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> 公共英语 > 公共英语考试教程 > 全国英语等级考试教材第三级 >  第4课

全国英语等级考试教材第三级Unit04

所属教程:全国英语等级考试教材第三级

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[00:00.00] CHAPTER 4 WEATHER AND CLIMATE

[00:14.29]Unit 4 Weather and Climate

[00:20.95]Conversations

[00:24.42]Ted adn Lisa are drinking coffee.

[00:30.38]Look,it is sunny today,isn't it?

[00:34.93]Yeach,I like sitting in the sun,

[00:39.50]drinking coffee and listening to the light music.

[00:44.15]You really know how to lead a comfortable life and enjoy yourself.

[00:50.10]A piece of bad news for you:it's forecasted that it will be cloudy tomorrow.

[00:57.76]It's so changeable!Maybe the day after tomorrow,it will be snowy.

[01:04.91]You're such a smart boy.It is predicted to snow.

[01:10.48]Really?That's great!If so,we can buy a roll of film to take photos,

[01:18.94]and invite our friends Amy,Martin and Sally to play with snowballs.

[01:25.50]And we can also heap up a snowman standing on our playground!

[01:31.74]So it is not bad but good news.

[01:36.71]May your dream come true.

[01:40.86]Wang Lin is talking with Alice about the recent weather.

[01:49.51]How are you doing these days?

[01:53.48]Fine,and you?

[01:57.13]Me too.It's so hot and muggy today.

[02:02.78]Yes.The weather has been dry for days.

[02:07.95]It's reported that the temperature today rises to about 40C.

[02:15.31]Oh,I see.The heat makes my flowers fade,

[02:21.56]my little dog"Gege"is lying on the ground with its tongue strectching long.

[02:28.92]God damn!Could you remember the flood last month?

[02:35.19]Sure.It was raining cats and dogs.Luckily I was staying at home that day.

[02:43.13]A terrible flood.Some people lost their lives.Poor poeple!

[02:50.79]The flood is dangerous,and our government ha asked people to be mindful of heat,

[02:58.02]extreme heat may also cause death.

[03:02.47]Take it easy.The fall is coming and the heat will be finally over.

[03:08.81]I hope so.

[03:12.47]Yang Ming asks his teacher,Mr.Zhang,some questions about the climate.

[03:20.65]Good morning,Mr.Zhang.

[03:24.30]Good morning,any questions?

[03:28.74]Yes,could you tell me the difference of climate between Beijing and Kunming?

[03:35.82]Of course.Beijing is situated in the North and Kunming in the Southwest.

[03:43.97]Is the climate related to the latitude?

[03:48.94]Yes,Beijing is in the high latitudes while Kunming in the low latitudes.

[03:56.77]Does the latitude influence the temperature?

[04:01.92]Certainly,it's colder in Beijing than in Kunming as a whole.

[04:08.08]The weather in Beijing is very bad.

[04:12.66]How?Can you explain it in detail?

[04:17.38]It's cloudy and windy.Through the whole year,the wind blows very hard.

[04:24.93]The dirt spreading in the air can make people dirty.

[04:30.39]It can even get through the window and fall on your furniture.

[04:36.04]But the strong wind offers a good chance to fly kites.What about Kunming?

[04:43.40]It's warm and sunny.The weather si agreeable,comfortable and humid.

[04:51.06]The range of temperature is unnoticeable.

[04:55.42]In short,that means it's like spring all the year round.

[05:02.08]You're right.

[05:05.35]Thank you very much.

[05:08.79]Aaron is calling his girlfriend,Helen.

[05:15.66]Darling,what are you busy with now?I am missing you very much.

[05:22.80]Next week,I have a 3-day vacation.Let's make a trip.

[05:29.43]Great!Where do you like to go?The South or the North?

[05:35.88]The temperature in the North is below zero.

[05:40.45]The worst is that it has sonowed there for days.

[05:46.02]But I enjoy the cold weather.

[05:50.17]It must be refreshing after a hot and muggy summer we spent.

[05:56.73]It was terribly hot indeed.If we go southward,

[06:03.49]it's unnecessary to travel with more clothes,the weather is fairly agreeable!

