London or Paris in rush hour.

[19:37.18]Of course,this is not the case.

[19:41.86]The use of the bicycle is the result of the increase,

[19:47.50]rather than the decrease,of cars in Europe.

[19:52.67]Although European cars release fewer poisonous fumes than large American models,

[20:00.33]smog is filling European air too.

[20:05.16]Cities are so jammed with cars that officials have hegun to take action.

[20:11.79]"People are beginning to realize what a dangerous contraption the car is,

[20:18.56]"says a Danish professor.

[20:22.92]Can the car then survive?Certainly no one today can imagine life without it.

[20:30.79]In America a car appears to be essential.

[20:35.93]Drivers will crawl through midtown traffic rather than give up their vehicles.

[20:42.98]Many families even own two cars.

[20:47.74]But we cannot continue to let car fums poison us.

[20:54.22]City dwellers are already beginning to choke in the smog.

[21:00.07]A drastic change is needed if we are going to go on driving.

[21:06.23]In the hunt for a way to save the car from extinction,

[21:11.80]all sorts of extreme methods have been proposed.

[21:17.26]The increased use of electric power

[21:21.70]is by far the most promising of the ideas put forward to date.

[21:27.76]Many pollution fighters have acclaimed it.

[21:32.43]At present,electric cars obtain their power from storage batteries.

[21:39.20]Every night the battery has to be recharged in the garage.

[21:45.08]This method is awkward,particularly for long-distance driving.

[21:51.61]It has been suggested that at some time in the future booths

[21:57.04]could be set up on high-ways.

[22:01.59]Drivers on the road would stop every so often,

[22:06.45]put a coin in the slot,

[22:10.10]and plug the battery into an electric socket for a recharge.

[22:15.75]In-city traffic would benefit most from electric cars.

[22:21.41]Stop-and-go driving causes far more poisonous gases to be released.

[22:29.36]An air monitor in one large city recently measured the poisonous gases

[22:35.91]coming from cars on therir way home in the evening rush hour.

[22:41.16]The amounts of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

[22:46.52]released were four times as great as those expelled from vehicles moving

[22:52.79]at a steady pace on the highway.

[22:56.73]In some American cities

[23:00.39]officials are not waiting for improved electric car models.

[23:06.16]They have ordered minibuses run on the standard-storage batteries.

[23:12.33]In this way they can reduce the number of diesel buses on the streets.

[23:18.57]Diesel exhaust not only smells worse than fumes from internal combustion engines,

[23:25.94]but also has large amounts of nitrogen oxides.

[23:31.11]Some people think that an elevated system like the mounts

[23:37.06]would help to reduce pollution.

[23:41.19]The monorail,which is also powered by electricity,

[23:47.44]is often seen at fairs and entertainment parks.

[23:52.90]Traveling over the fairgrounds on its single rail,

[23:58.04]the monorail offers and excellent view of the attractions below.

[24:04.08]One day it may offer rush-hour travelers as good a view of the city below.

[24:10.84]But a more electric world would not prevent air pollution.

[24:16.77]If power plants are to generate enough electricity to run transportation,

[24:23.30]as well as to produce heat,light,and energy for factories and homes,

[24:30.17]the plants will have to be greatly expanded.

[24:35.03]Moreover,utilities providing power have been repeatedly named as

[24:41.98]major offenders in air pollution.

[24:46.24]Nonetheless,it would be easier to control pollution

[24:51.70]from a few large sources than from every car,bus,industry,and house.


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