[06:10.86]Cold as it is in the North,we can seize the opportunity to ski.

[06:17.70]Skiing is so exciting and challenging!

[06:22.88]Ok,this time,I'll follow you.

[06:27.92]Next time,let's go travelling in the South for surfing.

[06:33.69]passage Our Changing Atmosphere

[06:39.02]According to the National Academy of Sciences,

[06:44.45]the Earth's surface temperature has risen

[06:48.89]by about 1 degree Fahrenheit in the past century,

[06:54.54]with accelerated warming during the past two decades.

[07:00.70]There is new and stronger evidence that most of the warming

[07:06.58]over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities.

[07:13.84]Human activities have altered the chemical composition of the atmosphere

[07:20.92]through the buildup of greenhouse gases

[07:25.96]-primarily carbon dioxide,methane,and nitrous oxide.

[07:33.33]Energy from the sun drives the earth's weather and climate,

[07:39.10]and heats the earth's surface;in turn,the earth radiates energy back into space.

[07:48.35]Atmospheric greenhouse gases(water vapor,carbon dioxide,and other gases)

[07:57.49]trap some of the outgoing energy,

[08:02.06]retaining heat somewhat like the glass panels of a greenhouse.

[08:08.31]Without this natural"greenhouse effect",

[08:13.45]temperatures would be much lower than they are now,

[08:18.49]and life as known today would not be possible.

[08:23.95]Thanks to greenhouse gases,

[08:28.71]the earth's average temperature is a more hospitable 60F.

[08:36.57]However,problems may arise

[08:41.43]when the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases increases.

[08:47.96]Scientists generally believe

[08:51.91]that the combustion of fossil fuels and other human activities

[08:57.86]are the primary reason for the increased concentration of carbon dioxide.

[09:04.91]What has changed in the last few hundred years

[09:09.75]is the additional release of carbon dioxide by human activities.

[09:16.20]Fossil fuels burned to run cars and trucks,heat homes and businesses,

[09:23.28]and power factories are responsible for about 98% of US carbon diozide emissions,

[09:32.84]24% fo methane emissions,and 18% of nitrous oxide emissions.

[09:40.99]Increased agriculture,deforestation,landfills,industrial production,

[09:49.64]and mining also contribute a significant share of emissions.

[09:55.98]In 1997,the United States emitted about one-fifth of total global greenhouse gases.

[10:05.54]The 20th century's 10 warmest years

[10:10.90]all occurred in the last 15 years of the century.

[10:16.36]Of these,1998 was the warmest year on record.

[10:23.02]The snow covers in the Northern Hemisphere

[10:27.75]and floating ice in the Arctic Ocean have decreased.

[10:33.31]Globally,sea level has risen 4-8 inches over the past century.

[10:40.86]Worldwide precipitation over land has increased by about one percent.

[10:48.72]The frequency of extreme rainfall events

[10:53.90]has increased throughout much of the United States.

[10:59.04]Increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases

[11:04.92]are likely to accelerate the rate of climate change.

[11:10.77]Scientists expect that the average global sirface temperature

[11:16.70]could rise 1-4F(0.6-2.5C)

[11:26.68]in the next fifty years,and 2.2-10F(1.4-5.8C)in the nxt century,

[11:40.84]with significant refional variation.

[11:46.61]Evaporation will increase as the climate warms,

[11:52.25]which will increase average global precipitation.

[11:57.82]Soil moisture is likely to decline in many regions,

[12:03.88]and intense rainstorms are likely to become more frequent.

[12:09.94]Sea level is likely to ris two feet along most of the US coasts.

[12:17.31]Calculations of climate change for specific

[12:23.37]areas much less reliable than global ones,

[12:28.41]and it is unclear whether regional climate will become more variable.

[12:34.47]Words and Expressions

[12:38.83]atmosphere Fahrenheit accelerated warming

[12:42.85]n.大气,空气 n.华氏温度 adj.加速的 n.升温

[12:46.88]decade evidence attributable activity

[12:51.00]n.十年 n.证据,论据 adj.可归于..的 n.活动;行动

[12:55.13]alter chemical buildup greenhouse

[12:59.10]v.改变 n.化学制品 n.组合,集合 n.温室

[13:03.07]gas carbon dioxide methane nitrous oxide

[13:07.76]n.气体 二氧化碳 n.甲烷,沼气 vt.一氧化二氮

[13:12.45]radiate atmospheric vapor trap

[13:16.47]vt.放射,辐射 adj.大气的,大气层的 n.水汽,水蒸气 vt.捕获,捕捉

[13:20.50]outgoing retain panel average

[13:24.58]adj.外出的,离开的 vt.保持,保留 n.面板 adj.平均的

[13:28.67]hospitable arise concentration combustion

[13:32.80]adj.好客的,殷勤的 vi.出现,发生 n.集中,集合 n.燃烧

[13:36.93]fossil fuels primary additional release

[13:41.05]矿物燃料 adj.第一位,主要的 adj.另外的,附加的 n.释放

[13:45.18]truck responsible emission deforestation

[13:49.51]n.卡车,敞篷货车 adj.有责任 n.散发 n.采伐森林

[13:53.83]landfill minimg contribute emit

[13:57.92]n.垃圾掩埋法 n.采矿,矿业 v.贡献 vt.发出,发射

[14:02.01]global floating decrease precipitation

[14:06.08]adj.全球的 adj.漂浮的,浮动的 v.减少 n.降(雨)量

[14:10.16]frequency extreme rainfall increasing

[14:14.39]n.频率,发生次数 adj.极端的,极度的 n.降雨,降雨量 adj.日益增加的

[14:18.62]regional variation evaporation moisture

[14:22.96]adj.地方的,地域性的 n.变化 vi.蒸发(作用) n.潮湿,湿气

[14:27.29]decline intense rainstorm calculation

[14:31.67]vi.下降 adj.强烈的,特定的 adj.暴风雨 n.计算,考虑

[14:36.04]specific reliable unclear variable

[14:40.17]adj.特殊的,特定的 adj.可靠的,可信赖的 adj.不清楚的 adj.可变的,不定的

[14:44.30]Exercises

[14:48.06]Section I Listening Comprehension

[14:53.10]Listen to the record.

[14:56.97]Answer each question by choosing A,B,C or D from the four possible choices.

[15:05.51]1.Oh,my God,I have difficulty in breathing,

[15:12.67]how do th Africans here stand such heat?

[15:18.23]Maybe they are used to it.

[15:22.59]2.It has been snowing heavily for one week.

[15:28.55]So you will know why the vegetables are so expensive.

[15:34.71]3.Mary has gone to the theatre in spite of my suggestion.

[15:41.66]Why not send her umbrella now?Look up ward,the dark clouds!

[15:48.72]4.It's a holiday now.Where would you like to go,the North or the South?

[15:57.26]I prefer the South to the North.It's more agreeable-sunny and warm.

[16:05.02]5.The temperature today is 20C.

[16:11.86]That means it is 2C higher than that of yesterday,

[16:18.49]1C lower than that of the da before yesterday.

[16:24.66]B

[16:27.59]Do you want to know something about the history of weather?

[16:33.23]Don't look at the sky.Dont's look for the old weather report.

[16:39.47]Looking ar tree rings is more important.

[16:44.51]Correct weather reports date back to only one century,

[16:50.16]but some trees cn provide an exact record of the weather even further back.

[16:57.42]It's natural that a tree would grow best

[17:01.96]in a climate with plenty of sunlight and rainfall.

[17:06.93]It is also expected that little sunlight

[17:11.65]or rainfall would limit the growth of a tree.

[17:16.62]The changes from a favorable to an unfavorable climate

[17:22.65]can be determined by reading the pattern of ring in a tree trunk.

[17:29.00]To find out the weather of ten years ago,

[17:34.35]count the rings of a tree trunk form the outside to the inside.

[17:40.60]If the tenth ring is far from the other rings,

[17:45.95]then it si certain that plenty of sunny and rainy weather occurred.

[17:52.30]If the rings are close together,then the climate was bad for the tree.

[17:59.07]Studying tree rings is not only important for the history of the weather,

[18:05.31]but also for the history of man.

[18:10.17]In a region of New Mexico you can find only sand-no trees and no people.

[18:18.63]However,many centuries ago a large population lived there.

[18:25.71]They left suddenly,why?

[18:30.86]A scientist studied patterns of dead tree rings which had grown there.

[18:37.23]He decided the people had to leave because they had cut down all the trees.

[18:44.00]Trees were necessary to make filrs and buildings.

[18:49.46]So,after the people destroyed the trees,they had to move.

[18:55.62]Supplementary Reading Extreme Weather

[19:01.86]Extreme weather will become more common,experts forecast.

[19:07.90]NEW YORK It has been a summer of extremes.

[19:13.83]Rains have deluged Europe and Asia,

[19:18.51]swamping cities and villages and killing abot 2 000 people.

[19:25.27]while drought and heat have seared the American Western and Eastern cites.

[19:31.83]What is going on?

[19:35.98]The floods and droughts could simply be flickers

[19:41.23]in the inherently chaotic weather system,some experts say.

[19:46.98]But many warn that such extremes

[19:51.34]will be increasingly common as the world grows warmer.

[19:56.98]Such a shift could pose big problems in places where water is already

[20:04.35]a strained resource,they say.

[20:08.90]A warmer world is more likely to be a wetter one,

[20:14.25]experts warn,with more evaporation resulting in more rains,

[20:20.31]in more heavy and destructive downpours.

[20:25.35]But in a troublesome twist,

[20:29.92]that world may also include more intense droughts,

[20:35.67]as the increased evaporation parches soils between occasional storms.

[20:42.75]"In a hotter climate,your chances of being caught with either too much

[20:49.59]or too little rains are higher,"said John Wallace,

[20:55.65]a professor of atmospheric sciences at the University fo Washington.

[21:02.21]And the globe is getting warmer.

[21:06.36]The last several decades of global temperature readings

[21:12.01]curve up on graphs like the end of a hockey stick.

[21:17.57]Climate specialists concluded for the first time last year

[21:23.21]that humans were causing most of the warming trend by burning coal and oil,

[21:29.56]which release carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping greenhouse gases.

[21:36.04]The main way that warming is likely to manifest itself,scientists say,

[21:42.39]is through changes in the balance of water as liquid,vapor and ice.

[21:49.23]"There si growing evidence now that shifts in the golbal water cycle

[21:55.08]are likely to cause potentially catastrophic effects

[22:01.01]in several parta of the world,"said Rajendra Pachauri,

[22:07.67]an Indian engineer who si the new chairman

[22:12.74]of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.

[22:18.07]Still,a scientific debate persists.

[22:23.92]Some speciallists say the earth has built-in buffering mechanisms

[22:29.80]that can limit extremes.

[22:33.56]But manyy other say that past records,

[22:38.42]current trends and computer models all point to big changes ahead.

[22:45.50]One new study this summer found evidence that Asian monsoon,

[22:52.03]as a part of falter in arid,subtropical areas intensified.

[22:57.96]Generally,agriculture is expected to falter in arid,

[23:04.44]subtropical areas like the eastern Mediterranean and southern Africa,

[23:10.68]while flourishing in northern climes,

[23:15.36]like the North American wheat belt,

[23:19.62]as more precipitation and longer growing seasons boost yields.

[23:25.78]But climate specialists say that even there rain

[23:31.34]is more likely to fall as field-scouring torrents.

[23:37.72]Long-term planners in the western United States are trying to adjust.

[23:44.17]Next year,California will for the first time incorporate

[23:50.34]climate changes into its five-year water-management plan.

[23:56.08]"Water supplies there are already squeezed by growing populations,"

[24:02.64]said Jonas Minton,

[24:06.90]the deputy director of the California Department of Water Resources.

[24:12.96]A warming climate is intensifying the problem,he siad.

[24:19.02]"Over the last 50 years,"he siad,

[24:23.56]"winter precipitation in the Sierra Nevada mountain region

[24:29.13]has been falling more and more in the form of rain,

[24:34.77]increasing flood risks,instead of as snow,

[24:40.05]which supplies farmers and faucets alike as it melts in the spring."

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